Midterm Review


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Midterm Review

  1. 1. Vocabulary Definition search engine A Web search engine is a tool designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. Examples: Google, Alta Vista, Yahoo browser A Web browser is a software application which enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, Things that make the Internet work music, games and other information typically located on a Web page at a Web site on the World Wide Web or a local area network. router a networking device whose software and hardware are usually tailored to the tasks of routing and forwarding information. For example, on the Internet, information is directed to various paths by routers. DNS A hierarchical naming system that translates human meaningful domain names to the numerical (binary) identifiers associated with networking equipment for the purpose of locating and addressing these devices world- wide. packets Web pages and other information that transmitted across the web must be broken down into smaller chunks or blocks of data. server A server is a computer program that provides services to other computer programs (and their users), in the same or other computer. The physical computer that runs a server program is also often referred to as server. IP Address An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a numerical identification (logical address) that is assigned to devices participating in a computer network utilizing the Internet Protocol for communication between its nodes.[1] Although IP addresses are stored as binary numbers, they are usually displayed in human-readable notations,such as (for IPv4), and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:1:1 (for IPv6). The role of the IP address has been characterized as follows: A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there. [2] acceptable use An acceptable use policy (AUP; also sometimes acceptable usage policy) is a set of rules applied by network and policy website owners which restrict the ways in which the network or site may be used. AUP documents are written for Making sure you don't misuse the net corporations,[1] businesses, universities,[2] schools,[3] internet service providers,[4] and website owners[5] often to reduce the potential for legal action that may be taken by a user, and often with little prospect of enforcement. copyright Copyright is a form of intellectual property which gives the creator of an original work exclusive rights for a certain time period in relation to that work, including its publication, distribution and adaptation; after which time the work is said to enter the public domain. Copyright applies to any expressible form of an idea or information that is substantive and discrete. Some jurisdictions also recognise moral rights of the creator of a work, such as the right to be credited for the work. fair use The intent of copyright is to allow authors to have control of and profit from their works, thus encouraging them to create new works and to aid the flow of ideas and learning. public domain The public domain is a range of abstract materials — commonly referred to as intellectual property — which are not owned or controlled by anyone. The term indicates that these materials are therefore public property, and available for anyone to use for any purpose. The public domain can be defined in contrast to several forms of intellectual property; the public domain in contrast to copyrighted works is different from the public domain in contrast to trademarks or patented works. Furthermore, the laws of various countries define the scope of the public domain differently, making it necessary to specify which jurisdiction's public domain is being discussed. Review for Web Mastering ACP Page 1 of 9
  2. 2. Web Page Is written as a text page. What make it different, Parts of a web though, are the instructions that must be added to create backgrounds, colored fonts, paragraphs, lines, and virtually anything that adds interest to the page or makes it more readable. These instructions are page also what allow us to include what is probably the most important thing of all about web pages – the link (or hyperlink) that jumps from one page to another page or file. Review for Web Mastering ACP Page 2 of 9
  3. 3. An HTML 4 1) A line containing HTML version information, webpage - Parts of a making a webpage document is 2) A declarative header section (delimited by the HEAD element), composed of 3) A body, which contains the document's actual content. three parts Document At the top of a valid HTML document is a declaration statement of what version of HTML is used in the Type document. The document type declaration names the document type definition (DTD) in use for the document . Declaration The three types are Strict, Transitional and Frameset. xhtml The Extensible Hypertext Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but also conforms to XML syntax. transitional The similarities between HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.0 led Led the W3C (the consortium or council that makes xhtml desicions on HTML and XHTML) to aid authors in the transition from HTML webpages to XHTML webpages. the W3C provided guidance on how to publish XHTML 1.0 documents in an HTML-compatible manner, and serve them to browsers that were not designed for XHTML. Such HTML-compatible content is sent