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Research Related Terms


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Research Related Terms

  1. 1. Research Related Terms By : Mrs . Najmunnisa Siddiqui Glossary A-Z
  2. 2. Abstract <ul><li>Is a summary of the whole research; </li></ul><ul><li>Main purpose is to summarize the research (particularly the objective and the main finding/conclusion). </li></ul><ul><li>Has a maximum word limit; </li></ul><ul><li>An abstract should briefly: </li></ul><ul><li>Re-establish the topic of the research. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the research problem and/or main objective of the research (this usually comes first). </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate the methodology used. </li></ul><ul><li>Present the main findings and conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Applied Research: Research conducted for the purpose of applying or testing theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymity: A research condition in which no one, including the researcher, knows the identities of research participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Assumption : Any important fact presumed to be true but not actually verified. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Basic Research : Research conducted for the purpose of theory development or refinement. </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study: A research strategy that focuses on one case (an individual, a group, an organization, etc.) within its social context during one time period. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Causal Comparative Research : It attempts to determine the cause , or reason, for existing differences in the behavior or status of groups of individual; it also referred to as ex post facto research. </li></ul><ul><li>Census Survey : Descriptive research that attempts to acquire data from each and every member of a population. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Cluster Sampling : Sampling in which intact groups, not individuals, are randomly selected. Also called a multistage or hierarchical sample. </li></ul><ul><li>Content analysis : The systematic, quantitative description of the composition of the object of the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Control : Efforts on the part of the researcher to remove the influence of any variable other than the independent variable that might affect performance on a dependent variable </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Control group : The group in a research study that either receives a deferent treatment than the experimental group or is treated as usual. </li></ul><ul><li>Control variable : A nonmanipulated variable, usually a physical or mental characteristic of the subjects (such as IQ) </li></ul><ul><li>Context sensitivity - being aware when doing research that the persons and organizations under study have cultural preferences that dictate acceptable ways of asking questions and collecting information. Also called 'cultural sensitivity.' </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Continuous variable - a variable that can take on any value within the limits the variable ranges. For example, age and temperature are continuous variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Criterion - a measure or standard by which a judgment is made </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Convenience sampling: The process of using as the sample whoever happens to be available. e.g., volunteers. (Also referred to as accidental sampling and haphazard sampling.) </li></ul><ul><li>Correlational research: Research that involves collecting data in order to determine whether , and to what degree, a relationship exists between two or more quantifiable variables. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Data :Recorded observations, usually in numeric or textual form </li></ul><ul><li>Data analysis - systematically identifying patterns in the information gathered and deciding how to organize, classify, interrelate, compare, and display it. These decisions are guided by the central questions , the types of data available, and by input from stakeholders . </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent variable: The change or difference in behavior that occurs as a result of the independent variable; also referred to as the criterion variable, the effect, the outcome, or the posttest. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Data sources - documents, people and observations that provide information for the assessment or evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive Statistics : Data analysis techniques enabling the researcher to meaningfully describe many with a small number of indices. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Document analysis - the systematic examination of instructional documents such as syllabi, assignments, lecture notes and course evaluation results. The focus of the analysis is the critical examination of the documents rather than simple description. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Ethnographies study groups and/or cultures over a period of time. The goal of this type of research is to comprehend the particular group/culture through observer immersion into the culture or group </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Research : In which at least one independent variable is manipulated, other variables are controlled and the effect on one or more dependent variable is observed. . </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Experiment - refers to a variety of research designs that use before-after and/or group comparisons to measure the effect of an instructional activity , innovation or program . </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental group - a group that receives a treatment, stimulus or intervention in an experiment </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Historical Research : The systematic collection and objective evaluation of data related to past occurrences in order to test hypotheses concerning causes ,effects or trends of those events which may help to explain present events and anticipate future events. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Hypothesis : A tentative, reasonable, testable explanation for the occurrence of certain behaviors, phenomena, or event. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Variable : An activity or characteristic believed to make a difference with respect to some behavior; also referred to as the experimental variable, the cause, and the treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Instrument - a tool or device (e.g., survey, interview protocol), used for the purpose of assessment or evaluation. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Limitation: An aspect of a study which the researcher knows may negatively affect the results or generalizability of the results, but over which he or she has no control. </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-analysis : A statistical approach to summarizing the results of many studies which have investigated basically the same problem. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Naturalistic observation : Observation in which the observer purposely controls or manipulates nothing, and in fact works very hard at not affecting the observed situation in any way. </li></ul><ul><li>No participant observation : Observation in which the observer is not directly involved in the situation to be observed, i.e., the observer does not intentionally interact with or affect the object of the observation. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Null hypothesis : States that there is no relationship (or difference) between variables and that any relationship found will be a chance relationship, the results of sampling error, not a true one. </li></ul><ul><li>Observational research : Descriptive research in which the desired data is obtained not by asking individuals of it but through such means as direct observation. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Operational definition : One which defines concepts in terms of processes, or operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Participant observation : Observation in which the observer actually becomes a part of, a participant in, the situation to be observed. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Pilot study : A small-scale conducted prior to the conduction of the actual study; the entire study is conducted, every procedure is followed, and the resulting data are analyzed - all according to the research plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Population : The group to which the researcher would like the results of a study to be generalizable. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Primary Source : First hand information, such as eye witness, an original document. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Statement : which indicates the variables of interest to the researcher and the specific relationship between those variables which is to be or was investigated </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Purposive Sampling: The process of selecting a sample which is believed to be representative of given population. </li></ul><ul><li>. Qualitative data - nonnumeric information such as conversation, text, audio, or video.  </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative research follows an inductive research process and involves the collection and analysis of qualitative (i.e., non-numerical) data to search for patterns, themes, and holistic features </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Quantitative data - numeric information including quantities, percentages, and statistics. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative research follows a deductive research process and involves the collection and analysis of quantitative (i.e., numerical) data to identify statistical relations of variables. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Reliability : The degree to which a test/ research tool consistently measure whatever it measures. </li></ul><ul><li>Research: The formal systematic application of scientific method to the study of problems </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Research Hypothesis : A statement of the expected relationship or difference between two variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Research Plan: A detailed description of a proposed study designed to investigate a given problem </li></ul><ul><li>Review of Literature : The systematic identification , location and analysis of documents containing information related to research problem. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Sample : A number of individual selected from the population for the study, preferably in such a way that they represent the population. </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Survey : Research in which information about population is inferred based on the responses of sample selected from that population. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Sampling: The process of selecting a number of individual s from a population ,preferably in such a way that they represent the population. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Source : Second hand information, such as a brief description of study written by someone other than researcher </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Survey: A attempt to collect data in order to determine the current status of that population with respect to one or more variable. </li></ul><ul><li>Validity : The degree to which a test measures what is it supposed to measure . </li></ul>