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The ingestion and absorption of nutritious  food  is essential for life
Digestive system
Food is utilized at a  cellular level .
Defecation
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING  IS ESSENTIAL  AFTER FOOD IS EATEN? A CHEMICALS IN FOOD TRAVEL THROUGH  SINUSOIDS B MOVEMENT OF FOO...
The  digestive system  includes the organs that  ingest food, transport food, digest the food into smaller usable componen...
The  digestive organs  collectively make up the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (alimentary canal).  The GI tract organs inclu...
As long as food is  in  the long hose extending from the mouth to the anus, it is  NOT technically in the body .  Only whe...
An example is when you put your finger in the hole of a doughnut. Your finger is NOT in the doughnut.  If you  image your ...
The  accessory digestive organs  do not form the long GI tube, but often develop as outgrowths from and are connected to t...
Ingestion  of food that will cause atherosclerosis.
Food must be  mechanically and chemically reduced  before it can be absorbed across the intestinal wall.
Ingestion and mastication
Swallowing.  Note closure of epiglottis over entrance to larynx
 
Endoscopic view of  intestinal secretions  that aid in digestion
Digestion  and  absorption
Defecation  to eliminate  feces
Mouth  receives food, masticates, and instigates swallowing
Mouth  (oral cavity) is bounded  anteriorly  by the teeth and lips and  posteriorly  by the oropharynx.  The  roof  is the...
The  oral cavity  has two distinct regions: the  vestibule  (space between the cheeks or lips and the gums) and the  oral ...
Muscle of  cheeks  is primarily the  buccinator
The  lips  (labia) are formed primarily by the obicularis oris.  The  gingivae  (gums) help support the teeth.  The  super...
The  hard palate  is formed by the palatine processes of the maxillae and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones.  Tr...
Tongue , which is composed of skeletal muscle, assists in mastication, in swallowing, has taste buds, and helps with speech.
Lingual frenulum  anchors the tongue to the floor of the mouth.  Note location of  submandibular salivary ducts  that can ...
Saliva  (spit) contains  amylase  which breaks down starch to maltose.  It also contains  lysozyme,  and antibacterial sub...
 
The  parotid salivary glands  are the largest salivary glands and are located near the ear, partially overlying the masset...
Swollen parotid gland  in child with viral  mumps .  This virus can also infect the testes.
The  submandibular salivary glands  are inferior to the body of the mandible.  A  submandibular duct  opens from each glan...
“ Gleeking”  with submandibular gland at base of lingual frenulum
The  sublingual salivary glands  are inferior to the tongue.  Each sublingual gland extends multiple tiny  sublingual duct...
The  facial nerve  (CN VII) innervates the  submandibular and sublingual glands The  glossopharyngeal nerve  (CN IX) inner...
Parasympathetic innervation   stimulates  salivary gland secretion (anticipation of tasty food).  Sympathetic stimulation ...
A  tooth  has an exposed  crown , a constricted  neck , and one or more  roots  that anchor it to the jaw. The roots fit i...
 
