بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم<br />وقل اعملوا فسيرى الله عملكم ورسوله والمؤمنون <br />سورة التوبة<br />
Understanding Quality<br />Quality , Competitiveness and Customers whatever <br />type of organization you work in .<br />Basically competes on its reputation for quality, <br />reliability, price and delivery and most people now <br />recognize that quality is the most important of these <br />competitive weapons . <br />Some organizations, have used quality to take the <br /> heads off their competitors.<br /> And organizations from other countries have used quality strategically to win customers, steal business resources or funding, and be competitive. <br />
There are several aspects of reputation which are important:<br /><ul><li>It is built upon the competitive elements of quality, reliability, delivery, and price.
Once an organization acquires a poor reputation for quality, it takes a very long time to change it.
Reputations, good or bad, can quickly become national reputations.
The management of the competitive weapons, such as quality, can be learned like any other skill, </li></ul> and used to turn round a poor reputation, in time.<br />
What is quality?<br />A frequently used definition of quality is “Delighting the customer by fully meeting their needs and<br />expectations”.<br /> These may include performance, appearance, availability, delivery, reliability, maintainability, cost effectiveness and price. <br />It is, therefore, imperative that the organization knows what these needs and expectations are. <br />In addition, having identified them, the organization must understand them, and measure<br />its own ability to meet them.<br />
Quality starts with market research – to establish the true requirements for the product or service and the true needs of the customers. <br />However, for an organization to be really effective, quality must span all functions, all people, all departments and all activities and be a common language for improvement.<br /> The cooperation of everyone at every interface is necessary to achieve a total quality organization, <br />in the same way that the Japanese achieve this with company wide quality control<br />
TQM is the way of managing for the future, and is far wider in its application than just assuring product or service quality – it is a way of managing people and business processes to ensure complete customer satisfaction at every stage, internally and externally.<br /> TQM, combined with effective leadership, results in an organization doing the right things right, first time .<br />Total Quality Management (TQM)<br />
The core of TQM is the customer-supplier interfaces, both externally and internally, and at each interface <br /> lie a number of process.<br /> This core must be surrounded by commitment to quality, communication of the quality message, and recognition of the need to change the culture of the <br /> organization to create total quality. <br /> These are the foundations of TQM, and they are supported by the key management functions of<br /> people, processes and systems in the organization<br />
The foundation of TQM model<br /><ul><li>The core of TQM is the customer , supplier relationship , where the process must be managed.
The ‘soft’ outcomes of TQM-the culture, communications, and commitment provide the foundation for the model.
The process core must be surrounded by the ‘hard’ management necessities of systems, tools and teams.
The model provides a framework against which an organization’s progress towards TQM can be examined.</li></li></ul><li>Team<br />Process<br />COMMUNICATION<br />CULTURE<br />Customer<br />Supplier<br />Tools<br />System<br />COMMITMENT<br />OKLAND MODEL….<br />
The meaning of culture<br /><ul><li>A fish only discovers its need for water when it is no longer in it</li></ul>Our own culture is like water to a fish<br />it sustains us we live and breathe <br />through it .<br />
The meaning of culture<br />Henry Mintzberg on Culture<br />“Culture is the soul of the organization ,the beliefs and values, and how they are manifested . <br /> I think of the structure as the skeleton, and as the flesh and blood.<br /> And culture is the soul that holds the thing together and gives it life force.”<br />
What is culture<br /><ul><li>It is a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to these problems.
Culture is built up through its continuing enhancement of an organization’s ability to deal with its problems in a way that fixes its identity.
While culture is a systemic phenomenon, its primary architects are those at the very top.</li></li></ul><li>Understanding What a Quality Culture Is<br /> To understand a Quality Culture, must first be understand a Organizational Culture.<br /><ul><li>Organizational Culture</li></ul>The pattern of shared values, beliefs, and assumptions considered to be the appropriate way to think and act within an organization.<br /><ul><li>Culture is shared.
