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Human resource mgt.lecture notes


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Human resource mgt.lecture notes

  1. 1. 1 Educational Leadership Lecture Notes: Professor William Allan Kritsonis William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Professor PhD Program in Educational Leadership Prairie View A&M University Member of the Texas A&M University System Visiting Lecturer (2005) Oxford Round Table University of Oxford, Oxford, England Distinguished Alumnus (2004) Central Washington University College of Education and Professional Studies Ellensburg, Washington Version Copyright © 2010 William Allan Kritsonis ALL RIGHTS RESERVED/FOREVER
  2. 2. 2 Learning Module 1 FORCES INFLUENTIAL IN DECISION MAKING a) Administrative behavior influenced by assumptions they hold for themselves, subordinates, and for human nature. b) Beliefs held about schools and society, educational goals, school management, authority, and organizational arrangements are modifiers of behavior. c) A value system which arranges beliefs and preferences in some systematic way affects his or her decision-making behavior. d) Personality idiosyncrasies which are developed as a result of socialization as a child, adult, educator, and school administrator affect decision-making behavior.
  3. 3. 3 Forces in the Human System a) The importance of linking administration and ethics is evidenced by the fact that schools are basically human organizations. b) Forces in the human system- needs, wants, aspirations, hopes and beliefs of teachers, students and administrators are modifiers of administrative behavior and educational decision-making. Forces in the Organization a) Forces in the organization are potential influences of educational decision-making. Includes structural characteristics that contribute to it’s mode of operation. b) Schools develop organizational personalities, conceptually similar to human personality- organ styles, authority styles, and organ dynamics. c) Although schools are similar- no two schools are alike.
  4. 4. 4 Forces in the Environment a) These are the broader political and cultural components of the school as exemplifies in the schools interaction with its community historically and presently. b) Considers the schools legal entity in a broader matrix of regional, state, and federal government, and its vulnerability as a public organization responsive to public demands from a variety of pressure groups.
  5. 5. 5 Learning Module 2 CONFLICT BETWEEN BUREAUCRATIC AND PROFESSIONAL VALUES 1) Bureaucratic stress uniformity of students’ problems and needs; standardized inputs. Professional expectations stress uniqueness of students’ problems and needs; variable inputs. 2) Bureaucratic expectations stress universal application of rules: fairness. Professional expectations stress is on achievement of goals. 3) Bureaucratic expectations stress skill based on practice: experience differentials in status and rank. Professional expectations stress skill based on knowledge: merit differentials in status and rank. 4) Bureaucratic expectations emphasize decisions focus on application of rules to routine problems. Professional expectations emphasize decisions focus on application of policy and knowledge to unique problems. 5) Bureaucratic expectations stress hierarchal legal authority. Professional expectations stress ability- professional authority. 6) Bureaucratic expectations stress loyalty to the school, its administration and trustees. Professional expectations stress loyalty to the profession and students.
  6. 6. 6 A Philosophy for School Administrators 1) Understanding of the web of tension which he/she is a part. 2) Consciousness of responsibility to the public interest. 3) Unwarranted optimism about the future. Administration and the Web of Tension a) Extreme differences in teaching, talent, and power trends keep tension constant. b) Father-knows-best is out in today’s world. c) Increased reliance on participatory administration. d) Increase community activity, formal and informal. e) Disagreement, dialogue, controversy, negotiations all contribute to tensions.
  7. 7. 7 The Public Interest a) Encompasses the needs of youth, society, community and profession. b) Deciding what the public interest is a decision the school administrator must make based upon identifiable value systems. c) Governmental agencies, professional organizations, scholars, philosophers, etc., help to identify short and long term public interest. d) Public interest issue is very important. School administrators should seek input from various sectors: Citizen committees Teacher committees Teacher associations Student Advisory Groups .....Other relevant sources
  8. 8. 8 Optimism about the Future a) Optimism allows the administrator to give direction and stimulus to the development of meaningful educational programs which serve the public interest. b) A faith in learning c) A commitment to adulthood d) A fundamental spirit of optimism. Organizational Values 1) HARD CORE VALUES Hard core values are accepted by all but the most deviant members of the school’s society. 2) FREEDOM ZONE VALUES “Freedom Zone Values” are accepted by most members of the school’s society but the level of commitment varies for people, cliques, or groups within the society.
  9. 9. 9 Skill Levels of Supervisors - Technical skills - Human skills - Conceptual skills 1) TECHNICAL SKILLS The ability to use knowledge, methods and techniques to perform specific tasks. The mechanics associated with writing a lesson plan, developing a study unit, equipping a learning-resource center, purchasing, preparing a meeting agenda, filling out reports, etc, are examples of technical skills. 2) HUMAN SKILLS Refer to one’s ability and judgment in working with and through people. This skill requires self-understanding and acceptance as well as consideration for others. Human skills include an understanding of, and facility for, leadership effectiveness, adult motivation, attitudinal development, group dynamics, and the development of human resources. 3) CONCEPTUAL SKILLS Refer to the supervisors’ ability to view the school, the system, and the educational program as a whole.
  10. 10. 10 This skill requires the effective mapping of the interdependence between components of the school as an organizational system. Conceptual skill requires an understanding of the interdependencies that exist between developing and establishing: - humane organization - articulating a humane administrative- supervisory system - developing a humane educational program Summary Though each of the skill levels is universally present in administrative and supervisory positions, conceptual skills are emphasized more by administrators and technical skills more by supervisory personnel, who are for the most part concerned with the day-to- day work of the school.
