06 Lecture Animation Ppt

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  • Biology, 9th ed,Sylvia Mader Metabolism Slide # Chapter 06
  • Biology, 9th ed,Sylvia Mader Metabolism Slide # Chapter 06
  • Biology, 9th ed,Sylvia Mader Metabolism Slide # Chapter 06
  • Biology, 9th ed,Sylvia Mader Metabolism Slide # Chapter 06
  • 06 Lecture Animation Ppt

    1. 1. Chapter 6: pp. 103-116 Metabolism: Energy and Enzymes Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. solar energy heat heat heat heat Mechanical energy Chemical energy
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Forms of Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws of Thermodynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metabolic Reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metabolic Pathways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy of Activation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular Respiration </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Forms of Energy <ul><li>Kinetic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy of motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Flow of Energy solar energy heat heat heat heat Mechanical energy Chemical energy Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    5. 5. Laws of Thermodynamics <ul><li>First law: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of conservation of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy CAN be changed from one form to another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second law: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of entropy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When energy is changed from one form to another, there is a loss of usable energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste energy goes to increase disorder </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Carbohydrate Metabolism Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. carbohydrate muscle contraction heat
    7. 7. Cells and Energy Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. C 6 H 12 O 6 H 2 O CO 2 channel protein energy energy a. b. • more organized • more potential energy • less stable (entropy) Glucose • less organized • less potential energy • more stable (entropy) Carbon dioxide and water Unequal distribution of hydrogen ions • more organized • more potential energy • less stable (entropy) Equal distribution of hydrogen ions • less organized • less potential energy • more stable (entropy) H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H + H +
    8. 8. Metabolic Reactions and Energy Transformations <ul><li>Metabolism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sum of cellular chemical reactions in cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactants participate in reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products form as result of reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free energy is the amount of energy available to perform work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exergonic Reactions - Products have less free energy than reactants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endergonic Reactions - Products have more free energy than reactants </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. ATP and Coupled Reactions <ul><li>Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High energy compound used to drive metabolic reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly being generated from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composed of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenine and ribose (together = adenosine), and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three phosphate groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coupled reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy released by an exergonic reaction captured in ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That ATP used to drive an endergonic reaction </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. The ATP Cycle Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. a. b. adenosine triphosphate Energy from exergonic reactions (e.g., cellular respiration) P P P ADP + adenosine diphosphate phosphate + + P Energy for endergonic reactions (e.g., protein synthesis, nerve conduction, muscle contraction) P P P A T P 2.25 b: © Darwin Dale/Photo Researchers, Inc.
    11. 11. Coupled Reactions ADP <ul><li>Myosin head assumes </li></ul><ul><li>its resting shape when </li></ul><ul><li>it combines with ATP. </li></ul>ATP P myosin actin <ul><li>As ATP is split into </li></ul><ul><li>ADP and p myosin </li></ul><ul><li>head attaches to actin </li></ul><ul><li>Myosin head pulls </li></ul><ul><li>on actin as ADP </li></ul><ul><li>and p are released </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
    12. 12. Metabolic Reactions and Energy Transformations <ul><li>Metabolism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sum of cellular chemical reactions in cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactants participate in reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products form as result of reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free energy is the amount of energy available to perform work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exergonic Reactions - Products have less free energy than reactants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endergonic Reactions - Products have more free energy than reactants </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Work-Related Functions of ATP <ul><li>Primarily to perform cellular work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Work - Energy needed to synthesize macromolecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport Work - Energy needed to pump substances across plasma membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical Work - Energy needed to contract muscles, beat flagella, etc </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Metabolic Pathways <ul><li>Reactions are usually occur in a sequence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Products of an earlier reaction become reactants of a later reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Such linked reactions form a metabolic pathway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begins with a particular reactant, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proceeds through several intermediates, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terminates with a particular end product </li></ul></ul></ul>A  B  C  D  E  F  G “ A ” is Initial Reactant “ G ” is End Product B, C, D, E, and F are Intermediates
    15. 15. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    16. 16. Enzymes <ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein molecules that function as catalysts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The reactants of an enzymatically accelerated reaction are called substrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each enzyme accelerates a specific reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each reaction in a metabolic pathway requires a unique and specific enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End product will not appear unless ALL enzymes present and functional </li></ul></ul>E 1 E 2 E 3 E 4 E 5 E 6 A  B  C  D  E  F  G
    17. 17. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    18. 18. Enzymes: Energy of Activation <ul><li>Reactants often “reluctant” to participate in reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy must be added to at least one reactant to initiate the reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy of activation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enzyme Operation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes operate by lowering the energy of activation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplished by bringing the substrates into contact with one another </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Energy of Activation Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Progress of the Reaction energy of reactant energy of product energy of activation (E a ) enzyme not present enzyme present Free Energy energy of activation (E a )