Culture strongly influences behavior.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>A quality culture is </li></ul>An organizational value system that results in an environment that is conducive to the establishment and continual improvement of Quality.<br />
Levels of Culture<br /><ul><li>Artifacts</li></ul> Aspects of an organization’s culture that<br /> you see, hear, and feel.<br /><ul><li>Beliefs</li></ul> The understandings of how objects and <br /> ideas relate to each other.<br /><ul><li>Values</li></ul> The stable, long-lasting beliefs about what<br /> is important.<br /><ul><li>Assumptions</li></ul> The taken-for-granted notions of how<br /> something should be in an organization.<br />
Characteristics of Organizational Culture<br /><ul><li>Innovation and risk-taking</li></ul>The degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks.<br /><ul><li>Attention to detail</li></ul>The degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision, analysis, and attention to detail.<br /><ul><li>Outcome orientation</li></ul>The degree to which management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on technique and process.<br /><ul><li>People orientation</li></ul>The degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization.<br />
Characteristics of Organizational Culture<br /><ul><li>Team orientation</li></ul>The degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals.<br /><ul><li>Aggressiveness</li></ul>The degree to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than easygoing.<br /><ul><li>Stability</li></ul>The degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth.<br />
Culture’s Functions<br /><ul><li>Social glue that helps hold organization together.</li></ul>Provides appropriate standards for what employees should say or do.<br /><ul><li>Boundary-defining.
Conveys a sense of identity for organization members.</li></li></ul><li>Culture’s Functions<br /><ul><li>Facilitates commitment to something larger than one’s individual self-interest.
Serves as a “sense-making” and control mechanism.
Guides and shapes the attitudes and behavior of employees.</li></li></ul><li>Creating and Sustaining Culture Keeping a Culture Alive<br /><ul><li>Selection</li></ul>Identify and hire individuals who will fit in with the culture.<br /><ul><li>Top Management</li></ul>Senior executives establish and communicate the norms of the organization.<br /><ul><li>Socialization</li></ul>Organizations need to teach the culture to new employees.<br />
Activating Cultural Change<br />To attempt the implementation of total quality without creating a quality culture is to invite failure.<br />Several primary reasons cultural change must either precede or at least parallel the implementation of total quality are:<br /><ul><li>Change can not occur in a hostile environment
Total Quality approach might be radically different from </li></ul>what the management is accustomed to.<br /><ul><li>Moving to Total Quality takes time
In a conversion to Total Quality, positive results are rarely achieved in the short run.</li></ul>It can be difficult to overcome the past<br /><ul><li>Employees might remember earlier fads and gimmicks and characterize total quality as being just the latest one </li></li></ul><li>Changing Leaders to Activate Cultural Change<br />Cultural change is one of the most difficult challenges an organization will ever face.<br /><ul><li>Leadership from the top is essential.</li></ul>Sometimes, an organization’s culture simply cannot be changed without a change in leadership.<br /><ul><li>Senior Executives who fail to comprehend the need to change, who fail to create a sense of urgency when needed and who fail to follow through the changes they initiated are poor candidates to lead an organization through a major culture change.
Culture change requires support, ideas, and leadership from employees at all levels.</li></li></ul><li>Laying a groundwork for a Quality culture <br /><ul><li>Establishing a Quality Culture is lot like constructing </li></ul>a building . <br /><ul><li>According to Peter Scholtes </li></ul>Management should begin by developing understanding of “laws” of organizational change they are <br /><ul><li> Understand the History behind the Current Culture
Involve Everyone Affected by Change in Making It</li></li></ul><li>Learning What a Quality Culture looks like<br /><ul><li>Part of laying the groundwork for a quality culture is understanding what one looks like.
Any Executive team that hope to change the culture of its organization should
Understand the concerns of resisters like fear, loss of</li></ul> control, uncertainty and more work.<br /><ul><li>Implement Change Promoting Strategies
Involve Potential Resisters, Avoid Surprises, Move slowly at </li></ul>first, Start Small and be flexible, create a positive environment, Incorporate the change, Respond Quickly and Positively, Work<br /> with Established leaders, Treat people with dignity & Respect, be Constructive.<br />
Establishing a Quality Culture - 1<br /><ul><li>Establishing a quality culture involves specific planning and activities for business or department.
Phases of Emotional Transition</li></ul>Emotional Transition<br />
Establishing a Quality Culture - 2<br /> Steps in Conversion to Quality:<br /><ul><li>Identify the Changes needed
Apply Courtship Strategies</li></li></ul><li>Maintaining a Quality Culture<br /><ul><li>Establishing Quality Culture is a challenging undertaking for any organization. It is even more challenging to maintain it over time.
In order to maintain Quality Culture, organizations </li></ul> must foster the following behaviors <br /><ul><li>Maintain awareness of Quality as a key cultural issue.
Make sure that there is plenty of evidence of </li></ul> Management’s leadership.<br /><ul><li>Empower Employees and encourage self-development </li></ul> and self-initiative.<br /><ul><li>Recognize and reward the behaviors that tend to </li></ul> nurture and maintain Quality Culture.<br />