  11. 11. 11 Mean Rankings of Power Bases Sales Bases of Power of Office College Liberal Arts Insurance Agencies Legitimate 4.1 3.6 3.3 Expert 3.5 4.1 3.8 Referent 2.9 3.5 2.5 Reward 2.7 2.3 2.8 Coercive 1.9 1.6 1.8 NOTE: 5.0 highest 1.0 lowest
  12. 12. 12 Learning Module 3 THEORY X and THEORY Y Theory X 1) People inherently dislike work and will avoid it if they can. 2) People must be coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened in order to make them work. 3) The average human being prefers to be directed, wished to avoid responsibility and has relatively little ambition. Theory Y 1) The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. 2) People can exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed. 3) The average human being learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek responsibility. (McGregor’s Theory X and Y)
  13. 13. 13 Theory X- Decision Making 1) Close supervision 2) One-way communication 3) Strategy planning by top leaders only 4) Decision-making at the top level only 5) A handing down of decisions to be implemented by middle management 6) A handing down of instructions to be carried out by the workers. 7) Nothing goes up except reports
  14. 14. 14 Theory Y – Decision - Making 1) Two-way communication 2) Involvement in goal setting, planning, and decision-making at each level 3) Larger spans of control 4) Greater decentralization 5) Greater use of team management.
  15. 15. 15 Eupsychian Management Assumptions “Eupsychia” means moving toward psychological health or “healthward.” Eupsychian management is a manifest effort to bring optimum growth and development to all who are in contact with the school. 1. Assume everyone is to be trusted. 2. Assume everyone is to be informed as completely as possible of as many facts and truths as possible. 3. Assume in all your people they impulse to achieve. 4. Assume that there is no dominance – subordination hierarchy in the jungle sense or authoritarian sense. 5. Assume that everyone will have the same ultimate managerial objectives and will identify with them no matter where they are in the organization or in the hierarchy. 6. Eupsychian economics must assume good will among all the members of the organization rather than rivalry or jealousy. 7. Assume the “Ability to Admire.” 8. We must assume that they people in the Eupsychian plants (schools) are not fixated at the safety-need level.
  16. 16. 16 9. Assume an active trend to self-actualization. 10. Assume that everyone can enjoy good team work, friendship, good group spirit, good harmony, good belongingness, and group love. 11. Assume hostility to be primarily reactive rather than character-based. 12. Assume that people can take it. 13. Eupsychian management assumes that people are improvable. 14. Assume that everyone prefers to feel important, needed, useful, successful, proud, respected, rather than unimportant, interchangeable, anonymous, wasted, unused, expendable, disrespected. 15. Assume that everyone prefers or perhaps even needs to love his boss (rather than to hate him) and that everyone prefers to respect his boss (rather than to disrespect him) 16. Eupsychian management assumes everyone prefers to be a prime mover rather than a passive helper. 17. Assume a tendency to improve things... to put things right, make things better, to do things better. 18. Assume that growth occurs through delight and through boredom. 19. Assume preference for being a whole person and not a part, not a thing, or an implement, or tool, or “hand”.
  17. 17. 17 20. Assume the preference for working rather than being idle. 21. Assume the preference for personhood, uniqueness as a person, identity (in contrast to being anonymous or interchangeable) 22. We must assume the wisdom and the efficacy of self-choice. 23. We must assume that everyone likes to be justly and fairly appreciated, preferably in public. 24. Assume that everyone but especially the more developed person refers responsibility to dependency and passivity most of the time. 25. The general assumption is that people will get more pleasure out of loving rather than they will out of hating. 26. Assume that fairly well-developed people would rather be interested than destroy. 27. Assume that fairly well-developed people would rather be interested than be bored. 28. We must ultimately assume at the highest theoretical levels of Eupsychian theory, a preference or a tendency to identify with more and more of the world, or peak experience, cosmic consciousness. 29. We must assume the defense and growth dialectic for all these positive trends that have already been listed above.
  18. 18. 18 Learning Module 4 DIFFERENTIATING BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE MANAGEMENT 1) Power over money, organization and personnel rests in the hands of the legislature, school code, and local school board rather than in the hands of management. 2) Measures of progress toward goals are difficult to devise. What are the school measures of good citizenship, intellectual enrichment, problem-solving ability, independent thinking, a desire to learn, economic sufficiency, and effective family living? These are contrasted with the reality understood and quantifiable economic objectives of private organizations. 3) Public accounting to which the school is subjected is designed to control current expenditures as contrasted with business accounting, that tends to support future planning, research, and development. 4) Tenure laws and civil service laws tend to protect educational workers from the control of administrators and supervisors.
  19. 19. 19 5) School purposes and organizational processes designed to achieve these purposes are influenced indirectly by administrators through individuals and groups ( a political process) rather than directly by administrators (a management process) 6) Goals and objectives are often unclear and contradictory. The latent custodial functions of schools for example, contradict the manifest self-actualization functions. 7) No market exists to determine effectiveness. Expensive special educational programs, for example, are maintained for political and legal reasons, though, if subjected to a market economy, general consumer interest would not likely be sufficient to sustain them. By comparison, product lines of firms are thinned out by a market economy. 8) Resources are distributed on the basis of formula and other approximations of “equity” rather than on “merit”. Allocating greater resources to “high producing” schools, for example, would be considered fraudulent. 9) Administrators work with an array of people whose careers are outside of management control. 10) Administrators are expected to accomplish goals in less time than normally allowed to managers of business firms. 11) A tight coupling exists between means and ends or products and processes. Schooling is a human activity with human ends.
  20. 20. 20 12) Many objectives are pursued with scarce resources as contrasted with the business firm, which allocates more resources to fewer, indeed more focused objectives. Note: American business is inappropriate for discussing and evaluating public management. In the public sector, purpose, organization and people do not have the same meaning and significance that they have in business.
