Edt 507


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Edt 507

  1. 2. Design and Development of Instructional Materials
  2. 3. <ul><ul><li>“ Good, better, best. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never let it rest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Till your good is better. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And your better is best.” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Instructional Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>any means other than the subject-matter itself that is employed by the teacher in presenting the subject matter to the learner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>include textbooks, laboratory manuals, work books, written/textual materials, kits, software, CD’s, slides, film clips, videos and other multimedia materials. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><ul><li>influences the teaching learning process in the following ways: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivating students </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contributing to better understanding </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Providing varied learning experiences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcing learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging participation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the quality of learning while decreasing the time spent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check pupil preparedness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make learning more interactive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><ul><ul><li>It is however claimed that educational media are expensive but is more expensive to be teaching facts, skills, values and attitudes which will be easily forgotten due to lack of mastery. With the proper selection and use of instructional devices or educational devices or educational media, learning become more permanent. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>The following are guidelines i n designing and develop ing instructional materials or educational media: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Size </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the material (text or picture) big enough to be seen by farthest pupil? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Is relativity of size of pictures observed when it is viewed with other materials or pictures? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>2. Color </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Is the material colorful? </li></ul><ul><li> Does the color facilitate understanding? </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>3. Durability </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Can the material stand several uses? </li></ul><ul><li> Can it be used over and over again? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>4. Economy </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Is the material worth its cost? </li></ul><ul><li> Can a cheaper materials in terms of </li></ul><ul><li>time spent in preparing it and in terms </li></ul><ul><li>of the cash value be used? </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>5. Easy to handle </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Is the material light and easy to </li></ul><ul><li>manipulate? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it easy to put up and then store for </li></ul><ul><li> future use? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>6. Relevance </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Is the material up-to-date? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it related to the particular lesson </li></ul><ul><li>and to the specific needs, problems </li></ul><ul><li> and experiences of the target clientele? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>7. Novelty </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Does the material possess an </li></ul><ul><li>element of newness? </li></ul><ul><li>Can it arouse curiosity and a sense </li></ul><ul><li>of discovery in the learners? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>The </li></ul><ul><li>Cone </li></ul><ul><li>of </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>The Cone of Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>devised by Edgar Dale, published in his book, Audio-Visual Education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is a visual analogy which is used as a guide by teachers in choosing what, why and how much instructional material they should use to provoke learning with the most satisfying results. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Direct purposeful learning experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Planned experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatized experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Study trip </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibit </li></ul><ul><li>Motion pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Educational television </li></ul><ul><li>Still pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Radio and recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Visual symbols and verbal symbols </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Further, The Cone of Experience suggests that learning is more impressive if one proceeds from concrete to abstract, or from specific to general because more senses are involved and relationship are built in a more pronounced manner. Direct or actual learning is the basis for conceptualization and abstraction. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Basic </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>on </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>in </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Integrating technology with teaching means the use of learning technologies to introduce, reinforce, supplement and extend skills. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Situational Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>A. </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Cruz wants to show photos in her Social Studies class, but the pictures are small. She decides to use the computer, scan the photos for a computer projection to the class (a presentation software package) </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><ul><li>Result: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good class presentation followed by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a discussion </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>B. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Alonzo thinks it is uninteresting to do paper-and-pen match worksheets. </li></ul><ul><li>He decides to use the computer to put the worksheets into a spreadsheet form. He then asked students to submit their completed worksheet to him by e-mail. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><ul><li>Result: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More active student activity. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>C. </li></ul><ul><li>Geography teacher, Ms. Sioson finds it difficult to motivate her students to learn about other countries. Her supervisor suggested an instructional simulation software in which students play detectives to solve mysteries related to Geography. Ms. Sioson used designed worksheets and question-answer sheets to find out the students’ experience in the learning process. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><ul><li>Result: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> An exciting group learning activity. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>D. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Roxas uses a computer-bases Trigonometry software, projected to the class using a projector to supplement his class presentation. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><ul><li>Result: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> An interactive class using a software. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>E. </li></ul><ul><li>English teacher, Ms. Santos, used computer-based activities (software) which students can go through during library time. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><ul><li>Result: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Enrichment activity; Record-keeping features of software allows checking of progress of student learning. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>F. </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Yu asks her students to find information on H-fever in the internet. Students are to create an information leaflet giving a family health tips on H-fever. </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><ul><li>Result: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Creative skills employed by students. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>G. </li></ul><ul><li>To dish out information on the ASEAN Region, Mr. Lopez assigned newsletter computer production by group. </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><ul><li>Result: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Increased social skills through group work; planning, creativity, computer skills. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>H. </li></ul><ul><li>The Rizal school has a partner school in the U.S. A joint Science project allows the Philippines and U.S. schools to exchange information on indigenous herbal plants in both countries. Video conferencing is held involving students of both schools. </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><ul><li>Result: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> A more sophisticated Technology-supported project demonstrating global communication and socially relevant research. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><ul><li> To reflect, it may need time for teachers who are novices in technology integration to become adept technology instructional integrators. There is no need to worry since technology integration is developmental and takes a gradual route to mastery and expertise. In time, teachers can advance from basic to more complicated levels of technology use in instruction. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>“ Whatever the mind of man can conceive and believe, the hand of man can achieve.” </li></ul>