Permanent teeth
Teeth. The third molar (“wisdom teeth”) are not shown.
Permanent teeth found on  one quadrant of the mouth : 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, 3 molars.
Trauma
Dental implant post
Dental implants  are effective, but are very expensive
Tooth being mounted on post.
Pharynx  is the funnel-shaped structure that connects the oral and nasal cavities to the esophagus and trachea.
The  superior, middle, and inferior pharyngeal constrictors , composed of skeletal muscle aid in swallowing.  The vagus ne...
Peritoneal
Within the abdomen,  some organs are completely surrounded by visceral peritoneum  (intraperitoneal organs). And example i...
Within the abdomen,  some organs lie behind the parietal peritoneum  (retroperitoneal organs).  An example is the  pancrea...
Mesenteries  are double-layered folds of the peritoneum that support and stabilize intraperitoneal organs.
The  greater omentum  (“fatty apron”) extends from the greater curvature of the stomach and then all the way down to cover...
Greater omentum  flipped back over chest to reveal underlying intestines Note  mesentery proper  and  mesocolon
Lesser omentum  (omentum = “apron” in Latin) attaches the stomach and upper duodenum to inferior surface of liver.
The  falciform (“sickle-shaped”) ligament  attaches the liver to the inferior portion of the diaphragm and to the anterior...
The  mucosa  (mucous membrane)  has absorptive and secretory functions. The  submucosa  has lymph vessels, blood vessels, ...
The  muscularis  typically contains two layers of smooth muscle, which are responsible for peristalsis.
The outermost tunic may be either an  adventitia  (loose connective tissue) or a  serosa  (visceral peritoneum).
Esophagus  connects the laryngopharynx to the stomach.  It passes through the diaphragm via the  esophageal hiatus .
The wall of the  esophagus  contains both skeletal and smooth muscle
There are  two sphincters  associated with the esophagus:  superior esophageal sphincter  and  inferior esophageal sphincter
Defective lower sphincter Read the  clinical view  in text
Acid damage to esophagus  by acid reflux through defective lower sphincter
The J-shaped  stomach  stores food (the semidigested mass is called chyme), initiates the digestion of proteins, has only ...
Stomach
Close-up of  pyloric sphincter  and  pyloric orifice
Gastric rugae  allow stretching of the stomach  Note  greater and lesser curvatures
Close-up of  gastric rugae
Gastric cells and their secretions
Read about  peptic ulcers  in the  clinical view  in the text
<ul><li>EVERYTHING PAST THIS POINT IS EXTRA OR FOR EXAMS </li></ul>
Figure 26.13a
 
Acid damage to esophagus
 
 
Peristalsis
Gastrointestinal tract  (G.I. tract or alimentary  canal) and some accessory organs of digestion.
The juxtaposition of the anterior portion of two alimentary canals
 
Mouth  also forms words and assists with passage of air
Lips  are fleshy, mobile organs formed by the obicularis oris muscle
This painted rock star has a very loose lingual frenulum!
Close-up of opening of  submandibular salivary glands  at base of lingual frenulum.  They can squirt long distances1
Vallecula  (#6) at base of tongue
Vallecula  between epiglottis and base of tongue
 
Periodontal disease
Stomach  is located in upper left abdominal quadrant just inferior to the diaphragm.
 
Stomach ulcers  are typically triggered by a the bacterium  Helicobacter pylori
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Acid reflux damage to esophagus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
stomach spleen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Figure 26.co
Figure 26.02
Figure 26.06ab
Figure 26.11
Figure 26.10
Mumps  is usually mild in children, but may be severe and damaging in adults.
Cleft palate
 
The bacterium  Helicobacter pylori  is the most common cause of  stomach ulcers.
A  stomach ulcer  which perforates the wall of the stomach could lead to inflammation of the peritoneal cavity (peritoniti...
 
Endoscopic view looking down through esophagus at lower esophageal sphincter in person with  hiatal hernia .  Note stomach...
 
 
 