  21. 21. 21 Learning Module 5 MASLOW-EXAMPLES OF HUMAN NEED SATISFACTION 1) Physical Needs On the job--> working conditions Off the job--> money to purchase the necessities of life 2) Security Needs On the job--> Job security - Sick leave Off the job--> Money for economic security 3) Social Needs On the job--> Social interactions on job – Company parties Off the job--> Social clubs -Neighborhood parties – Sports - Activities 4) Ego Needs On the job--> Position, title, office size (carpets), parking, and so forth Off the job--> Money for status symbol (Neighborhood Country Club Membership
  22. 22. 22 5) Self-Fulfillment Needs On the job--> Self expression – Sense of achievement and growth On the job--> Money for hobbies “Do and be what you feel you are born to be” MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS 1) Physiological Needs (food and shelter) 2) Safety Needs (protection against danger, threat, deprivation) 3) Social Needs (belonging, association, acceptance by social groups) 4) Ego Needs (self-esteem, recognition, status) 5) Self-Fulfillment Needs (creativity, self-actualization, self- realization) Note: A satisfied need is no longer a motivator MASLOW’S HEIRARCHY- TWO CATERGORIES
  23. 23. 23 Lower-order needs: Esteem Social Security (Deficiency oriented) Higher-order needs: Self-Actualization/Self-Realization Autonomy Self Improvement (Growth oriented) Learning Module 6
  24. 24. 24 SATISFIERS FOR TEACHERS Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Motivation Satisfiers lead to increased performance as they focus on our growth-approach needs. Motivational potential is high for most people.
  25. 25. 25 DISSATISFACTION FOR TEACHERS 1) Poor interpersonal relations 2) Incompetent, inadequate, or unfair administrative and supervisory practices 3) Matters external to the school which comprise one’s personal life MOTIVATION FOR TEACHERS 1) Providing opportunities for teachers to advance within the ranks of teaching 2) Altering responsibilities among the various teaching roles and keying advancement to responsibility 3) Eliminating aspects of the work itself which are sources of dissatisfaction for teachers, thereby salvaging this factor as a motivator. Use of paraprofessionals would be helpful in this effort. DISSATISFIERS FOR TEACHERS
  26. 26. 26 Salary Possibility for growth Interpersonal relations Status Supervision Policy and administration Working conditions Job security Personal life HYGIENE Dissatisfiers lead to decreased performance. If provided for, these factors satisfy our maintenance-avoidance needs. Motivational potential is low for most people but hygienic potential (avoiding dissatification) is high. MONEY
  27. 27. 27 Money is not usually noted as a satisfier or dissatisfier. Two characteristics about people and money: 1) People always feel entitled to more money 2) Regardless of what salary - satisfaction is short-lived. The main motivational significance is “equality” Effective motivation is a matter of non-financial awards. HYGIENE SEEKERS Cluster into three groups: 1) Those that have the potential for motivation seeking, but are frustrated by insensitive and closed administrative, supervisory, and organizational policies and practices. 2) Those who have the potential for motivation seeking but who elect to channel this potential into other (nonprofessional or non-school) areas of their lives. 3) Those that do not have the potential for motivation seeking on or off the job. HYGIENE SEEKERS CONCERNED BY HYGIENIC FACTORS
  28. 28. 28 1) Salary 2) Working conditions 3) Supervision 4) Status 5) Security 6) School policies 7) Administration 8) Social relationships
  29. 29. 29 DIFFERENTIATING HYGIENE SEEKERS FROM MOTIVATION SEEKERS 1) Motivation seekers emphasize the nature of the task. Hygiene seekers emphasize the nature of the environment. 2) Motivation seekers are primarily committed to the goals of the school or profession and work to pursue these goals. Hygiene seekers are primarily committed to private goals or extraschool goals and work for rewards from the school which help to pursue or purchase these nonschool or nonprofessional goals. 3) Motivation seekers show higher, but not unlimited, tolerance for poor hygiene factors. Hygiene seekers display intermittent but chronic dissatisfaction with aspects of the work environment such as salary, supervision, working conditions, status, security, administrative policy, and fellow workers. 4) Motivation seekers show less reaction to improvement of hygiene factors. Hygiene seekers tend to overreact in satisfaction to hygiene factors. 5) Satisfaction is short-lived for motivational seekers when hygiene factors are improved.
  30. 30. 30 Satisfaction is short-lived for hygiene seekers when hygiene factors are improved. 6) Motivation seekers show milder discontent when hygiene factors need improvement. Hygiene seekers tend to overreact with dissatisfaction when hygiene factors are not improved. 7) Motivation seekers realize great satisfaction from accomplishments. Hygiene seekers realize little satisfaction from accomplishments. 8) Motivation seekers genuinely enjoy the kind of work they do. Hygiene seekers show little interest in the kid or quality of work they do. 9) Motivation seekers profit personally and professionally from experience. Hygiene seekers do not profit personally or professionally from experience. 10) Motivation seekers have positive feelings toward work and life. Hygiene seekers are generally cynical toward work and life. 11) Motivation seekers show sincere belief systems.
  31. 31. 31 Hygiene seekers are prone to cultural noises- i.e., take extreme positions that are fashionable, superficially espouse management philosophy, act more like top management than top management does. Learning Module 7
  32. 32. 32 PERSONNEL PRACTICES IN SCHOOLS “The Present Focus on Hygiene Needs” SECURITY Fairness Grievance Procedure Protection from parents Protection from students Support from administration Seniority and tenure Union and association membership MONETARY Salary schedules Retirement Sabbatical Sick leave Hospitalization Insurance Credit union Social security Annuity Mutual fund WORKING CONDITIONS
  33. 33. 33 Condition of the school Office and room space Lounge space Length of workday Number of students Hall duty Study hall assignments Parking facilities Lunch and rest periods Equipment Teaching schedule SOCIAL Work groups Coffee groups Social contacts Feelings of belonging and acceptance Professional groups STATUS
  34. 34. 34 Job definition Job title Classroom size and location Equipment Student type Class load Grade level Privileges SUPERVISION Recruitment Selection Assignment Orientation In-service programs Evaluation programs Work rules Communication channels Committee work ACHIEVEMENT AND RESPONSIBILITY
  35. 35. 35 “The Need Focus Is On Motivation Needs” Delegation of authority Participation Involvement Planning Goal Setting Freedom to act Visibility Accountability Creative expression Promotion RECOGNITION, PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL GROWTH Merit increases Differentiated responsibility Leadership role Committee responsibility Publications Innovations Supervisory responsibility Problem solving Aptitudes utilized A JOB ENRICHMENT MODEL
  36. 36. 36 The following is a brief description of job enrichment characteristics: 1) TASK VARIETY 2) Building into the teaching position a greater assortment of tasks. (breaking down teaching episodes into small parts, assigning them to “specialists.”) 2) TASK UNCERTAINTY Refers to tasks involving information processing and cognitive stimulation. Teaching tasks are viewed as problems to be solved rather than details to be conveyed to students. Tasks arranged in a mechanical way may not be very satisfying to many teachers. 3) SOCIAL INTERACTION Recognizes that individuals at work generally derive satisfaction from interacting with others. This interaction can be a source of satisfaction and a stimulus to building commitment and loyalty to the work group and school. Teaching is still a relatively private activity.