using the HTML media type (text/html) rather than the official Internet media type for XHTML (application/xhtml+xml). Example of Transitional XHTML Document Type Declaration <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC -//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd> tags The instructions for the page are created inside tags. deprecated Although deprecated features remain in the current version, their use may raise warning messages tags recommending alternate practices, and deprecation may indicate that the feature will be removed in the future. element An HTML element is everything from the start tag to the end tag: Revised See class, attribute and value below; these are sometimes included in an element nesting In HTML, some elements can be improperly nested within each other, like this: <b><i>This text is bold and italic</b></i> In XHTML, all elements must be properly nested within each other, like this: <b><i>This text is bold and italic</i></b> Note: A common mistake with nested lists, is to forget that the inside list must be within <li> and </li> tags. navigation Planning the links in your website so that visitors to your site don't get lost. For example, if a guest to your website navigates to an item that they want to buy, you should give them a link on that page to check out or return to shopping to buy something else. Review for Web Mastering ACP Page 3 of 9
  4. 4. external style Style sheets (also known as cascading style sheets) can be created either externally or internally. They are nothing more than a set of instructions that tell the web browser how to display the web page. There is, however, a sheet definite advantage to using external style sheets since, once linked to a web page, any change to the style sheet will automatically make the same change to all web pages to which it is linked. This provides an easy way to change a color, background, font, or any other element that is to remain constant on all pages in a website. CSS rules A specific set of rules for creating this type of stylesheets. A style sheet consists of a list of rules. Each rule or rule-set consists of one or more selectors and a declaration block. A declaration-block consists of a list of semicolon-separated declarations in braces. Each declaration itself consists of a property, a colon (:), a value, then a semi-colon (;). class (revised) Class attribute, a feature of many HTML and XHTML elements, typically to identify them for styles. The class attribute provides a way of classifying similar elements for presentation purposes. attribute and Below is a class called large_title. We would like the class, large_title to appear in value (revised) the Arial font family, at 24 pixels, in italics, with a color of #000066, It should be centered on a background. Text is also centered and should appear bolder. The coding for all these instructions looks like this: @charsetUTF‐8; .large_title { font‐family: Arial, Helvetica, sans‐serif; font‐size: 24px; font‐style: italic; color: #000066; background‐position: center; text‐align: center; font‐weight: bolder; } 3 Notice that each line of the information that defines what large_title will look like is made up of a attribute and a value. At the end of each declaration is a semicolon. After the last line, the closing curly bracket ends this class style. relative link When creating links on your webpage, you create those links differently depending on if the page you are linking (revised) to is one of the other pages on your site, or if it is a page outside of your website. When both pages are located on the same website we can create a relative link with just the file name.html. This is because both files are in the same website, which means that they are also in the same folder; you don't have to specify how to get to the file, it is an internal file. aking a webpage Review for Web Mastering ACP Page 4 of 9
  5. 5. Parts of a webpage - making a webpage absolute link When linking to pages outside your website, you must provide the entire or absolute link to those pages. (revised) list An ordered or unordered list is a list of items. The list items are marked with bullets (typically small black circles). An unordered list starts with the <ul> tag. Each list item starts with the <li> tag. <ul> <li>Coffee</li> or reference to a book, author or paper. In order to define a citation in HTML, you'll need to citations A quotation from <li>Milk</li> use tags around the text you want to alter. Citations in HTML are designed to mark text that is being quoted </ul> from print or from dialogue. Typically, browsers render text enclosed in citation tags as italic. Here is how it looks in a browser: Coffee Table You often use tables in a webpage to display your links say three across and four down. The HTML table model Milk allows authors to arrange data -- text, preformatted text, images, links, forms, form fields, other tables, etc. -- Inside a list item you can put paragraphs, line breaks, images, links, other lists, etc. into rows and columns of cells. This is an example of coding for a table and below it is the table that the coding would produce. cell A cell is the intersection of a row and a collumn in a table. In the Four Food Groups Table, each of the food groups is in a separate cell of the table. Review for Web Mastering ACP Page 5 of 9