    20. 20. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    21. 21. Enzyme-Substrate Complex <ul><li>The active site complexes with the substrates </li></ul><ul><li>Causes active site to change shape </li></ul><ul><li>Shape change forces substrates together, initiating bond </li></ul><ul><li>Induced fit model </li></ul>
    22. 22. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    23. 23. Degradation vs. Synthesis <ul><li>Degradation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme complexes with a single substrate molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substrate is broken apart into two product molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synthesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme complexes with two substrate molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substrates are joined together and released as single product molecule </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Degradation vs. Synthesis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Degradation The substrate is broken down to smaller products. products substrate enzyme a. b. active site enzyme-substrate complex enzyme Synthesis The substrates are combined to produce a larger product. product substrates enzyme active site enzyme-substrate complex enzyme
    25. 25. Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity <ul><li>Substrate concentration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme activity increases with substrate concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More collisions between substrate molecules and the enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme activity increases with temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warmer temperatures cause more effective collisions between enzyme and substrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, hot temperatures destroy enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most enzymes are optimized for a particular pH </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    27. 27. Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity: Temperature Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Rate of Reaction (product per unit of time) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 <ul><li>Rate of reaction as a function of </li></ul><ul><li>temperature </li></ul>b. Body temperature of ectothermic animals often limits rates of reactions. c. Body temperature of endothermic animals promotes rates of reactions. Temperature C b: © James Watt/Visuals Unlimited; c: © Creatas/PunchStock
    28. 28. Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity: pH Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Rate of Reaction (product per unit of time) pH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 trypsin pepsin
    29. 29. Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity <ul><li>Cells can affect presence/absence of enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>Cells can affect concentration of enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>Cells can activate or deactivate enzyme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme Cofactors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules required to activate enzyme </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coenzymes are organic cofactors, like some vitamins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorylation – some require addition of a phosphate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    31. 31. Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity <ul><li>Reversible enzyme inhibition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a substance known as an inhibitor binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive inhibition – substrate and the inhibitor are both able to bind to active site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noncompetitive inhibition – the inhibitor binds not at the active site, but at the allosteric site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback inhibition – The end product of a pathway inhibits the pathway’s first enzyme </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Cofactor at Active Site Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. substrate active site cofactor a. b.
    33. 33. Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity: Feedback Inhibition Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 2 active site enzymes substrates allosteric site E 2 E 3 E 4 E 5 A A F (end product) A Metabolic pathway produces F, the end product. F binds to allosteric site and the active site of E 1 changes shape. A cannot bind to E 1 ; the enzyme has been inhibited by F. B C D E E 1 E 1 E 1 E 1 F 3 1 F (end product) (end product)
    34. 34. Animation Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
    35. 35. Irreversible Inhibition <ul><li>Materials that irreversibly inhibit an enzyme are known as poisons </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanides inhibit enzymes resulting in all ATP production </li></ul><ul><li>Penicillin inhibits an enzyme unique to certain bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy metals irreversibly bind with many enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve gas irreversibly inhibits enzymes required by nervous system </li></ul>
    36. 36. Oxidation-Reduction <ul><li>Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons pass from one molecule to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The molecule that loses an electron is oxidized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The molecule that gains an electron is reduced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both take place at same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One molecule accepts the electron given up by the other </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
    38. 38. Electron Transport Chain <ul><li>Membrane-bound carrier proteins found in mitochondria and chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>Physically arranged in an ordered series </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts with high-energy electrons and low-energy ADP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass electrons from one carrier to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electron energy used to pump hydrogen ions (H + ) to one side of membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes electrical gradient across membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical gradient used to make ATP from ADP – Chemiosmosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends with low-energy electrons and high-energy ATP </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. A Metaphor for the Electron Transport Chain Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. high-energy electrons low-energy electrons electron transport chain ATP energy for synthesis of e e
    40. 40. Chemiosmosis Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. ATP synthase complex energy from electron transfers H + H + High H + concentration Low H + concentration H + pump in electron transport chain H + H + H + H + H + ATP ADP + P
    41. 41. Review <ul><li>Forms of Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws of Thermodynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metabolic Reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metabolic Pathways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy of Activation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular Respiration </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Chapter 6: pp. 103-116 Metabolism: Energy and Enzymes

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