05 Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column And Thoracic Cage
<ul><li>Vertebrae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 cervical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 thoracic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 lumbar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 fused sacral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 fused coccygeal </li></ul></ul>In an adult there are typically 33 individual vertebrae arranged in 26 moveable parts in the spinal column
The vertebral column helps to provide vertical support for the body, supports the head, aides in maintaining an upright position, helps transfer weight to appendicular skeleton, and protects the delicate spinal cord.
Read about spinal curvature abnormalities in clinical view in text
ACCORDING TO THE CLINICAL VIEW IN YOUR TEXT, WHAT CAN CAUSE KYPHOSIS? A OSTEOMALACIA B OBESITY C PREGNANCY D PULLING ON ROPES IN BELL TOWERS E ALL OF THE ABOVE
The vertebral foramen is the opening through which the spinal cord passes while the intervertebral foramen allows the spinal nerves to branch off laterally.
Intervertebral foraminae allow for lateral exit of spinal nerves
There is one spinous process , two transverse processes (left and right), two superior articular processes that interlock with the vertebra above, and two inferior articular processes (not shown) that interlock with the vertebra below.
The interlocking of the superior and inferior articular processes limits the twisting of the vertebral column.
Note locations of the atlantoocipital and atlantoaxial joints.
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS CORRECT ABOUT THE ATLAS? A ITS ARTICULATION WITH THE SKULL ALLOWS SIDE-TO-SIDE “NO” MOTIONS B ITS MOST SUPERIOR PART IS CALLED THE DENS C IT ARTICULATES WITH THE TEMPORAL BONE D IT HAS A PROMINENT SPINOUS PROCESS, HENCE THE TERM “VERTEBRA PROMINENS” E IT HAS HOLES IN ITS TRANSVERSE PROCESSES
The spinous process of C 7 (vertebra prominens) is an easily palpable prominence felt at the base of the neck.
The classical hangman’s fracture of the cervical vertebrae severs the spinal cord. The large knot is typically positioned just behind the left ear.
The thoracic vertebrae serve as attachments for the ribs so as to form the posterior anchor of the thoracic cage.
Thoracic vertebrae have costal facets or costal demifacets on their bodies and transverse processes for attachment of the ribs
Note ribs attach to bodies and transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae
Lumbar vertebrae have massive bodies and thick blunt spinous processes. They are the largest vertebrae of the spinal column.
Human sacrifice in Central America. Note the sacrificial altar that is reminiscent of a USU parking barricade. This allows the victim to be bent backwards.
A curious mind might ask why Utah State University chose this particular design for use around the campus as a traffic barricade? Was it just by mere chance that it mimics the design of sacrificial altar stones of Aztecs?
I urge caution if you should see wild-eyed and bare-breasted collegians with red stained hands! (or with runny cheeseburgers)
Ribs #1-7 are “true ribs” and are directly attached to the sternum. Ribs #8-10 share the costal cartilage attachment of rib #7, while ribs #11-12 don’t attach anteriorly at all. So ribs #8-12 are also called “false ribs.”
Posterior view Ribs #11 and #12 not only are false ribs, they are also floating ribs because they have no attachment to the sternum whatsoever
Cervical rib on C 7 Elongated transverse process Elongated transverse process on C 7 Read about variations in rib development in clinical view in text
IF A WANDERING BUG STARTED ON THE OCCIPITAL BONE OF A SKELETON, TRAVELED DOWN 18 VERTEBRAE, AND THEN MOVED ANTERIORLY ALONG A BONE, WHAT BONE WHOULD THE BUG BE WALKING ON? A FLOATING RIB B FALSE RIB C BONE WITH NO COSTAL CARTILAGE D BONE OF THORACIC CAGE E ALL OF THE ABOVE
<ul><li>Spina bifida is caused by a failure of the neural tube to close completely during the first month of embryonic development </li></ul>
Infants born with spina bifida are typically paralyzed distal from the defect.
Chiropractors have been shown to statistically have the best success with most lower back pain. More so than other healthcare providers.
Abdominal crunches that flex the spine strengthen the anterior muscles (such as the rectus abdominus ) that help stabilize the spine Arching or extension of the spine strengthens the posterior muscles (such as the erector spinae muscles ) that help stabilize the spine.
Back surgery should be the last resort as outcome is uncertain.
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING HAS BEEN SHOWN TO REDUCE THE RISK OF NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS, SUCH AS ANENCEPHALY? A B VITAMIN B SUNLIGHT C VITAMIN A D FOLIC ACID WITHIN THE FIRST WEEK AFTER BIRTH E ACCUPUNCTURE
<ul><li>This data indicate that since the addition of folic acid in grain-based foods as mandated by the Food and Drug Administration, the rate of neural tube defects dropped by 25% in the United States. </li></ul>