  37. 37. 37 4) TASK SIGNIFICANCE Refers to the perceived importance by teachers of the work to be done. Task significance requires an understanding and appreciation of what the educational program as a whole tries to accomplish and how one’s individual efforts fit into the large view. 5) TASK IDENTITY Requires that one have a larger view of what the school is about, and that one sees how his or her part contributes to the larger purpose. Fragmented curriculum formats, narrow departmentalization, and detailed teaching assignments tend to work against task identity. 6) RESPONSIBILITY FOR RESULTS Requires that teachers be given a great deal of discretion over task activities but held accountable for obtaining results. Teachers should be responsible for the classroom learning climate, patterns of verbal interactions, reading achievement, and so forth. 7) KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS Knowledge of results refers to feedback as to the quality of one’s performance.
  38. 38. 38 Clearly, without feedback it is difficult to derive satisfaction from accomplishment. Learning Module 8 TEACHERS: COSMOPOLITANS AND LOCALS
  39. 39. 39 Locals: The Dedicated -Are the “true believers” who support the school -Prefer school hire teachers with similar value systems. -Teachers and administrators of this type have very strong commitments to their school rather than distinctive professional roles within the school. Locals: The True Bureaucrats -Oppose NEA-AFT -Community and its people are more important than the school itself. -Salaries not too low -Teachers should not have more influence -Teachers should not have reduced teaching loads. -Want formal regulations Locals: The Home Guard - Least amount of professional specialization. - Little or no advanced study - Attend few meetings - No curricular work - Predominantly female. Husbands are “prominent” contributors to the school district. - Generally have personal reasons for expressing loyalty to the school. Locals: The Elders - Largest share of tenure in the school. - “Senior Citizens” of the school - Informal peer group; those who came to the organization at about the same
  40. 40. 40 time - Evaluate the present in terms of the past. Cosmopolitans: The Outsiders - Little loyalty to the school. - Do not intend to stay with the school. - Willing to leave the school for more money, better position, or more prestige. - No particularly close to students. - Likely to identify with an outside reference group. - Look outside the school for intellectual stimulation. Cosmopolitans: The Empire Builders - Enjoy high visibility outside the school. - Less dependent upon the school for economic reasons. - The empire builder remains on the lookout for a better position. -Like the outsider, he or she is committed to specialized areas and professional skills. Often complains that extracurricular activities are too heavy and distract his work. - Feel power is too concentrated in the hands of the administrators. ADAPTING TO THE SCHOOL BUREAUCRACY Upward Mobiles
  41. 41. 41 1) Strongly identifies with the school, its goals, its value system, its authority system, its tradition, or simply its way of doing things. 2) They need to be a part of the system--- to express loyalty, to provide support --- They receive generous rewards for expressing loyalty. 3) Upward Mobiles exhibit high job satisfaction and see a future for themselves in the school or district. 4) Strong identification with the school qualifies them for generous organizational rewards, including acceptance in the “in” group, promotion, status, as well as benefits which accrue outside of the school in terms of social and political rewards from the community. 5) School administrators and supervisors are flattered by subordinates who will follow them and their policies. Administrators reward them highly with unqualified confidence and support. 6) Since upward mobiles develop a pattern of accommodating to what is, little creativity can be expected of them. They are not interested in rocking the boat, or in any other situation which may place them at odds with superiors or with district. Indifferents
  42. 42. 42 1) Indifferents simply refuse to compete, to play the game for organizational success. 2) Indifferents have resolved personal-organizational differences by withdrawing from the school environment and by redirecting interests and talents to off-the- job sources of satisfaction. The club, family, hobby, and team receive emphasis beyond that which is typically expected from most individuals, whereas, the place of work is virtually ignored except as a source of security, salary to buy extra-job satisfactions they need. 3) Indifferents reject status, success, and power. 4) Indifferents seek security from the school and are attracted to circumstances which require them to contribute minimally to gain the security. 5) Indifferents are usually quiet, stay-out-of-the-way types who avoid calling attention to themselves. They hope to avoid high performance standards. Ambivalents
  43. 43. 43 1) Ambivalent cannot reject the rewards of power and success their organization offers them, nor can they perform the necessary roles--- in particular, adopt the perspective of upward mobiles--- in order to attain power and success. 2) Ambivalents are introverts, have deep intellectual interest, specialized knowledge, high aspirations, skilled professional know-how, idealistic perspectives, and a high tolerance for ambiguity. 3) Ambivalents are doubtful and fearful of authority systems other than merit. 4) Ambivalents lose sight of practical realism and “pet” solutions. 5) Ambivalents are self-conscious and anxious. 6) Ambivalents are critical of the establishment. 7) They are demanding of others and themselves. 8) Ambivalents have much to offer the school in terms of professional talent and intellectual commitment, yet they frequently have difficulty with their organization as they work to make their commitment. 9) A major problem facing school administration is allowing and encouraging ambivalents to function adequately within organizational structures. Ambivalents must function if schools are to meet their expanded commitments. 10) School administrators must legalize the expert authority ambivalents typically posses and backing it up with appropriate resources.
