Learning Module 1
FORCES INFLUENTIAL IN DECISION MAKING
a) Administrative behavior influenced by assumptions they hold for themselves,
subordinates, and for human nature.
b) Beliefs held about schools and society, educational goals, school management, authority,
and organizational arrangements are modifiers of behavior.
c) A value system which arranges beliefs and preferences in some systematic way affects
his or her decision-making behavior.
d) Personality idiosyncrasies which are developed as a result of socialization as a child,
adult, educator, and school administrator affect decision-making behavior.
Forces in the Human System
a) The importance of linking administration and ethics is evidenced by the fact that schools
are basically human organizations.
b) Forces in the human system- needs, wants, aspirations, hopes and beliefs of teachers,
students and administrators are modifiers of administrative behavior and educational
Forces in the Organization
a) Forces in the organization are potential influences of educational decision-making.
Includes structural characteristics that contribute to it’s mode of operation.
b) Schools develop organizational personalities, conceptually similar to human personality-
organ styles, authority styles, and organ dynamics.
c) Although schools are similar- no two schools are alike.
Forces in the Environment
a) These are the broader political and cultural components of the school as exemplifies in
the schools interaction with its community historically and presently.
b) Considers the schools legal entity in a broader matrix of regional, state, and federal
government, and its vulnerability as a public organization responsive to public demands
from a variety of pressure groups.
Learning Module 2
CONFLICT BETWEEN BUREAUCRATIC AND PROFESSIONAL VALUES
1) Bureaucratic stress uniformity of students’ problems and needs; standardized inputs.
Professional expectations stress uniqueness of students’ problems and needs; variable
2) Bureaucratic expectations stress universal application of rules: fairness. Professional
expectations stress is on achievement of goals.
3) Bureaucratic expectations stress skill based on practice: experience differentials in status
and rank. Professional expectations stress skill based on knowledge: merit differentials in
status and rank.
4) Bureaucratic expectations emphasize decisions focus on application of rules to
routine problems. Professional expectations emphasize decisions focus on
application of policy and knowledge to unique problems.
5) Bureaucratic expectations stress hierarchal legal authority. Professional expectations
stress ability- professional authority.
6) Bureaucratic expectations stress loyalty to the school, its administration and trustees.
Professional expectations stress loyalty to the profession and students.
A Philosophy for School Administrators
1) Understanding of the web of tension which he/she is a part.
2) Consciousness of responsibility to the public interest.
3) Unwarranted optimism about the future.
Administration and the Web of Tension
a) Extreme differences in teaching, talent, and power trends keep tension constant.
b) Father-knows-best is out in today’s world.
c) Increased reliance on participatory administration.
d) Increase community activity, formal and informal.
e) Disagreement, dialogue, controversy, negotiations all contribute to tensions.
The Public Interest
a) Encompasses the needs of youth, society, community and profession.
b) Deciding what the public interest is a decision the school administrator must make based
upon identifiable value systems.
c) Governmental agencies, professional organizations, scholars, philosophers, etc., help to
identify short and long term public interest.
d) Public interest issue is very important. School administrators should seek input
from various sectors:
Student Advisory Groups
.....Other relevant sources
Optimism about the Future
a) Optimism allows the administrator to give direction and stimulus to the development of
meaningful educational programs which serve the public interest.
b) A faith in learning
c) A commitment to adulthood
d) A fundamental spirit of optimism.
1) HARD CORE VALUES
Hard core values are accepted by all but the most deviant members of the school’s
2) FREEDOM ZONE VALUES
“Freedom Zone Values” are accepted by most members of the school’s society but
the level of commitment varies for people, cliques, or groups within the society.
Skill Levels of Supervisors
- Technical skills
- Human skills
- Conceptual skills
1) TECHNICAL SKILLS
The ability to use knowledge, methods and techniques to perform specific tasks.
The mechanics associated with writing a lesson plan, developing a study unit,
equipping a learning-resource center, purchasing, preparing a meeting agenda,
filling out reports, etc, are examples of technical skills.
2) HUMAN SKILLS
Refer to one’s ability and judgment in working with and through people.
This skill requires self-understanding and acceptance as well as consideration
Human skills include an understanding of, and facility for, leadership
effectiveness, adult motivation, attitudinal development, group dynamics, and
the development of human resources.
3) CONCEPTUAL SKILLS
Refer to the supervisors’ ability to view the school, the system, and the
educational program as a whole.
This skill requires the effective mapping of the interdependence between
components of the school as an organizational system.
Conceptual skill requires an understanding of the interdependencies that exist
between developing and establishing:
- humane organization
- articulating a humane administrative- supervisory system
- developing a humane educational program
Though each of the skill levels is universally present in administrative and supervisory
positions, conceptual skills are emphasized more by administrators and technical skills
more by supervisory personnel, who are for the most part concerned with the day-to-
day work of the school.
Mean Rankings of Power Bases
Bases of Power of Office College Liberal Arts Insurance
Legitimate 4.1 3.6 3.3
Expert 3.5 4.1 3.8
Referent 2.9 3.5 2.5
Reward 2.7 2.3 2.8
Coercive 1.9 1.6 1.8
NOTE: 5.0 highest 1.0 lowest
Learning Module 3
THEORY X and THEORY Y
1) People inherently dislike work and will avoid it if they can.
2) People must be coerced, controlled, directed, and threatened in order to make them work.
3) The average human being prefers to be directed, wished to avoid responsibility and has
relatively little ambition.
1) The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.
2) People can exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which
they are committed.
