MAIZE PRODUCTS<br />PREPARED BY: DEWASISH GHOSHAL PGDM (Agribusiness)NATIONAL ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH MANAGEMENT HYDERABAD, AP, 500407<br />MAIZE PRODUCTS<br />Maize Products is one of the largest corn wet milling Company in India. It manufactures Products such as Maize Starch, Modified Starches, Liquid Glucose, Dextrose Monohydrate, Anhydrous Dextrose, Sorbitol and by-products like Corn oil, Corn Gluten, Oil Cake etc.<br /><ul><li>MAIZE STARCH:</li></ul>Maize Starch is a cereal starch, which has a low ash and protein content. It does not thin down during the process of sizing, whereas tapioca starch breaks down substantially on cooking. These results in an uneven pick up on the yarn. Unlike Tamarind Kernel Powder, which requires steeping and long cooking time, Maize Starch is transformed into a smooth paste within an hour or in even lesser time under pressure-cooking. The uniform viscosity, from lot to lot, ensures uniform pick up and penetration into the interstices of yarn to ensure good weaving performance. As foaming is usually associated with high pH, it is not necessary to add any of the antifoaming agents while working with maize starch, as the pH of Maize Starch paste is always maintained in the neutral range. In addition to these advantages, the starch is easily removed during the normal process of desizing.<br />TECHNICAL DATA:<br /><ul><li>% Moisture (Max)14 % Ash (Max)0.25% Soluble (Max)0.50% Ether extract (Max)0.25 Acidity (5 grams in 100 ml alcohol)Not more than 1 ml. of 0.1 N NaOH % Protein0.50 Viscosity of 3% paste by Ostwald Viscometer at 75°C.38 to 42 seconds pH of 10% suspension4.5 to 7 APPLICATION:FOOD INDUSTRYStarch plays a leading role in determining the texture of many foods, which is vital to both the consumer and the food manufacturer, as a major factor that governs the acceptability and palatability of most food products. Maize Starch, because of its abundance and low cost, is used wherever its properties are applicable. Maize Starch takes a relatively short time to form a viscous and opaque paste, which has a typical cereal flavour and is widely used for thickening sauces, gravies, puddings and pie fillings. Cornstarch finds numerous uses in the baking industry. Addition of starch makes hard wheat flour preferred for cakes.Cornstarch is used to give proper strength to ice cream cones and sugar water shells. In addition to the above mentioned uses, it finds numerous uses in "dusting" to facilitate certain baking operations. Starch is also used as an inert ingredient in baking powder and also in salad dressing. PAPER INDUSTRYThe addition of starch to the wet end of the paper is generally referred to as beater sizing. Here, the primary function of starch is to increase paper strength, to lay surface fuzz and to increase stiffness and rattle of the paper. Practical experience has shown that adding 1% to 2% starch, on the dry weight of the fibre, is quite sufficient to achieve the desired result. Size press application of starch in the paper industry is often referred to as tub sizing or surface sizing. The purpose of size press application is to improve appearance and erasability, inhibit ink penetration and form hard firm surface for writing or printing and to prepare the sheet for subsequent coating. The size press is chiefly used to improve the writing and printing characteristics of sheets such as bond, ledger, tablet, envelope, chart and business grade. The second important use for surface sizing of paper products is for calender stack and here its main purpose is to enhance surface characteristics such as scuff resistance and printability. Native starches are generally used at concentrations ranging from 2% to 5%.Cornstarch is used as an adhesive in pigment coating for paper and paperboard. The most commonly used pigments are clay, calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide. The primary purpose of coating is to enhance the printability and appearance of the paper.In short starch is used by the textile industry in a number of different ways: As an adhesive in the size mix to strengthen warp yarn and improves its resistance to abrasion during weaving. In finishing, to