  44. 44. 44 ADJUSTMENT: WORK PSYCHOPATHOLOGY CATERGORIES 1) Individuals who have serious deficiencies in all aspects of work motivation. 2) Individuals whose predominate response to the job is manifested as fear and anxiety. 3) Individuals who are openly hostile and continuously aggressive. 4) Individuals who show symptoms of marked dependency. 5) Individuals who display a marked degree of social naïveté. Learning Module 9 The School’s Organizational Structure
  45. 45. 45 According to Weber’s formulations, characteristics of bureaucracy are: 1) A well-defined hierarchy of offices. Authority is allocated through these offices. Organizational chart outlines hierarchal authority. Position titles, furnish important clues as to what “competence” is associated with that office. 2) Selection of office holders on the basis of technical qualifications. Certificates, licenses, and diplomas provide evidence that one has achieved a minimum level of qualification. Incumbents are appointed rather than elected to office. 3) Remuneration received in the form of fixed salaries, with officeholder treating the office as the primary, if not sole, occupation and considering it a career. Most educational administrators in public schools do not moonlight; thus the salary they receive is their only income. Most are also waiting and working for promotion. 4) Officeholders are subject to organizational developed rules and regulations in the conduct of their offices.
  46. 46. 46 Predictability is increased by assuring a reasonable degree of stability. 5) Rules and regulations that are impersonal in nature. Officeholders are expected to perform their functions quite independently of their personal selves. CHESTER BARNARD Identifies the beneficial and disruptive effects of differentiating rewards and status between and among individuals as follows: 1) Recognizes differential abilities - “Beneficial” Leads to distorted evaluation of individuals - “Disruptive” 2) Recognizes differential difficulty of various kinds of work - “Beneficial” Restricts the circulation of the elite - “Disruptive” 3) Recognizes differential importance of various kinds of work - “Beneficial” Distorts the system of distributive justice - “Disruptive”
  47. 47. 47 3) Recognizes the value of formal status as a social or organizational tool. “Beneficial” Exaggerates administration to the detriment of leadership and morale. “Disruptive” 5) Protects the integrity of the individual - “Beneficial” Exalts the symbolic functions beyond the level of sustainment (Attitudes and behavior come to be expected which status incumbents cannot fulfill.) “Disruptive” Limits the adaptability of an organization. “Disruptive” HAGE’S AXIOMATIC THEORY
  48. 48. 48 ORGANIZATIONAL MEANS (1-4) 1) Complexity (specialization) -Number of occupational specialties. -Level of trainings required. 2) Centralization (Hierarchy of authority) - Proportion of jobs that participate in decision-making. - Number of areas in which decisions are made by decision-makers. 3) Formalization (standardization) - Proportion of jobs that are codified. - Range of variation allowed within jobs. 4) Stratification (status system) - Differences in income and prestige among jobs. - Rate of mobility between low and high ranking jobs or status levels. ORGANIZATIONAL ENDS (5-8) 5) Adaptiveness (flexibility)
  49. 49. 49 - Number of new programs in a year. - Number of new techniques in a year. 6) Production (effectiveness) - Number of units produced per year. - Rate of increase in units per year. 7) Efficiency (cost) - Cost per unit of output per year. - Amount of idle resources per year. 8) Job Satisfaction (morale) - Satisfaction with working conditions. - Rate of turnover in job occupants per year. PRINCIPLES FOR STRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENTS
  50. 50. 50 School administrators have functional responsibilities which come from legal requirements and from the work group which they are members. The following are guidelines for the organization: 1) Initial decisions about employment of staff, allocation of resources, development and modification of programs, and evaluation of staff and program should be made by the work group most directly affected. 2) Operational and evaluative procedures should focus on goal achievement (behaviors, tasks, functions to be performed) rather than control. 3) Functional responsibilities should be assigned on the basis of competence rather than position. This requires that more attention be given to what constitutes competence, given a certain function. 4) Rewards should be based on job performance rather than on location in the school’s structure. Learning Module 10
  51. 51. 51 FRENCH AND RAVEN- FIVE TYPES OF POWER AVAILABLE TO SCH. ADMINISTRATORS 1) REWARD Subordinates perceive that the administrator can withhold, permit, or increase rewards. 2) COERCIVE Subordinates perceive that the administrator can distribute punishment (e.g. dismissal, undesirable assignments). Coercion could involve physical force. 3) LEGITIMATE Subordinates perceive that the school administrator, by virtue of position and status within a duly constitutional hierarchy, has the right to expect what is expected. 4) REFERENT Subordinates perceive the school administrator as a desirable and appropriate human model and want to be perceived reciprocally- thus demands are accepted. 5) EXPERT Subordinates perceive the administrator to possess relevant expertise.
  52. 52. 52 PERCEPTIONS OF BASES OF AUTHORITY IN AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (N=20) Authority of legitimacy 35 Authority of position 60 Authority of competence 45 Authority of person 15 No source specified 15 Learning Module 11
  53. 53. 53 ROLE PERFORMANCE AND THE EXECUTIVES FUNCTION: ALTERNATIVE STYLES The three following stereotypes focus attention on the school administrator in the performance of the characteristic super-ordinate sub role. o THE TASKMASTER o THE SYMPATHIZER o THE CALCULATOR 1) THE TASKMASTER a) This is the school administrator who is all business” and if necessary at the expense of need satisfaction. b) Strict adherence to expectations characterize job behavior. c) Minimum hours, due dates for reports, attendance at meetings, following curriculum guides are the minimum that should be performed by teachers. d) District personnel policies and other procedures clearly outline the behavior of the taskmaster principle. e) Conflict between organizational demands against personal needs are easy for the taskmaster to resolve. f) District personnel policy relating to leaves; the selection, adoption, and use of textbooks and other materials; graduation requirements; student behavior;
  54. 54. 54 administrator, teacher and student leaving school; the use of facilities; and teacher-student rations clearly outline the behavior for the principle, teacher, student and parent according to the taskmaster superintendent, supervisor of instruction, etc. g) Conflicts in expectations are resolved by looking to the job demand or description. h) Tendency of the taskmaster administrator to search for answers in the direction of established patterns. i) As long as expectations are met relations may be quite pleasant. j) The taskmaster is predictable in terms of role behavior. 2) THE SYMPATHIZER a) The sympathizer refuses to permit organizational demands to obstruct attention to personal needs, interests, and aspirations. b) Rules, procedures, patterns of performing are for suspending if they conflict with an individual’s desires. c) Meetings called for the purpose of identifying problems are likely to be devoted to extraneous matters or to the expressions of personal or ego gratification.