3) The average human being learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek
(McGregor’s Theory X and Y)
Theory X- Decision Making
1) Close supervision
2) One-way communication
3) Strategy planning by top leaders only
4) Decision-making at the top level only
5) A handing down of decisions to be implemented by middle management
6) A handing down of instructions to be carried out by the workers.
7) Nothing goes up except reports
Theory Y – Decision - Making
1) Two-way communication
2) Involvement in goal setting, planning, and decision-making at each level
3) Larger spans of control
4) Greater decentralization
5) Greater use of team management.
Eupsychian Management Assumptions
“Eupsychia” means moving toward psychological health or “healthward.” Eupsychian
management is a manifest effort to bring optimum growth and development to all who are in
contact with the school.
1. Assume everyone is to be trusted.
2. Assume everyone is to be informed as completely as possible of as many facts and truths
3. Assume in all your people they impulse to achieve.
4. Assume that there is no dominance – subordination hierarchy in the jungle sense or
5. Assume that everyone will have the same ultimate managerial objectives and will identify
with them no matter where they are in the organization or in the hierarchy.
6. Eupsychian economics must assume good will among all the members of the organization
rather than rivalry or jealousy.
7. Assume the “Ability to Admire.”
8. We must assume that they people in the Eupsychian plants (schools) are not fixated at the
9. Assume an active trend to self-actualization.
10. Assume that everyone can enjoy good team work, friendship, good group spirit, good
harmony, good belongingness, and group love.
11. Assume hostility to be primarily reactive rather than character-based.
12. Assume that people can take it.
13. Eupsychian management assumes that people are improvable.
14. Assume that everyone prefers to feel important, needed, useful, successful, proud,
respected, rather than unimportant, interchangeable, anonymous, wasted, unused,
15. Assume that everyone prefers or perhaps even needs to love his boss (rather than to hate
him) and that everyone prefers to respect his boss (rather than to disrespect him)
16. Eupsychian management assumes everyone prefers to be a prime mover rather than a
17. Assume a tendency to improve things... to put things right, make things better, to do
18. Assume that growth occurs through delight and through boredom.
19. Assume preference for being a whole person and not a part, not a thing, or an implement,
or tool, or “hand”.
20. Assume the preference for working rather than being idle.
21. Assume the preference for personhood, uniqueness as a person, identity (in contrast to
being anonymous or interchangeable)
22. We must assume the wisdom and the efficacy of self-choice.
23. We must assume that everyone likes to be justly and fairly appreciated, preferably in
24. Assume that everyone but especially the more developed person refers responsibility to
dependency and passivity most of the time.
25. The general assumption is that people will get more pleasure out of loving rather than
they will out of hating.
26. Assume that fairly well-developed people would rather be interested than destroy.
27. Assume that fairly well-developed people would rather be interested than be bored.
28. We must ultimately assume at the highest theoretical levels of Eupsychian theory, a
preference or a tendency to identify with more and more of the world, or peak experience,
29. We must assume the defense and growth dialectic for all these positive trends that have
already been listed above.
Learning Module 4
DIFFERENTIATING BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE MANAGEMENT
1) Power over money, organization and personnel rests in the hands of the
legislature, school code, and local school board rather than in the hands of
2) Measures of progress toward goals are difficult to devise. What are the school
measures of good citizenship, intellectual enrichment, problem-solving ability,
independent thinking, a desire to learn, economic sufficiency, and effective family
These are contrasted with the reality understood and quantifiable economic objectives
of private organizations.
3) Public accounting to which the school is subjected is designed to control current
expenditures as contrasted with business accounting, that tends to support future
planning, research, and development.
4) Tenure laws and civil service laws tend to protect educational workers from the
control of administrators and supervisors.
5) School purposes and organizational processes designed to achieve these purposes
are influenced indirectly by administrators through individuals and groups ( a
political process) rather than directly by administrators (a management process)
6) Goals and objectives are often unclear and contradictory. The latent custodial
functions of schools for example, contradict the manifest self-actualization functions.
7) No market exists to determine effectiveness. Expensive special educational
programs, for example, are maintained for political and legal reasons, though, if
subjected to a market economy, general consumer interest would not likely be
sufficient to sustain them. By comparison, product lines of firms are thinned out by a
8) Resources are distributed on the basis of formula and other approximations of
“equity” rather than on “merit”. Allocating greater resources to “high producing”
schools, for example, would be considered fraudulent.
9) Administrators work with an array of people whose careers are outside of
10) Administrators are expected to accomplish goals in less time than normally
allowed to managers of business firms.
11) A tight coupling exists between means and ends or products and processes.
Schooling is a human activity with human ends.
12) Many objectives are pursued with scarce resources as contrasted with the business
firm, which allocates more resources to fewer, indeed more focused objectives.
Note: American business is inappropriate for discussing and evaluating public
management. In the public sector, purpose, organization and people do not have the
same meaning and significance that they have in business.
Learning Module 5
MASLOW-EXAMPLES OF HUMAN NEED SATISFACTION
1) Physical Needs
On the job--> working conditions
Off the job--> money to purchase the necessities of life
2) Security Needs
On the job--> Job security - Sick leave
Off the job--> Money for economic security
3) Social Needs
On the job--> Social interactions on job – Company parties
Off the job--> Social clubs -Neighborhood parties – Sports - Activities
4) Ego Needs
On the job--> Position, title, office size (carpets), parking, and so forth
Off the job--> Money for status symbol (Neighborhood Country Club
5) Self-Fulfillment Needs
On the job--> Self expression – Sense of achievement and growth
On the job--> Money for hobbies
“Do and be what you feel you are born to be”
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS
1) Physiological Needs (food and shelter)
2) Safety Needs (protection against danger, threat, deprivation)
3) Social Needs (belonging, association, acceptance by social groups)
4) Ego Needs (self-esteem, recognition, status)
5) Self-Fulfillment Needs (creativity, self-actualization, self- realization)
Note: A satisfied need is no longer a motivator
MASLOW’S HEIRARCHY- TWO CATERGORIES
SATISFIERS FOR TEACHERS
Satisfiers lead to increased performance as they focus on our growth-approach
Motivational potential is high for most people.