change the hand and appearance after it is bleached, dyed and printed. In printing, to increase the consistency of the printing paste.As a compound in finishes to glaze and polish sewing thread. LIQUID GLUCOSE:Liquid Glucose, Corn Syrup or Glucose Syrup are synonyms and are usually manufactured by subjecting starch to high temperature in the presence of acid. However, Liquid Glucose of same Dextrose Equivalent can be manufactured by enzymatic conversion but the spectrum of saccharides will differ and so also the properties, in comparison to acid converted Liquid Glucose. Generally known as Liquid Glucose or Corn Syrup it is a mixture of mono, di, tri, tetra, penta & higher Saccharides.TECHNICAL DATA:Typical, physical and chemical data of Liquid Glucose (Acid converted)% Moisture content(percent by weight )13 to 15% Solid85 to 87 % Sulphated Ash ( Max )0.3pH of 50% solution at 25ºC4.5 to 5.5 Reducing sugar % by weight (DE)40 to 45 SO2 (Max)450 ppm Arsenic (Max)1.00 ppm Copper (Max)5.00 ppm APPLICATION:Liquid Glucose contains dextrins, which retard the process of crystallisation. This is an advantageous factor in number of applications in manufacturing food products like jam, jellies, chewing gums, canned fruits etc. The primary purpose of using glucose in making jams and jellies is to prevent their cane sugar ingredient from crystallising, which is ensured by the presence of dextrins in the glucose syrup. In addition to this, glucose syrup prevents spoilage of the product without unduly increasing its sweetness. In confectionery, the addition of cane sugar presents two main disadvantages. Firstly it lacks good keeping qualities, being susceptible to crystallisation and consequent hardening. Secondly, it has the excessive sweetness of an all-cane confection. Corn syrup being a non-crystallising substance with less sweetness, very successfully produces a homogenous and palatable confection. Depending upon the character of the goods involved, 20% to 50% of the cane sugar can be replaced with corn syrup. In India, hard candies are often made entirely out of the glucose syrup, without adding cane sugar.In ice-cream, the use of corn syrup has definite advantages. It not only prevents cane sugar crystallisation but also imparts a smoother texture. Cane sugar can be replaced upto 25%, without materially changing the properties of the ice-cream. Corn syrup is used extensively for manufacturing various syrups, either as a base or an ingredient. It is used in the preparation of number of household syrups and for artificial honey. Corn syrup is used in commercial bakeries for pie and cream filling in large quantities. Here, Corn syrup gives body, bulk and sweetness, Its non-crystallising and hygroscopic qualities help to keep the finished product in soft condition. Corn syrup is used in the preparation of chewing tobacco to impart flavour and to promote desirable texture and keeping qualities. It is also used for flavouring and dressing tobacco for cigarettes. Adding 5% to 10% corn syrup to shoe polish prevents caking and also results in a quicker and better shine. The action of glucose in tanning gives pliability and weight to the leather. In the chrome process glucose syrup is used because of its reducing action. This causes the chrome to be precipitated into the body of the leather. Approximately 5% of the weight of the finished leather is introduced in the form of sugar.MAIZE-O-SWEET:High Maltose Syrup(Maize-O-Sweet) is manufactured by dual enzymatic conversion of starch under controlled conditions. ln this process, starch slurry is subjected to liquefaction and dextrinisation in the presence of an enzyme. Subsequently dextrinised product is treated with another enzyme to make maltose syrup having desired maltose content. TECHNICAL DATA:Typical physical and chemical data of High Maltose corn syrup.AppearanceClear, colourlessTasteSweet, BlendOdourCharacteris% Dry Solids74-80% Dextrose Equivalent (% DB)30.0-47.0pH (50% w/v solution)5.0-5.5SO2 (ppm)200 ppm max Total Ash (%DB)0.30 MaxStarch TestNeqativeSuqar Profile Dextrose(DP1)3.0 MAXMaltose (DP2)48 MAXMaltotriose & Higher SaccharidesBALANCEAPPLICATION:High Maltose Corn Syrup contains maltose