  55. 55. 55 d) The sympathizer’s zealous concern for people gives the appearance of indecisiveness. e) Sympathizer relates well to virtually anyone, especially initially. Thus the colleague, subordinate, and community liaison sub roles are easier to perform whereas the super ordinate sub role is most difficult. f) Efforts are made to accomplish organizational demands, but not at the expense of individual concerns. g) Goal conflicts affecting expectations are resolved by finding alternatives least disruptive to individual or group needs. h) Sympathizers may or may not be handshaking, “don’t you worry” type. Quiet, dignified people may also be sympathizers. i) Sympathizer is predictable in terms of role behavior. 3) THE CALCULATOR
  56. 56. 56 a) The calculator calculates potential conflicts between organizational demands and individual needs, interests, and aspirations and systematically moves between the two roles. b) In unyielding situations, conflict issues and decisions are willingly negotiated. c) The calculator conforms to the commonly role description of the successful politician. d) Calculator tends to emphasize organizational demands when performing the subordinate sub role, and individual needs, interests, and aspirations when performing the super ordinate sub role. Calculator changes when one moves to satisfaction of individual needs. Learning Module 12
  57. 57. 57 Five assumptions about conflict, interest group, and decision processes which are central in viewing school as political systems: 1) Conflict is natural, and is to be expected in a dynamic organization. Conflict is not abnormal, nor is it necessarily a symptom of a breakdown in the organization’s community. 2) The organization is fragmented into many power blocs and interest groups, and it is natural that they will try to influence policy so that their values and goals are given primary consideration. 3) In all organizations small groups of political elites govern most of the major decisions. However this does not mean that one elite group governs everything; the decisions may be divided up, with different elite groups controlling different decisions. 4) Formal authority, as prescribed by the bureaucratic system, is severely limited by the political pressure and bargaining tactics that groups can exert against authorities. Decisions are not simply orders. Officials are not free simply to order decisions; instead they have to jockey between interest groups, hoping to build viable compromises among powerful blocs. 5) External interest groups have a great deal of influence over the organization, and internal groups do not have the power to make policies in a vacuum.
  58. 58. 58 CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATIONS RESEARCH 1. Latent conflict Is concerned with the conditions which are underlying sources of conflict. (Competition for scarce resources and contradictory goals ripen possibility of conflict.) 2) Perceived conflict Principal parties (individuals or groups) cognitively are aware of conflict conditions. (That is, some misunderstanding or muddle communication channel leads the primary teachers to believe that they may lose importance to the special education teachers when such is not the case.) 3) Felt conflict Conflict condition becomes translated into feeling (hatred, jealousy, withdrawn, anxiety, self-pity, rivalry) In this stage, conflict becomes personalized. In administration ethics require tension reduction and with depersonalizing the nature of the conflict. 4) Manifest conflict
  59. 59. 59 Includes actual display of conflict behavior. At one extreme the behavior is very obvious (physical or verbal violence) and at the other end very subtle (implicit bargaining during a group decision-making activity). 5) Conflict aftermath If the conflict is genuinely resolved to the satisfaction of all participants, the basis for a more cooperative relationship may be laid. If conflict is suppressed but not resolved, the latent conflict may explode in a more serious form until rectified or until relationship dissolves. Three Types of Conflict Internal to the Organization 1) BARGAINING CONFLICT Conflict among individuals and groups with specific interests who are competing for scarce resources. 2) BUREAUCRATIC CONFLICT Conflict between individuals and groups at different levels of the hierarchy who are competing for scarce resources. 3) SYSTEMS CONFLICT Conflict between individuals and groups at the same level of the hierarchy.
  60. 60. 60 THE POLITICAL MODEL The following in summarizing the play of the game of politics: 1) Actions - Merge neither as the calculated choice of a unified group or as a formal summary of leaders’ preferences. Action is shared power and separate judgments concerning important choices. 2) Environment – Where the game is played; uncertainty about what must be done; the necessity that something be done and crucial consequences of whatever is done. 3) Pace of the game - Hundreds of issues, numerous games, and multiple channels – compels players to fight “to get other attention” to make them “see the facts” and “take time” to think about broader issue. 4) Structure of the game - Power shared by individuals with separate responsibilities- validates each player’s feeling that “others don’t see my problem” and “others must be persuaded to look at the issue from a different perspective. 5) Rules of the game – He who hesitates loses his chance to play at that point, and he who is uncertain about his recommendation is overpowered by others
  61. 61. 61 who are sure—pressures players to come down on one side of a 51-49 issue and play. 6) Rewards of the game - Effectiveness, i.e., impact on outcomes as the immediate measure of performance—encourages hard play. Module 13
  62. 62. 62 COMMUNITY POWER STRUCTURES Summary of four community power structures: - PYRAMIDAL - FACTIONAL OR CAUCUS - COALITIONAL OR POLYLITHIC - AMORPHOUS 1) Pyramidal structure Characterized by a single group of individuals who make decisions 2) Factional or Caucus structure Characterized by at least two relatively durable groups; vie for decision- making power. 3) Coalitional or Polylithic The nature of issues to be decided determines the interested individuals and groups who form coalitions that shift and/or disappear over time. 4) Amorphous Term used to describe the absence of any persistent pattern of individuals or groups who make/control decisions. SACRED & SECULAR COMMUNITIES
  63. 63. 63 1) A sacred society is one that elicits from or imparts to its members, by means of sociation, unwillingness and/or inability to respond to the culturally new as the new is defined by those member in terns of the society’s existing culture. (a high degree of resistance to change) 2) A secular society is one that elicits from or imparts to its members, by means of sociation, willingness and ability to respond to the culturally new as the new is defined by those members in terns of the society’s existing culture. (a high degree of readiness and capacity to change) PLACID & TURBULENT ENVIRONMENTS 1) PLACID ENVIRONMENTS Relatively stable and fundamentally predictable. Characterized by individuals who interact about and with the school organization on specific issues and in a disorganized fashion. No attempt to include broad support. 2) PLACID, CLUSTERED ENVIRONMENT Relatively stable and predictable. characterized by individuals who share, in some generally recognized patterns, interests, goals, and concerns for the schools. (Chamber of Commerce, PTA, Taxpayer groups, ethnic groups, are examples of organizations the sch. administrator interacts. 3) DISTURBED – REACTIVE ENVIRONMENT