DISSATISFACTION FOR TEACHERS
1) Poor interpersonal relations
2) Incompetent, inadequate, or unfair administrative and supervisory practices
3) Matters external to the school which comprise one’s personal life
MOTIVATION FOR TEACHERS
1) Providing opportunities for teachers to advance within the ranks of
2) Altering responsibilities among the various teaching roles and keying
advancement to responsibility
3) Eliminating aspects of the work itself which are sources of dissatisfaction
for teachers, thereby salvaging this factor as a motivator. Use of
paraprofessionals would be helpful in this effort.
DISSATISFIERS FOR TEACHERS
Possibility for growth
Policy and administration
Dissatisfiers lead to decreased performance. If provided for, these factors satisfy
our maintenance-avoidance needs. Motivational potential is low for most people
but hygienic potential (avoiding dissatification) is high.
Money is not usually noted as a satisfier or dissatisfier.
Two characteristics about people and money:
1) People always feel entitled to more money
2) Regardless of what salary - satisfaction is short-lived.
The main motivational significance is “equality”
Effective motivation is a matter of non-financial awards.
Cluster into three groups:
1) Those that have the potential for motivation seeking, but are frustrated by
insensitive and closed administrative, supervisory, and organizational policies
2) Those who have the potential for motivation seeking but who elect to channel
this potential into other (nonprofessional or non-school) areas of their lives.
3) Those that do not have the potential for motivation seeking on or off the job.
HYGIENE SEEKERS CONCERNED BY HYGIENIC FACTORS
2) Working conditions
6) School policies
8) Social relationships
DIFFERENTIATING HYGIENE SEEKERS FROM MOTIVATION SEEKERS
1) Motivation seekers emphasize the nature of the task.
Hygiene seekers emphasize the nature of the environment.
2) Motivation seekers are primarily committed to the goals of the school or profession
and work to pursue these goals.
Hygiene seekers are primarily committed to private goals or extraschool goals and
work for rewards from the school which help to pursue or purchase these nonschool
or nonprofessional goals.
3) Motivation seekers show higher, but not unlimited, tolerance for poor hygiene
Hygiene seekers display intermittent but chronic dissatisfaction with aspects of the
work environment such as salary, supervision, working conditions, status, security,
administrative policy, and fellow workers.
4) Motivation seekers show less reaction to improvement of hygiene factors.
Hygiene seekers tend to overreact in satisfaction to hygiene factors.
5) Satisfaction is short-lived for motivational seekers when hygiene factors are
Satisfaction is short-lived for hygiene seekers when hygiene factors are improved.
6) Motivation seekers show milder discontent when hygiene factors need
Hygiene seekers tend to overreact with dissatisfaction when hygiene factors are not
7) Motivation seekers realize great satisfaction from accomplishments.
Hygiene seekers realize little satisfaction from accomplishments.
8) Motivation seekers genuinely enjoy the kind of work they do.
Hygiene seekers show little interest in the kid or quality of work they do.
9) Motivation seekers profit personally and professionally from experience.
Hygiene seekers do not profit personally or professionally from experience.
10) Motivation seekers have positive feelings toward work and life.
Hygiene seekers are generally cynical toward work and life.
11) Motivation seekers show sincere belief systems.
Hygiene seekers are prone to cultural noises- i.e., take extreme positions that are
fashionable, superficially espouse management philosophy, act more like top
management than top management does.
Learning Module 7
PERSONNEL PRACTICES IN SCHOOLS
“The Present Focus on Hygiene Needs”
Protection from parents
Protection from students
Support from administration
Seniority and tenure
Union and association membership
Condition of the school
Office and room space
Length of workday
Number of students
Study hall assignments
Lunch and rest periods
Feelings of belonging and acceptance
Classroom size and location
ACHIEVEMENT AND RESPONSIBILITY
“The Need Focus Is On Motivation Needs”
Delegation of authority
Freedom to act
RECOGNITION, PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL GROWTH
A JOB ENRICHMENT MODEL
The following is a brief description of job enrichment characteristics:
1) TASK VARIETY
Building into the teaching position a greater assortment of tasks.
(breaking down teaching episodes into small parts, assigning them to
2) TASK UNCERTAINTY
Refers to tasks involving information processing and cognitive stimulation.
Teaching tasks are viewed as problems to be solved rather than
details to be conveyed to students.
Tasks arranged in a mechanical way may not be very satisfying to many
3) SOCIAL INTERACTION
Recognizes that individuals at work generally derive satisfaction from
interacting with others.
This interaction can be a source of satisfaction and a stimulus to building
commitment and loyalty to the work group and school. Teaching is still a
relatively private activity.
4) TASK SIGNIFICANCE
Refers to the perceived importance by teachers of the work to be done.
Task significance requires an understanding and appreciation of what the
educational program as a whole tries to accomplish and how one’s individual
efforts fit into the large view.
5) TASK IDENTITY
Requires that one have a larger view of what the school is about, and that one
sees how his or her part contributes to the larger purpose.
Fragmented curriculum formats, narrow departmentalization, and detailed
teaching assignments tend to work against task identity.