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21 Digestive System #1

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21 Digestive System #1

  1. 1. The ingestion and absorption of nutritious food is essential for life
  2. 2. Digestive system
  3. 3. Food is utilized at a cellular level .
  4. 4. Defecation
  5. 5. WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS ESSENTIAL AFTER FOOD IS EATEN? A CHEMICALS IN FOOD TRAVEL THROUGH SINUSOIDS B MOVEMENT OF FOOD INGREDIENTS THROUGH PORTAL SYSTEM C ENZYMATIC PROCESSING IN LARGEST ORGAN IN THE BODY D PASSAGE OF LIPIDS THROUGH DUCT IN DIAPHRAGM E ALL OF THE ABOVE
  6. 6. The digestive system includes the organs that ingest food, transport food, digest the food into smaller usable components, absorb the nutrients, and expel the waste products from the body.
  7. 7. The digestive organs collectively make up the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (alimentary canal). The GI tract organs include the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
  8. 8. As long as food is in the long hose extending from the mouth to the anus, it is NOT technically in the body . Only when it is absorbed is it in the body.
  9. 9. An example is when you put your finger in the hole of a doughnut. Your finger is NOT in the doughnut. If you image your G.I. tract as an elongated doughnut , then you can see the similarity.
  10. 10. The accessory digestive organs do not form the long GI tube, but often develop as outgrowths from and are connected to the GI tract. These accessory organs include the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
  11. 11. Ingestion of food that will cause atherosclerosis.
  12. 12. Food must be mechanically and chemically reduced before it can be absorbed across the intestinal wall.
  13. 13. Ingestion and mastication
  14. 14. Swallowing. Note closure of epiglottis over entrance to larynx
  15. 16. Endoscopic view of intestinal secretions that aid in digestion
  16. 17. Digestion and absorption
  17. 18. Defecation to eliminate feces
  18. 19. Mouth receives food, masticates, and instigates swallowing
  19. 20. Mouth (oral cavity) is bounded anteriorly by the teeth and lips and posteriorly by the oropharynx. The roof is the hard and soft palates, while the floor contains the tongue and muscles covered with mucosa.
  20. 21. The oral cavity has two distinct regions: the vestibule (space between the cheeks or lips and the gums) and the oral cavity proper (region central to the alveolar processes of the mandible and maxillae Oral cavity proper
  21. 22. Muscle of cheeks is primarily the buccinator
  22. 23. The lips (labia) are formed primarily by the obicularis oris. The gingivae (gums) help support the teeth. The superior and inferior labial frenulum extend from the lips to the gingivae.
  23. 24. The hard palate is formed by the palatine processes of the maxillae and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones. Transverse folds assist the tongue in manipulating food. The soft palate is mostly composed of skeletal muscle. The uvula and soft palate rise superiorly during swallowing to close of the nasopharynx. The palatine tonsils monitor ingested food and drink for harmful antigens.
  24. 25. Tongue , which is composed of skeletal muscle, assists in mastication, in swallowing, has taste buds, and helps with speech.
  25. 26. Lingual frenulum anchors the tongue to the floor of the mouth. Note location of submandibular salivary ducts that can squirt! Lingual
  26. 27. Saliva (spit) contains amylase which breaks down starch to maltose. It also contains lysozyme, and antibacterial substance.
  27. 29. The parotid salivary glands are the largest salivary glands and are located near the ear, partially overlying the masseter muscle. The parotid duct travels parallel to the zygomatic arch and opens into the vestibule near the second upper molar.
  28. 30. Swollen parotid gland in child with viral mumps . This virus can also infect the testes.
  29. 31. The submandibular salivary glands are inferior to the body of the mandible. A submandibular duct opens from each gland in the floor of the mouth on the lateral sides of the lingual frenulum. These are the squirters used in “gleeking”!
  30. 32. “ Gleeking” with submandibular gland at base of lingual frenulum
  31. 33. The sublingual salivary glands are inferior to the tongue. Each sublingual gland extends multiple tiny sublingual ducts that open onto the inferior surface of the oral cavity.
  32. 34. The facial nerve (CN VII) innervates the submandibular and sublingual glands The glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) innervates the parotid glands
  33. 35. Parasympathetic innervation stimulates salivary gland secretion (anticipation of tasty food). Sympathetic stimulation inhibits normal secretion, which is why persons who are frightened experience the sensation of a dry mouth.