  64. 64. 64 Multiple groups and/or organizations of the same kind but not necessarily desiring the same input or outcome from the school organization. Multiple competing organizations are generally known by the school organization. 4) TURBULENT FIELDS ENVIRONMENT Have characteristics of the disturbed-reactive environments, plus the nature of the issues and processes for settling them are constantly changing as well. Not only are the actors changing by so is the script and art form. (demand on the board focuses turbulence on the administrators) THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATOR AS COMMUNITY RESOURCE DEVELOPER
  65. 65. 65 1. Assumptions about the interests and capabilities of individuals and groups in the community: a) Most parents and citizens have legitimate interests in the effective functioning of schools. b) A majority of the individuals and groups are capable of increased understanding of and contribution to policy making for schools. 2. Assumptions about school administrator behavior: a) Administrator’s task is to help the board of education create and environment that facilitates the involvement of individuals and groups in the definition of education in schools and means to obtain resources to operate schools that approximate that definition. b) The administrators should lead in the development of structures to mediate conflicts in the definition of education and ways in which that definition can be implemented. c) The school administrator could attempt to expand the opportunities for individuals and groups to increase their knowledge of schools and to engage in reciprocal influence exchanges with educators in the schools. 3. Assumptions about expectations for processes and ends:
  66. 66. 66 a) In the long term the quality of community and school interaction will improve as individuals and groups increase understanding and engage in reciprocal influence exchanges. b) Parents and citizens will exercise responsible self-direction and control and will increase their overall support for the school policies and programs they have helped to develop. c) Overall satisfaction with the schools will increase as community-school interaction improves the quality of schooling for pupils and concurrently helps individuals and groups develop. Learning Module 14
  67. 67. 67 LEADERSHIP CONCERNS FOR THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATOR - Administrator’s behavior - Development of others - Group leadership functions a) Administrator’s behavior - The administrator must enjoy the limelight. - Failure to direct or coordinate group activities necessary to change and/or achieve goals is an abdication of leadership responsibility. - Administrator’s failure to direct and coordinate is a sign of incompetence as a leader. - There are activities within the immediate work context of the school administrator which demand action. The school administrator who forever fails personally to suggest “structures” for these activities is abdicating the leader role. b) Development of others
  68. 68. 68 The leadership potential in others in the school system in important for three different reasons: 1) Effective movement toward goal achievement requires the efforts of numerous groups. (Energetic leadership by the superintendent is thwarted by failures of principals to behave in a similar manner.) 2) The school’s manifest function is the development of human resources---its pupils. The schools professional employees should obviously enjoy the same attention. Professionally oriented individuals should suggest that they are prepared to groups. (Energetic leadership by the superintendent is thwarted by failures of principals to behave in a similar manner.) 3) The school’s manifest function is the development of human resources---its pupils. The schools professional employees should obviously enjoy the same attention. Professionally oriented individuals should suggest that they are prepared to exercise leadership in selected areas of activities. 4) Certain individuals are able to perform one kind of function better than other individuals. Since the total organizational performance is related to the extent in witch all of the functions are performed, the administrator, as leader, must be concerned with the development of leadership potential in others in the school.
  69. 69. 69 c. Group leadership functions 1) Two essential sets of conditions which must exist in any formalized school group for existence: a) Goal achievement activities. b) Group maintenance activities. 2) Leader is concerned with identifying and defining the problem; defining criteria for acceptable solutions; and providing information, seeking opinions, and so forth. LEADERSHIP: A SYNTHESIS The primary components of leadership consist of four sets of variables:
  70. 70. 70 - LEADER BEHAVIOR - GROUP TASKS - SPECIFIC LEADERSHIP FUNCTIONS RELATED TO GROUP TASKS - VARIABLES OF INTERVENTION a) Leader behavior - Specific behavioral acts which call attention to the accomplishment of whatever task the group is working toward --- task behavior. - Behavior recognizes the presence of the human element and defers to the basic human considerations of security, respect, dignity, autonomy and worth-person behavior. b) Group tasks - Goal achievement refers to those tasks for which the group was formed and continues to exist. Schools exist to further the education of their students --- through the teaching of reading, preparation for life, the learning of occupational skills, and so forth. Group maintenance refers to those tasks which keep the work group reasonably cohesive, thus enabling goal achievement.
  71. 71. 71 Note: Major difficulty with goal achievement and group maintenance dichotomy is the tendency to consider the former more important and the latter unimportant. c) Specific leadership functions related to group tasks -Making the group aware of the need for new or different action --- awareness - Clarifying alternative ends and strategies--- settling on action - Accepting and initiating a preferred end approach--- implementing - Monitoring of progress toward the preferred end approach--- processing - Introducing evaluative data---evaluating - Concluding group activity on particular end or approach--- concluding - Making the group aware of its results--- feedback d) Variables of intervention - Leader-member relations (psychological togetherness) - Task structure - Position power of the leader. (Control of the leader by virtue of being designated leader) DANGERS OF REACTIVE PLANNING
  72. 72. 72 1. Stability is prized - Periods of inaction are welcome, for they resemble equilibrium and satisfy the need to eliminate uncertainty. -Stress is kept to a minimum. This is Management by Appeasement geared to bring about semblance of calm and stability with costs in quality and principals. 2. Defensive management is encouraged - Reactive strategies often result in administrators evaluating decision alternatives in terms of their own safety, security, and status. - Responding to stress which is beyond control soon makes the administrator obsessed with his/her own survival. 3. Paternalism is encouraged - Defensive management leads to the establishment of alliances. Decisions are often made on the basis of favoritism and protective trade-offs. - Kingdoms are encouraged, and special-interest groups emerge as protective lobbies. - Since little attention is given to future planning, uncertainty is actually increased. - Information is scarce and prized.