6) RESPONSIBILITY FOR RESULTS
Requires that teachers be given a great deal of discretion over task activities but
held accountable for obtaining results.
Teachers should be responsible for the classroom learning climate, patterns of
verbal interactions, reading achievement, and so forth.
7) KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS
Knowledge of results refers to feedback as to the quality of one’s performance.
Clearly, without feedback it is difficult to derive satisfaction from
Learning Module 8
TEACHERS: COSMOPOLITANS AND LOCALS
Locals: The Dedicated
-Are the “true believers” who support the school
-Prefer school hire teachers with similar value systems.
-Teachers and administrators of this type have very strong commitments to
their school rather than distinctive professional roles within the school.
Locals: The True Bureaucrats
-Community and its people are more important than the school itself.
-Salaries not too low
-Teachers should not have more influence
-Teachers should not have reduced teaching loads.
-Want formal regulations
Locals: The Home Guard
- Least amount of professional specialization.
- Little or no advanced study
- Attend few meetings
- No curricular work
- Predominantly female. Husbands are “prominent” contributors to the
- Generally have personal reasons for expressing loyalty to the school.
Locals: The Elders
- Largest share of tenure in the school.
- “Senior Citizens” of the school
- Informal peer group; those who came to the organization at about the same
- Evaluate the present in terms of the past.
Cosmopolitans: The Outsiders
- Little loyalty to the school.
- Do not intend to stay with the school.
- Willing to leave the school for more money, better position, or more prestige.
- No particularly close to students.
- Likely to identify with an outside reference group.
- Look outside the school for intellectual stimulation.
Cosmopolitans: The Empire Builders
- Enjoy high visibility outside the school.
- Less dependent upon the school for economic reasons.
- The empire builder remains on the lookout for a better position.
-Like the outsider, he or she is committed to specialized areas and professional
skills. Often complains that extracurricular activities are too heavy and
distract his work.
- Feel power is too concentrated in the hands of the administrators.
ADAPTING TO THE SCHOOL BUREAUCRACY
1) Strongly identifies with the school, its goals, its value system, its authority
system, its tradition, or simply its way of doing things.
2) They need to be a part of the system--- to express loyalty, to provide support
--- They receive generous rewards for expressing loyalty.
3) Upward Mobiles exhibit high job satisfaction and see a future for themselves
in the school or district.
4) Strong identification with the school qualifies them for generous
organizational rewards, including acceptance in the “in” group, promotion,
status, as well as benefits which accrue outside of the school in terms of social
and political rewards from the community.
5) School administrators and supervisors are flattered by subordinates who will
follow them and their policies. Administrators reward them highly with
unqualified confidence and support.
6) Since upward mobiles develop a pattern of accommodating to what is, little
creativity can be expected of them. They are not interested in rocking the boat, or
in any other situation which may place them at odds with superiors or with
1) Indifferents simply refuse to compete, to play the game for organizational
2) Indifferents have resolved personal-organizational differences by withdrawing
from the school environment and by redirecting interests and talents to off-the-
job sources of satisfaction. The club, family, hobby, and team receive emphasis
beyond that which is typically expected from most individuals, whereas, the
place of work is virtually ignored except as a source of security, salary to buy
extra-job satisfactions they need.
3) Indifferents reject status, success, and power.
4) Indifferents seek security from the school and are attracted to circumstances
which require them to contribute minimally to gain the security.
5) Indifferents are usually quiet, stay-out-of-the-way types who avoid calling
attention to themselves. They hope to avoid high performance standards.
1) Ambivalent cannot reject the rewards of power and success their organization
offers them, nor can they perform the necessary roles--- in particular, adopt the
perspective of upward mobiles--- in order to attain power and success.
2) Ambivalents are introverts, have deep intellectual interest, specialized
knowledge, high aspirations, skilled professional know-how, idealistic
perspectives, and a high tolerance for ambiguity.
3) Ambivalents are doubtful and fearful of authority systems other than merit.
4) Ambivalents lose sight of practical realism and “pet” solutions.
5) Ambivalents are self-conscious and anxious.
6) Ambivalents are critical of the establishment.
7) They are demanding of others and themselves.
8) Ambivalents have much to offer the school in terms of professional talent and
intellectual commitment, yet they frequently have difficulty with their
organization as they work to make their commitment.
9) A major problem facing school administration is allowing and encouraging
ambivalents to function adequately within organizational structures. Ambivalents
must function if schools are to meet their expanded commitments.
10) School administrators must legalize the expert authority ambivalents
typically posses and backing it up with appropriate resources.
ADJUSTMENT: WORK PSYCHOPATHOLOGY CATERGORIES
1) Individuals who have serious deficiencies in all aspects of work motivation.
2) Individuals whose predominate response to the job is manifested as fear and
3) Individuals who are openly hostile and continuously aggressive.
4) Individuals who show symptoms of marked dependency.
5) Individuals who display a marked degree of social naïveté.
Learning Module 9
The School’s Organizational Structure
According to Weber’s formulations, characteristics of bureaucracy are:
1) A well-defined hierarchy of offices.
Authority is allocated through these offices. Organizational chart outlines
hierarchal authority. Position titles, furnish important clues as to what
“competence” is associated with that office.
2) Selection of office holders on the basis of technical qualifications.
Certificates, licenses, and diplomas provide evidence that one has achieved a
minimum level of qualification. Incumbents are appointed rather than elected to
3) Remuneration received in the form of fixed salaries, with officeholder treating
the office as the primary, if not sole, occupation and considering it a career.
Most educational administrators in public schools do not moonlight; thus the
salary they receive is their only income. Most are also waiting and working for
4) Officeholders are subject to organizational developed rules and regulations in
the conduct of their offices.