  6. 6. merge (cell) You can merge two or more adjacent cells into one cell and display the contents of one cell in the merged cell. You can also merge the contents of several cells and display them in one cell. In the Four Food Groups Table, the three top cells were merged to place the title. column In a table, this is the vertical placement of links. In the Four Food Groups Table, the bread and the green vegetable are in one collumn and the fruit and egg are in another collumn. row (revised) In a table, this is the horizontal placement of links. In the Four Food Groups Table, the bread and the fruit are Parts of a table in one row, the green vegetable and egg are in another collumn. cell padding Cell padding puts some space between the border of the cell and the text. In the Four Food Groups Table bread cell, it is the space between the bread and the border of the cell. With HTML you have to specify how big the cell padding (white space) will be (ex. 1/8 inch) cell spacing The spacing between cells in a table. In the Four Food Groups Table, it is the spacing between the border of the cells for each of the four food groups. Again, in HTML, you have to specify this distance. border In the Four Food Groups Table, the lines around each food group that makes the square. Borders can be solid, dotted, doublined, medium, large. float The float property sets where an image or a text will appear in another element. Note: If there is too little space on a line for the floating element, it will jump down on the next line, and continue until a line has enough space. images Pictures. A representation of the external form of a thing or person, You will create images in Adobe Photoshop or you can copy images that are in the public domain (no longer copywrighted) for use in your webpage. contrast The color of your text, backround and images must be dissimilar enough so that they are easy to see. The W3C has a page on which you can check two colors to ensure they have enough contrast. repetition A technique used in designing web page layouts so there is uniformity. Example: The headline style is repeated - all the instances are left-aligned and separated with a common horizontal divider. alignment Text can be placed on the page or in a table in the center, left, right, bottom, top. proximity Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are. web safe colors There are 216 six-digit hexadecimal color codes define what are considered safe, non-dithering colors (colors for text and images to be used in a webpage that will show up with sharp edges). The goal was to have a common set of colors for many kinds of computer displays and operating systems (Macintosh, Windows, Unix). The importance of these safe colors has been reduced dramatically over the years as display monitors have become more capable to display many colors. hexadecimal A palette to display color graphics based on an 8-bit system (28 - 40 (reserved by operating system) = 216 colors colors. Hexidecimal colors are web safe colors. optimize If a picture file is too large, the Web site will take longer to download, and your visitors may get frustrated. Optimizing a picture file reduces the file size and helps it load faster. Review for Web Mastering ACP Page 6 of 9
  7. 7. Consideration for text and .jpg You can use a picture saved in the .jpg (JPEG) format. The quality may be a little better than the same picture saved in a .gif format, but the file size of the JPEG will be larger. .gif Reduce the file size without sacrificing much of the quality of GIF images. .png This is the file type that you get when you save a file in photoshop. .PNG files can not be used on a web page. So, after you safe your photoshop file in .png, you also have to export it (click file> export) into either a .gif or .jpg file. pixels In digital imaging, a pixel (picture element[1]) is the smallest piece of information in an image. ellipse The tool in MS Paint or Adobe Photoshop that creates an oval. text effects You can make the first letter or first line of your text special by making the letter(s) bold, beveled, embossed, etc. bevel Beveled text is a useful text effect that can help you create flashy logos for your site. It makes the edge of the letters appeared to be beveled emboss Embossed text looks like it has been chiseled in stone. local root The Local root folder is a folder on your computer where your local copy of the files of the Web site will be stored folder and saved to while you are working on the site. define a Information you enter into your FTP (File Transfer Protocol) software (Dreamweaver has this built in) for the website uploading of your HTML documents to your directory on your ISP's webserver. Site Name: Type in the name of your site. Local Root Folder: Click the little folder to locate the folder that all your files will be saved in. Default Images Folder: You can leave this blank. Links Relative to: Check Document HTTP Address: Enter the URL of your Website. (Ex. http://www.yourdomain.com) interface A graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of user interface which allows people to interact with electronic devices such as computers; hand-held devices such as MP3 Players, Portable Media Players or Gaming devices; household appliances and office equipment. A GUI offers graphical icons, and visual indicators, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation to fully represent the information and actions available to a user. Dreamweaver gives you an interface to creat webpages; Notepad does not. property The Property Inspector is a floating palette that displays all the properties, or formatting, for a selected object. inspector The Property Inspector lets you quickly and easily view or modify those properties. skill growth A skill growth portfolio shows multiple samples of work in the same project to demonstrate increasing skill. For portfolio example, students include several versions of their web page to show how the design evolved. (added) Review for Web Mastering ACP Page 7 of 9