  34. 36. A tooth has an exposed crown , a constricted neck , and one or more roots that anchor it to the jaw. The roots fit into dental alveoli where they are bound to the surrounding bone by the periodontal ligaments to form a gomphosis joint .
  35. 38. Permanent teeth
  36. 39. Teeth. The third molar (“wisdom teeth”) are not shown.
  37. 40. Permanent teeth found on one quadrant of the mouth : 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, 3 molars.
  38. 41. Trauma
  39. 42. Dental implant post
  40. 43. Dental implants are effective, but are very expensive
  41. 44. Tooth being mounted on post.
  42. 45. Pharynx is the funnel-shaped structure that connects the oral and nasal cavities to the esophagus and trachea.
  43. 46. The superior, middle, and inferior pharyngeal constrictors , composed of skeletal muscle aid in swallowing. The vagus nerves (CN X) innervate most of the pharyngeal muscles.
  44. 47. Peritoneal
  45. 48. Within the abdomen, some organs are completely surrounded by visceral peritoneum (intraperitoneal organs). And example is the stomach.
  46. 49. Within the abdomen, some organs lie behind the parietal peritoneum (retroperitoneal organs). An example is the pancreas .
  47. 50. Mesenteries are double-layered folds of the peritoneum that support and stabilize intraperitoneal organs.
  48. 51. The greater omentum (“fatty apron”) extends from the greater curvature of the stomach and then all the way down to cover most of the small intestine and inferior abdominal organs.
  49. 52. Greater omentum flipped back over chest to reveal underlying intestines Note mesentery proper and mesocolon
  50. 53. Lesser omentum (omentum = “apron” in Latin) attaches the stomach and upper duodenum to inferior surface of liver.
  51. 54. The falciform (“sickle-shaped”) ligament attaches the liver to the inferior portion of the diaphragm and to the anterior abdominal wall.
  52. 55. The mucosa (mucous membrane) has absorptive and secretory functions. The submucosa has lymph vessels, blood vessels, mucin-secreting glands, and nerve plexuses.
  53. 56. The muscularis typically contains two layers of smooth muscle, which are responsible for peristalsis.
  54. 57. The outermost tunic may be either an adventitia (loose connective tissue) or a serosa (visceral peritoneum).
  55. 58. Esophagus connects the laryngopharynx to the stomach. It passes through the diaphragm via the esophageal hiatus .
  56. 59. The wall of the esophagus contains both skeletal and smooth muscle
  57. 60. There are two sphincters associated with the esophagus: superior esophageal sphincter and inferior esophageal sphincter
  58. 61. Defective lower sphincter Read the clinical view in text
  59. 62. Acid damage to esophagus by acid reflux through defective lower sphincter
  60. 63. The J-shaped stomach stores food (the semidigested mass is called chyme), initiates the digestion of proteins, has only minimal absorption, and moves materials on to the small intestine.
  61. 64. Stomach
  62. 65. Close-up of pyloric sphincter and pyloric orifice
  63. 66. Gastric rugae allow stretching of the stomach Note greater and lesser curvatures
  64. 67. Close-up of gastric rugae
  65. 68. Gastric cells and their secretions
  66. 69. Read about peptic ulcers in the clinical view in the text
  67. 70. <ul><li>EVERYTHING PAST THIS POINT IS EXTRA OR FOR EXAMS </li></ul>
  68. 71. Figure 26.13a
  69. 73. Acid damage to esophagus
  70. 76. Peristalsis
  71. 77. Gastrointestinal tract (G.I. tract or alimentary canal) and some accessory organs of digestion.
  72. 78. The juxtaposition of the anterior portion of two alimentary canals
  73. 80. Mouth also forms words and assists with passage of air
  74. 81. Lips are fleshy, mobile organs formed by the obicularis oris muscle
  75. 82. This painted rock star has a very loose lingual frenulum!
  76. 83. Close-up of opening of submandibular salivary glands at base of lingual frenulum. They can squirt long distances1
  77. 84. Vallecula (#6) at base of tongue
  78. 85. Vallecula between epiglottis and base of tongue
  79. 87. Periodontal disease
  80. 88. Stomach is located in upper left abdominal quadrant just inferior to the diaphragm.
  81. 90. Stomach ulcers are typically triggered by a the bacterium Helicobacter pylori
  82. 142. Acid reflux damage to esophagus
  83. 163. stomach spleen
  84. 171. Figure 26.co
  85. 172. Figure 26.02
  86. 173. Figure 26.06ab
  87. 174. Figure 26.11
  88. 175. Figure 26.10
  89. 176. Mumps is usually mild in children, but may be severe and damaging in adults.
  90. 177. Cleft palate
  91. 179. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is the most common cause of stomach ulcers.
  92. 180. A stomach ulcer which perforates the wall of the stomach could lead to inflammation of the peritoneal cavity (peritonitis).
  93. 182. Endoscopic view looking down through esophagus at lower esophageal sphincter in person with hiatal hernia . Note stomach lining protruding up through defective lower esophageal sphincter.

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