Predictability is increased by assuring a reasonable degree of stability.
5) Rules and regulations that are impersonal in nature.
Officeholders are expected to perform their functions quite independently of
their personal selves.
Identifies the beneficial and disruptive effects of differentiating rewards
and status between and among individuals as follows:
1) Recognizes differential abilities - “Beneficial”
Leads to distorted evaluation of individuals - “Disruptive”
2) Recognizes differential difficulty of various kinds of work - “Beneficial”
Restricts the circulation of the elite - “Disruptive”
3) Recognizes differential importance of various kinds of work - “Beneficial”
Distorts the system of distributive justice - “Disruptive”
3) Recognizes the value of formal status as a social or organizational tool.
Exaggerates administration to the detriment of leadership and morale.
5) Protects the integrity of the individual - “Beneficial”
Exalts the symbolic functions beyond the level of sustainment (Attitudes and
behavior come to be expected which status incumbents cannot fulfill.)
Limits the adaptability of an organization. “Disruptive”
HAGE’S AXIOMATIC THEORY
ORGANIZATIONAL MEANS (1-4)
1) Complexity (specialization)
-Number of occupational specialties.
-Level of trainings required.
(Hierarchy of authority)
- Proportion of jobs that participate in decision-making.
- Number of areas in which decisions are made by decision-makers.
3) Formalization (standardization)
- Proportion of jobs that are codified.
- Range of variation allowed within jobs.
4) Stratification (status system)
- Differences in income and prestige among jobs.
- Rate of mobility between low and high ranking jobs or status levels.
ORGANIZATIONAL ENDS (5-8)
5) Adaptiveness (flexibility)
- Number of new programs in a year.
- Number of new techniques in a year.
6) Production (effectiveness)
- Number of units produced per year.
- Rate of increase in units per year.
7) Efficiency (cost)
- Cost per unit of output per year.
- Amount of idle resources per year.
8) Job Satisfaction (morale)
- Satisfaction with working conditions.
- Rate of turnover in job occupants per year.
PRINCIPLES FOR STRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENTS
School administrators have functional responsibilities which come from legal
requirements and from the work group which they are members. The following
are guidelines for the organization:
1) Initial decisions about employment of staff, allocation of resources,
development and modification of programs, and evaluation of staff and program
should be made by the work group most directly affected.
2) Operational and evaluative procedures should focus on goal achievement
(behaviors, tasks, functions to be performed) rather than control.
3) Functional responsibilities should be assigned on the basis of competence
rather than position. This requires that more attention be given to what
constitutes competence, given a certain function.
4) Rewards should be based on job performance rather than on location in the
Learning Module 10
FRENCH AND RAVEN- FIVE TYPES OF POWER AVAILABLE TO
Subordinates perceive that the administrator can withhold, permit, or
Subordinates perceive that the administrator can distribute punishment (e.g.
dismissal, undesirable assignments). Coercion could involve physical force.
Subordinates perceive that the school administrator, by virtue of position
and status within a duly constitutional hierarchy, has the right to expect what is
Subordinates perceive the school administrator as a desirable and
appropriate human model and want to be perceived reciprocally- thus demands
Subordinates perceive the administrator to possess relevant expertise.
PERCEPTIONS OF BASES OF AUTHORITY IN AN ELEMENTARY
Authority of legitimacy 35
Authority of position 60
Authority of competence 45
Authority of person 15
No source specified 15
Learning Module 11
ROLE PERFORMANCE AND THE EXECUTIVES FUNCTION:
The three following stereotypes focus attention on the school administrator in the
performance of the characteristic super-ordinate sub role.
o THE TASKMASTER
o THE SYMPATHIZER
o THE CALCULATOR
1) THE TASKMASTER
a) This is the school administrator who is all business” and if necessary at the
expense of need satisfaction.
b) Strict adherence to expectations characterize job behavior.
c) Minimum hours, due dates for reports, attendance at meetings, following
curriculum guides are the minimum that should be performed by teachers.
d) District personnel policies and other procedures clearly outline the behavior of
the taskmaster principle.
e) Conflict between organizational demands against personal needs are easy for
the taskmaster to resolve.
f) District personnel policy relating to leaves; the selection, adoption, and use of
textbooks and other materials; graduation requirements; student behavior;
administrator, teacher and student leaving school; the use of facilities; and
teacher-student rations clearly outline the behavior for the principle, teacher,
student and parent according to the taskmaster superintendent, supervisor of
g) Conflicts in expectations are resolved by looking to the job demand or
h) Tendency of the taskmaster administrator to search for answers in the
direction of established patterns.
i) As long as expectations are met relations may be quite pleasant.
j) The taskmaster is predictable in terms of role behavior.
2) THE SYMPATHIZER
a) The sympathizer refuses to permit organizational demands to obstruct
attention to personal needs, interests, and aspirations.
b) Rules, procedures, patterns of performing are for suspending if they conflict
with an individual’s desires.
c) Meetings called for the purpose of identifying problems are likely to be
devoted to extraneous matters or to the expressions of personal or ego
d) The sympathizer’s zealous concern for people gives the appearance of
e) Sympathizer relates well to virtually anyone, especially initially. Thus the
colleague, subordinate, and community liaison sub roles are easier to perform
whereas the super ordinate sub role is most difficult.
f) Efforts are made to accomplish organizational demands, but not at the expense
of individual concerns.
g) Goal conflicts affecting expectations are resolved by finding alternatives least
disruptive to individual or group needs.
h) Sympathizers may or may not be handshaking, “don’t you worry” type. Quiet,
dignified people may also be sympathizers.
i) Sympathizer is predictable in terms of role behavior.
