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  1. 1. Ethical Decision Making In Education Jennifer Butcher The University of Texas – Pan American
  2. 2. Caring/Kindness Generosity Tolerance Citizenship Initiative Confidence Cooperation Loyalty Courage Patience Dependability/Reliability Respect Perseverance Fairness Responsibility Honesty Trust Love
  3. 3. Responsibility <ul><li>Realm of ethics is concerned with active personal commitment </li></ul><ul><li>(Kritsonis, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility entails: </li></ul><ul><li>Dependability </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to Excel </li></ul>
  4. 4. Trust <ul><li>Trust is building confidence through teamwork and open communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Trust facilitates cooperation and promotes cohesiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Trust is built by behavior that is considerate, supportive, and collegial. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Trust is like air; no one thinks much about it until it is needed and is not there.” - Hoy & Miskel </li></ul>
  5. 5. Professional Development <ul><li>One who reads widely, attend workshops and conferences, member of professional associations, consult with colleagues, self-reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Synnoetics : ongoing commitment towards human association with concern as well as seeking the well-being of others </li></ul><ul><li>Searching for insight and training into educational issues </li></ul>
  6. 6. Effective Interpersonal Skills <ul><li>Develops strong binding interpersonal skills with students, parents and colleagues= trust between all members </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolics : symbolizes a way for individuals to experience meaning through communication </li></ul><ul><li>Effective communication derives from the principle that language is a source of power expressing various experiences of each individual </li></ul>
  7. 7. Environment of Care <ul><li>Responsibility of educators to build care and compassion with the community </li></ul><ul><li>Synoptics : a school environment of care values all members’ individual feelings and emotions into one synopsis or single vision </li></ul><ul><li>Educators have to make a conscious decision to study our past mistakes, care for others, at the same time accommodate to the needs of the organization and the community. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Protect the Rights of Stakeholders <ul><li>Educators have a responsibility to protect and respect students’ individuality and acknowledge their right to make choices for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics : these beliefs and choices of what is right and wrong lay the foundation for our civilization and culture </li></ul><ul><li>In order to demonstrate a sincere respect for each student’s self-worth, educators need to listen to students and consider their views </li></ul>
  9. 9. Self-Evaluation <ul><li>In order to self-reflect, choices can be determined to be good or bad, better or worse, depending on how caring is demonstrated from all members. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics : belief that everyone has the logic to make the right choices and decisions, and if one fails, he/she gains a sense of guilt form within him/herself. </li></ul><ul><li>School community’s policies cannot be ethical, only individuals can make decisions that take into consideration the policies that apply to a certain situation circumstance </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ethical Decision Making to Improve Academic Achievement <ul><li>Appropriate Scope of Study </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize Meanings Through Mastery </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Should be Broad and Diverse </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Should Provide Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Attain Mastery </li></ul>
  11. 11. Appropriate Scope of Study <ul><li>According to Kritsonis (2007), scope of study should include unique personality of the student, social and cultural context, and available resources </li></ul><ul><li>Requires careful planning and ethical decision making </li></ul><ul><li>“ High standards” – students are expected to reach a predetermined bar </li></ul><ul><li>Implement creativity and individuality </li></ul>
  12. 12. Maximize Meanings Through Mastery <ul><li>Fulfillment lies within mastery and the depth of understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum should be relevant to all </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate goal should be intensity of knowledge </li></ul>
  13. 13. Curriculum Should be Broad and Diverse <ul><li>Students should gain an understanding in a variety of fields </li></ul><ul><li>Competence should be gained in a number of different activities </li></ul><ul><li>Use connection between culture, curriculum, home, and school to promote academic achievement </li></ul>
  14. 14. Attaining Mastery <ul><li>The following elements are needed in </li></ul><ul><li>helping students reach their mastery goal: </li></ul><ul><li>A healthy, safe learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging and caring environment </li></ul><ul><li>High standards of academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on students’ individual needs </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Why Should School Communities have Codes of Ethics? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote honorable behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a basis for ethical behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure effective operation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morally ethical decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethics is Everybody’s Business (Kritsonis, 2007). </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Confidentiality and Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Educators should not disclose confidential information unless obligated to do so by law. </li></ul><ul><li>Educators should not use confidential information for advantageous gain. </li></ul><ul><li>Educators should avoid activities which could impede performance of job duties in an ethical manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Educators should refuse gifts, favors, or hospitality that would influence or would appear to influence another’s actions. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Professional Certification </li></ul><ul><li>Educators’ should… </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a level of competence. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and improve skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform duties in accordance with laws, rules, and regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare appropriately. </li></ul><ul><li>Use only relevant and reliable information. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Financial Fraud </li></ul><ul><li>Funds must be used appropriately and for intended purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>A system should be in place to ensure financial honesty. </li></ul><ul><li>Someone not directly related to the organization should assist in the monitoring financial spending. </li></ul><ul><li>Rules, regulations, and consequences must be in place that are not negotiable. </li></ul>
  19. 19. What are the consequences of showing unjustified favoritism within and educational organization?
  20. 20. <ul><li>Creates disenchantment and dissension among members and supporters. </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Groups are created which results in a negative and unproductive climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders are not supported or trusted. </li></ul><ul><li>There should be acknowledged moral leaders, to whom many look for moral direction, guidance and inspiration. (Kritsonis, 2007) </li></ul>
  21. 21. References <ul><li>Hoy, W. K. and Miskel, C. G. (2005). Educational Administration. New York, New York: McGraw Hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Kritsonis, W. A. (2007). Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning . Oxford, England: Oxford Round Table. </li></ul><ul><li>Martin, J. (2004, December). The Relationship Between Principals, Ethics, and Campus Ratings. Retrieved October 1, 2006, from </li></ul><ul><li>O’Neal, S. (2004). Individualized instruction for improved student achievement – education’s ‘holy grail’. The Journal , Retrieved September 20, 2006 from </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>