  8. 8. flowchart A flowchart is common type of chart, that represents an algorithm or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting these with arrows. Flowcharts are used in designing or documenting a process or program in various fields. storyboard Used in animation. You make a boxes like in a comic book in which you show the progression of your animation (revised) from its begining to its ending pose. Graphic organizers such as a series of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of previsualizing a motion graphic or interactive media sequence, including website interactivity. (file) naming A convention for naming the many files that make up your webpage. The intent is to allow useful information to convention be deduced from the names based on regularities. For instance, in Manhattan, streets are numbered, with East- (revised) West streets being called Streets and North-South streets called Avenues. layout How pictures and text on your webpage will be arranged. navigation Bars and buttons that help visitors to your site navigate easily from page to page. bars and buttons host This is the name or address of the web server to which you will upload your web page. FTP FTP is a file transfer protocol for exchanging and manipulating files over a TCP computer network. An FTP client may connect to an FTP server to manipulate files on that server. site map A representation of the architecture (lay out) of a web site. This is a page commonly added to a web site to help vistors navigate the site. home page The first page of your website from which other parts of your web site can be accessed. usability a term used to denote the ease with which people can employ a particular tool or other human-made object in order to achieve a particular goal. Usability can also refer to the methods of measuring usability and the study of the principles behind an object's perceived efficiency or elegance. accessibility The ability of potential viewers of your website to access your website. Hand held devices can only access web pages written in XHTML, not HTML. If you write your page in HTML, people searching for your site on a hand held device will not be able to access your page. template Think of Myspace - you have preset boxes to type into to make your page. The stuff outside the boxes (like headings) are not editable. Only the boxes are editable. A web template is a tool used to separate content from presentation in web design, and for mass-production of web documents. It is a basic component of a web template system. Web templates can be used to set up any type of website. In its simplest sense, a web template operates similarly to a form letter for use in setting up a website. editable region The area in an HTML or XHTML document in which you can type (in which you can add content) Review for Web Mastering ACP Page 8 of 9
  9. 9. image map In HTML and XHTML , an image map is a list of coordinates (X and Y) relating to a specific image, created in order to hyperlink areas of the image to various destinations (as opposed to a normal image link, in which the entire area of the image links to a single destination). For example, a map of the world may have each country hyperlinked to further information about that country. The intention of an image map is to provide an easy way of linking various parts of an image without dividing the image into separate image files. hotspots An onscreen hotspot, in computing, provides a special area for hyperlinking or for other GUI-based activity (such as re-direction, pop-up display, macro execution, etc). rollover An image which changes when the mouse is over it. layers How to Lay Out a Web Page with Layers (revised) You can use Dreamweaver’s table design features to create a simple page layout. However, a more powerful technique is to use layers, which are based on Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). A layer is a rectangular HTML element that you can position anywhere on a page. Layers can contain text, images, or any other content you can ordinarily place in the body of an HTML document. Many designers prefer CSS-based layouts because CSS gives greater control over the positioning of elements, reduces the amount of code you need, and enables you to format layout blocks with margins, borders, and colors. In addition, people using screen readers to view web pages have a much easier time browsing pages built with CSS because the code is simpler and shorter. AP element With Dreamweaver, you can use AP elements to lay out your page. You can place AP elements in front of and behind each other, hide some AP elements while showing others, and move AP elements across the screen. You can place a background image in one AP element, then place a second AP element, containing text with a transparent background, in front of that. Review for Web Mastering ACP Page 9 of 9