3) THE CALCULATOR
a) The calculator calculates potential conflicts between organizational demands
and individual needs, interests, and aspirations and systematically moves
between the two roles.
b) In unyielding situations, conflict issues and decisions are willingly negotiated.
c) The calculator conforms to the commonly role description of the successful
d) Calculator tends to emphasize organizational demands when performing the
subordinate sub role, and individual needs, interests, and aspirations when
performing the super ordinate sub role. Calculator changes when one moves to
satisfaction of individual needs.
Learning Module 12
Five assumptions about conflict, interest group, and decision processes which are
central in viewing school as political systems:
1) Conflict is natural, and is to be expected in a dynamic organization. Conflict is
not abnormal, nor is it necessarily a symptom of a breakdown in the
2) The organization is fragmented into many power blocs and interest groups,
and it is natural that they will try to influence policy so that their values and
goals are given primary consideration.
3) In all organizations small groups of political elites govern most of the major
However this does not mean that one elite group governs everything; the
decisions may be divided up, with different elite groups controlling different
4) Formal authority, as prescribed by the bureaucratic system, is severely limited
by the political pressure and bargaining tactics that groups can exert against
Decisions are not simply orders. Officials are not free simply to order decisions;
instead they have to jockey between interest groups, hoping to build viable
compromises among powerful blocs.
5) External interest groups have a great deal of influence over the organization,
and internal groups do not have the power to make policies in a vacuum.
CONFLICT IN ORGANIZATIONS RESEARCH
1. Latent conflict
Is concerned with the conditions which are underlying sources of conflict.
(Competition for scarce resources and contradictory goals ripen possibility of
2) Perceived conflict
Principal parties (individuals or groups) cognitively are aware of conflict
conditions. (That is, some misunderstanding or muddle communication channel
leads the primary teachers to believe that they may lose importance to the special
education teachers when such is not the case.)
3) Felt conflict
Conflict condition becomes translated into feeling (hatred, jealousy,
withdrawn, anxiety, self-pity, rivalry)
In this stage, conflict becomes personalized.
In administration ethics require tension reduction and with depersonalizing
the nature of the conflict.
4) Manifest conflict
Includes actual display of conflict behavior. At one extreme the behavior is
very obvious (physical or verbal violence) and at the other end very subtle
(implicit bargaining during a group decision-making activity).
5) Conflict aftermath
If the conflict is genuinely resolved to the satisfaction of all participants,
the basis for a more cooperative relationship may be laid.
If conflict is suppressed but not resolved, the latent conflict may explode in
a more serious form until rectified or until relationship dissolves.
Three Types of Conflict Internal to the Organization
1) BARGAINING CONFLICT
Conflict among individuals and groups with specific interests who are
competing for scarce resources.
2) BUREAUCRATIC CONFLICT
Conflict between individuals and groups at different levels of the hierarchy
who are competing for scarce resources.
3) SYSTEMS CONFLICT
Conflict between individuals and groups at the same level of the hierarchy.
THE POLITICAL MODEL
The following in summarizing the play of the game of politics:
1) Actions - Merge neither as the calculated choice of a unified group or as a
formal summary of leaders’ preferences.
Action is shared power and separate judgments concerning important choices.
2) Environment – Where the game is played; uncertainty about what must be
done; the necessity that something be done and crucial consequences of whatever
3) Pace of the game - Hundreds of issues, numerous games, and multiple
channels – compels players to fight “to get other attention” to make them “see
the facts” and “take time” to think about broader issue.
4) Structure of the game - Power shared by individuals with separate
responsibilities- validates each player’s feeling that “others don’t see my
problem” and “others must be persuaded to look at the issue from a different
5) Rules of the game – He who hesitates loses his chance to play at that point,
and he who is uncertain about his recommendation is overpowered by others
who are sure—pressures players to come down on one side of a 51-49 issue and
6) Rewards of the game - Effectiveness, i.e., impact on outcomes as the
immediate measure of performance—encourages hard play.
COMMUNITY POWER STRUCTURES
Summary of four community power structures:
- FACTIONAL OR CAUCUS
- COALITIONAL OR POLYLITHIC
1) Pyramidal structure
Characterized by a single group of individuals who make decisions
2) Factional or Caucus structure
Characterized by at least two relatively durable groups; vie for decision-
3) Coalitional or Polylithic
The nature of issues to be decided determines the interested individuals and
groups who form coalitions that shift and/or disappear over time.
Term used to describe the absence of any persistent pattern of individuals
or groups who make/control decisions.
SACRED & SECULAR COMMUNITIES
1) A sacred society is one that elicits from or imparts to its members, by means
of sociation, unwillingness and/or inability to respond to the culturally new as
the new is defined by those member in terns of the society’s existing culture. (a
high degree of resistance to change)
2) A secular society is one that elicits from or imparts to its members, by means
of sociation, willingness and ability to respond to the culturally new as the new is
defined by those members in terns of the society’s existing culture. (a high
degree of readiness and capacity to change)
PLACID & TURBULENT ENVIRONMENTS
1) PLACID ENVIRONMENTS
Relatively stable and fundamentally predictable.
Characterized by individuals who interact about and with the school
organization on specific issues and in a disorganized fashion. No attempt to
include broad support.
2) PLACID, CLUSTERED ENVIRONMENT
Relatively stable and predictable. characterized by individuals who share, in
some generally recognized patterns, interests, goals, and concerns for the
schools. (Chamber of Commerce, PTA, Taxpayer groups, ethnic groups, are
examples of organizations the sch. administrator interacts.