  73. 73. 73 - The communications network becomes a control mechanism and reward granting device, with school administrators buying loyalty from subordinates. - Buying loyalty from subordinates by permitting the some access to the communications network. -People feel safer when they have some notion of what is going on and will pay for this safety with loyalty. 4. Long range planning forfeited -Reactive strategies are short-term survival --- and maintenance-oriented. -Little attention is given to long-term goals and directions. -Although the elimination of uncertainty is important for today, tomorrow’s problems are guaranteed because no deliberate attention is given to the future. 5. Educational goals assume the lowest status - In each case educational goals and the welfare of students are displaced by organizational and administrative needs, goals, and demands. - School administrators and teachers become defense bound and react to stimuli primarily in terms of promoting their own safety, security and status.
  74. 74. 74 - Self-actualization of students and commitment to other educational goals are indeed luxuries under such conditions. NORMATIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE VIEWS OF PLANNING Most authorities agree that educational leadership requires proactive postures from school administrators. This proactive view with its emphasis on planning is a normative theory of administration--- one which specifies or prescribes what school administrators should do. Descriptive theories attempt to provide a more accurate picture of what school administrators actually do. Reactive planning is more familiar to administrators because it is a more realistic portrayal or description of their world. Contrasting key elements of normative and descriptive views of planning are as follows:
  75. 75. 75 NORMATIVE (Proactive) DESCRIPTVIE (Reactive) 1) Setting of optimum objectives. (Normative or Proactive) Setting of satisfying objectives. (Descriptive or Reactive) 2) Decisions geared to maximizing organizational performance. (Normative or Proactive) Decisions geared to protecting one’s self-interest. 3) Quantitative techniques used to make quality decisions. (Normative or Proactive) Decisions made subjectively. (Descriptive or Reactive) 4) Decisions are socially responsible. (Normative or Reactive) Decisions made in the best interest of administrator’s and organizations. 5) Strategies developed in response to forecasts and needs. (Normative or Reactive)
  76. 76. 76 Strategies developed in response to changes in the environment. (Descriptive or Reactive) Comment: Proactive administration is clearly far superior to reactive administration. SELECTING AN APPROPRIATE MANAGEMENT APPROACH a) For administrative and management functions. b) For instructional and curricular functions. b) When dealing with things and people. d) When control of activities in pursuit of goals is needed. e) When the focus is on problem solving and creative solutions. f) When problems are simple and readily specified. g) When goals are ambiguous and complex. h) When problems are easily quantified. i) When problems are difficult to quantify. j) When you want the plan to take control – automatic pilot.
  77. 77. 77 k) When you want people to take control – live! l) When the consequences of error are small and not serious. l) When the consequences of error are large and very serious. m) When you need a plan that is enduring. n) When you need a plan that is responsive to change. o) When ability and knowledge are high in the organization. p) When ability and knowledge are low in the organization. q) When ability and knowledge are high in the organization. r) When ability and knowledge are low in the organization. s) When programmed decision-making is needed. t) When flexible decision-making is needed.
  78. 78. 78 Learning Module 16 ADMINSTRATIVE EFFECTIVENESS FOR SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS 1) THE BELIEF SYSTEM a) Values and beliefs form a crucial part of educational planning, decision-making, and implementation. b) All educational activity needs to be guided by a value system unique to educational youngsters in a free society. c) School administrators must examine carefully and evaluate their values and beliefs about people, education, and administration. d) School administrators must develop and awareness for the beliefs of others--- including students, parents, teachers, and the community. e) It is through the belief system that administrative and educational goals are generated. 2) THE HUMAN SYSTEM a) The growth and development of the human organization of the human organization receives primary attention by school administrators interested in administrative effectiveness. b) Indeed, if growth is valued in youngsters, the school will need to become a growing organization for all. c) Administrators need to support the development of human resources. 3) THE ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEM
  79. 79. 79 a) Schools are formal organizations. b) Like other formal organizations, schools have “needs” over and above those given to them by people. c) Schools achieve their purposes through people who are differentiated by task, role and function. d) People and schools are put into motion by power and authority--- both internal, such as motivation, and external, such as coercion. e) Certain organizational personalities emerge based on how the school is organized, how power is distributed and used, and what goals enjoy a privileged position --- which help identify one school from another. f) The interface (common boundary) between person and organization varies from school to school and from person to person, depending on a number of factors. -g)Dimensions of organization power distribution and use, and the character of interaction between human being and organization have critical effects on the nature and quality of organizational effort, educational decision-making, and administrative effectiveness. 4) THE POLITICAL SYSTEM
  80. 80. 80 a) Schools operate in a political environment and are themselves political organizations. -b) Of concern to school administrators is the school’s vulnerability to outside political forces. c) Internal politics are greatly magnified these days. They forces the school administrator into the role of bargainer and negotiator rather than leader: The problem is not one of either/ but one of balance. -d) Political behavior within schools can be managed by building and nurturing organizational patriotism. Comment: This requires closer matching of individual goals and aspirations with those of the school - a leadership, not bargaining task. 5) THE ACTION SYSTEM a) Planning, deciding, and leading are the main components of the action system. -b) The action system provides insights into developing action strategies which are directed toward the achievement of people’s goals, educational goals, and school goals. -c) Administrative effectiveness depends upon one’s leadership functions are performed, that leadership emerges from a variety of sources and is not held to be the exclusive province of school administrators. d) Leaders bring to their jobs a sense of vision and purpose which adds rich meaning to their lives, the lives of others, and the activities of the school.
  81. 81. 81 Comment: a) A critical quality of any leader is that he is profoundly convinced that his vision of what ought to be or could be has a dramatic significance for the lives of those for and with whom he works. b) He is caught up with the drama and excitement of what he and his subordinates are doing, and he communicates and shares them with subordinates. c) When speaking of educational leaders, we must add the quality of a continuous, lived experience of learning, in which the educational leader shares with his subordinates his zest for expanding his own understanding and appreciation of the human epic. Copyright © 2008 by William Allan Kritsonis All Rights Reserved/Forever
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