3) DISTURBED – REACTIVE ENVIRONMENT
Multiple groups and/or organizations of the same kind but not necessarily
desiring the same input or outcome from the school organization.
Multiple competing organizations are generally known by the school
4) TURBULENT FIELDS ENVIRONMENT
Have characteristics of the disturbed-reactive environments, plus the nature of
the issues and processes for settling them are constantly changing as well.
Not only are the actors changing by so is the script and art form. (demand on the
board focuses turbulence on the administrators)
THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATOR AS COMMUNITY RESOURCE
1. Assumptions about the interests and capabilities of individuals and groups in
a) Most parents and citizens have legitimate interests in the effective
functioning of schools.
b) A majority of the individuals and groups are capable of increased
understanding of and contribution to policy making for schools.
2. Assumptions about school administrator behavior:
a) Administrator’s task is to help the board of education create and
environment that facilitates the involvement of individuals and groups in the
definition of education in schools and means to obtain resources to operate
schools that approximate that definition.
b) The administrators should lead in the development of structures to
mediate conflicts in the definition of education and ways in which that definition
can be implemented.
c) The school administrator could attempt to expand the opportunities for
individuals and groups to increase their knowledge of schools and to engage in
reciprocal influence exchanges with educators in the schools.
3. Assumptions about expectations for processes and ends:
a) In the long term the quality of community and school interaction will
improve as individuals and groups increase understanding and engage in
reciprocal influence exchanges.
b) Parents and citizens will exercise responsible self-direction and control
and will increase their overall support for the school policies and programs they
have helped to develop.
c) Overall satisfaction with the schools will increase as community-school
interaction improves the quality of schooling for pupils and concurrently helps
individuals and groups develop.
Learning Module 14
LEADERSHIP CONCERNS FOR THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATOR
- Administrator’s behavior
- Development of others
- Group leadership functions
a) Administrator’s behavior
- The administrator must enjoy the limelight.
- Failure to direct or coordinate group activities necessary to change and/or
achieve goals is an abdication of leadership responsibility.
- Administrator’s failure to direct and coordinate is a sign of incompetence as a
- There are activities within the immediate work context of the school
administrator which demand action. The school administrator who forever
fails personally to suggest “structures” for these activities is abdicating the
b) Development of others
The leadership potential in others in the school system in important for three
1) Effective movement toward goal achievement requires the efforts of numerous
groups. (Energetic leadership by the superintendent is thwarted by failures of
principals to behave in a similar manner.)
2) The school’s manifest function is the development of human resources---its
pupils. The schools professional employees should obviously enjoy the same
Professionally oriented individuals should suggest that they are prepared to
groups. (Energetic leadership by the superintendent is thwarted by failures of
principals to behave in a similar manner.)
3) The school’s manifest function is the development of human resources---its
pupils. The schools professional employees should obviously enjoy the same
Professionally oriented individuals should suggest that they are prepared to
exercise leadership in selected areas of activities.
4) Certain individuals are able to perform one kind of function better than other
Since the total organizational performance is related to the extent in witch all of
the functions are performed, the administrator, as leader, must be concerned with
the development of leadership potential in others in the school.
c. Group leadership functions
1) Two essential sets of conditions which must exist in any formalized school
group for existence:
a) Goal achievement activities.
b) Group maintenance activities.
2) Leader is concerned with identifying and defining the problem; defining
criteria for acceptable solutions; and providing information, seeking opinions,
and so forth.
LEADERSHIP: A SYNTHESIS
The primary components of leadership consist of four sets of variables:
- LEADER BEHAVIOR
- GROUP TASKS
- SPECIFIC LEADERSHIP FUNCTIONS RELATED TO GROUP TASKS
- VARIABLES OF INTERVENTION
a) Leader behavior
- Specific behavioral acts which call attention to the accomplishment of
whatever task the group is working toward --- task behavior.
- Behavior recognizes the presence of the human element and defers to the
basic human considerations of security, respect, dignity, autonomy and
b) Group tasks
- Goal achievement refers to those tasks for which the group was formed and
continues to exist.
Schools exist to further the education of their students --- through the teaching of
reading, preparation for life, the learning of occupational skills, and so forth.
Group maintenance refers to those tasks which keep the work group reasonably
cohesive, thus enabling goal achievement.
Note: Major difficulty with goal achievement and group maintenance dichotomy
is the tendency to consider the former more important and the latter unimportant.
c) Specific leadership functions related to group tasks
-Making the group aware of the need for new or different action --- awareness
- Clarifying alternative ends and strategies--- settling on action
- Accepting and initiating a preferred end approach--- implementing
- Monitoring of progress toward the preferred end approach--- processing
- Introducing evaluative data---evaluating
- Concluding group activity on particular end or approach--- concluding
- Making the group aware of its results--- feedback
d) Variables of intervention
- Leader-member relations (psychological togetherness)
- Task structure
- Position power of the leader. (Control of the leader by virtue of being
DANGERS OF REACTIVE PLANNING
1. Stability is prized
- Periods of inaction are welcome, for they resemble equilibrium and satisfy the
need to eliminate uncertainty.
-Stress is kept to a minimum. This is Management by Appeasement geared to
bring about semblance of calm and stability with costs in quality and principals.
2. Defensive management is encouraged
- Reactive strategies often result in administrators evaluating decision
alternatives in terms of their own safety, security, and status.
- Responding to stress which is beyond control soon makes the administrator
obsessed with his/her own survival.
3. Paternalism is encouraged
- Defensive management leads to the establishment of alliances. Decisions are
often made on the basis of favoritism and protective trade-offs.
- Kingdoms are encouraged, and special-interest groups emerge as protective
- Since little attention is given to future planning, uncertainty is actually
- Information is scarce and prized.
- The communications network becomes a control mechanism and reward
granting device, with school administrators buying loyalty from subordinates.
- Buying loyalty from subordinates by permitting the some access to the
-People feel safer when they have some notion of what is going on and will pay
for this safety with loyalty.
4. Long range planning forfeited
-Reactive strategies are short-term survival --- and maintenance-oriented.
-Little attention is given to long-term goals and directions.
-Although the elimination of uncertainty is important for today, tomorrow’s
problems are guaranteed because no deliberate attention is given to the future.
5. Educational goals assume the lowest status
- In each case educational goals and the welfare of students are displaced by
organizational and administrative needs, goals, and demands.
- School administrators and teachers become defense bound and react to
primarily in terms of promoting their own safety, security and status.
- Self-actualization of students and commitment to other educational goals are
indeed luxuries under such conditions.
NORMATIVE AND DESCRIPTIVE VIEWS OF PLANNING
Most authorities agree that educational leadership requires proactive postures
from school administrators.
This proactive view with its emphasis on planning is a normative theory of
administration--- one which specifies or prescribes what school administrators
Descriptive theories attempt to provide a more accurate picture of what school
administrators actually do.
Reactive planning is more familiar to administrators because it is a more realistic
portrayal or description of their world.
Contrasting key elements of normative and descriptive views of planning are as
1) Setting of optimum objectives. (Normative or Proactive)
Setting of satisfying objectives. (Descriptive or Reactive)
2) Decisions geared to maximizing organizational performance. (Normative or Proactive)
Decisions geared to protecting one’s self-interest.
3) Quantitative techniques used to make quality decisions. (Normative or Proactive)
Decisions made subjectively. (Descriptive or Reactive)
4) Decisions are socially responsible. (Normative or Reactive)
Decisions made in the best interest of administrator’s and organizations.
5) Strategies developed in response to forecasts and needs. (Normative or Reactive)
Strategies developed in response to changes in the environment.
(Descriptive or Reactive)
Comment: Proactive administration is clearly far superior to reactive administration.
SELECTING AN APPROPRIATE MANAGEMENT APPROACH
a) For administrative and management functions.
b) For instructional and curricular functions.
b) When dealing with things and people.
d) When control of activities in pursuit of goals is needed.
e) When the focus is on problem solving and creative solutions.
f) When problems are simple and readily specified.
g) When goals are ambiguous and complex.
h) When problems are easily quantified.
i) When problems are difficult to quantify.
j) When you want the plan to take control – automatic pilot.
k) When you want people to take control – live!
l) When the consequences of error are small and not serious.
l) When the consequences of error are large and very serious.
m) When you need a plan that is enduring.
n) When you need a plan that is responsive to change.
o) When ability and knowledge are high in the organization.
p) When ability and knowledge are low in the organization.
q) When ability and knowledge are high in the organization.
r) When ability and knowledge are low in the organization.
s) When programmed decision-making is needed.
t) When flexible decision-making is needed.
Learning Module 16
ADMINSTRATIVE EFFECTIVENESS FOR SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
1) THE BELIEF SYSTEM
a) Values and beliefs form a crucial part of educational planning, decision-making, and
b) All educational activity needs to be guided by a value system unique to educational
youngsters in a free society.
c) School administrators must examine carefully and evaluate their values and beliefs about
people, education, and administration.
d) School administrators must develop and awareness for the beliefs of others--- including
students, parents, teachers, and the community.
e) It is through the belief system that administrative and educational goals are generated.
2) THE HUMAN SYSTEM
a) The growth and development of the human organization of the human organization
receives primary attention by school administrators interested in administrative
b) Indeed, if growth is valued in youngsters, the school will need to become a growing
organization for all.
c) Administrators need to support the development of human resources.
3) THE ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEM
a) Schools are formal organizations.
b) Like other formal organizations, schools have “needs” over and above those given to
them by people.
c) Schools achieve their purposes through people who are differentiated by task, role and
d) People and schools are put into motion by power and authority--- both internal, such as
motivation, and external, such as coercion.
e) Certain organizational personalities emerge based on how the school is organized, how
power is distributed and used, and what goals enjoy a privileged position --- which help
identify one school from another.
f) The interface (common boundary) between person and organization varies from school to
school and from person to person, depending on a number of factors.
-g)Dimensions of organization power distribution and use, and the character of interaction
between human being and organization have critical effects on the nature and quality of
organizational effort, educational decision-making, and administrative effectiveness.
4) THE POLITICAL SYSTEM
a) Schools operate in a political environment and are themselves political organizations.
-b) Of concern to school administrators is the school’s vulnerability to outside political
c) Internal politics are greatly magnified these days. They forces the school administrator
into the role of bargainer and negotiator rather than leader: The problem is not one of either/
but one of balance.
-d) Political behavior within schools can be managed by building and nurturing
Comment: This requires closer matching of individual goals and aspirations with those of
the school - a leadership, not bargaining task.
5) THE ACTION SYSTEM
a) Planning, deciding, and leading are the main components of the action system.
-b) The action system provides insights into developing action strategies which are directed
toward the achievement of people’s goals, educational goals, and school goals.
-c) Administrative effectiveness depends upon one’s leadership functions are performed,
that leadership emerges from a variety of sources and is not held to be the exclusive
province of school administrators.
d) Leaders bring to their jobs a sense of vision and purpose which adds rich meaning to
their lives, the lives of others, and the activities of the school.