maltotriose and dextrins with very low amount of dextrose. This sugar spectrum retards crystallisation. This is an advantageous factor in manufacturing food products like jam, jellies, chewing gums, canned fruits etc. High Maltose Corn Syrup is less viscous than liquid glucose of same Dextrose Equivalent. Hence it can be handled with ease. Most of the high-speed confectionery moulding lines use High Maltose Corn Syrup due to its low viscosity. Candies produced with High Maltose Corn Syrup are bright, transparent and smooth in texture. In addition to this, High Maltose Corn Syrup prevents spoilage of the product. In confectionery, the addition of cane sugar causes two main disadvantages. Firstly it lacks good keeping qualities, being susceptible to crystallisation and consequent hardening. Secondly, it has excessives weetness of an all-cane confection. High Maltose Corn Syrup being a non-crystallising substance with less sweetness successfully produces a homogenous and palatable confection.ln ice cream, the use of High Maltose Corn Syruph as definite advantages. lt not only prevents crystallisation but also imparts a smoother texture.DEXTROSE MONOHYDRATE:Dextrose is commercially prepared by hydrolysis of starch, employing acid or the modern method of enzymatic hydrolysis. It is used in pharmaceutical & food industries and also for preparing ice-cream as it lowers the freezing point more than that of sugar. It is also used for producing quality yeast for bakery products.TECHNICAL DATA:Typical Chemical & Physical Data of Dextrose Monohydrate DescriptionWhiteor Cream coloured crystalline or granular, powderodourless, sweet in taste.%Moisture at 105ºC7.5to 9.5%Sulphated ash (Max)0.1Acidityfor 5 grams (Max)0.125ml of 0.1N NaOHSpecificrotation 10% w/v at 25ºC+52.50to 53.20Dextrins& less soluble sugarspassesthe test as per IP/BP/USPChloridesNotmore than 125 ppmArsenicNotmore than 1 ppmHeavymetalNotmore than 5 ppmSulphatesNotmore than 200 ppmAPPLICATION:ICE-CREAM AND SHERBETS: Dextrose is less sweet than sugar. In ice-creams, sherbets, etc. large amount of dextrose can be used to increase the solid substance without unduly increasing the sweetness. Moreover, solutions of dextrose have a lower freezing point than that of cane sugar resulting in ice-cream with smoother and creamier texture.BAKERY PRODUCT: A yeast substrate is an important ingredient in making dough for bread or other non-sweet items. Without a suitable yeast substance, there is a long delay in the yeasting process, during which the yeast germs attach themselves to the flour causing the starch and gluten to break up and weakening the dough. As a yeast substrate, dextrose is far superior to cane sugar. When sugar is used, the yeast must first convert it to dextrose before assimilating it. Larger amounts of yeast have to be used. Also, the resulting loaf is pale and lacks bloom, due to long standing before baking. When dextrose is used, the yeast immediately assimilates it. Being completely fermentable by yeast, dextrose ensures the maximum efficiency of both yeast and sugar. Entirely free of unfermentable carbohydrates, dextrose is the most economical source of carbon dioxide.CANNED AND READY-MADE FOODS: Dextrose is widely used in preference to cane sugar for canned and ready-made foods, confectionery, dairy products, carbonated beverages, canned fruits, meat products, jam and jellies etc. The main advantage of dextrose over sugar is that its moderate sweetness does not obliterate the finer flavor, yet dextrose is as powerful a preservative as sugar.THERAPEUTIC VALUE: Dextrose does not require inversion like cane sugar before assimilation into the system. Being easily assimilated, it acts as a quicker energy-giving agent than sugar. Doctors in general recommend dextrose for infant feeding, for counteracting insulin shock in diabetic, in the treatment of obesity, and for keeping up the blood sugar level when work or play requires unusual exertion. Because of the above properties, dextrose monohydrate may be formulated with vitamins and minerals and sold in packets or containers as a ready formulation for use during convalescence, period of physical stress, etc.In the chemical and fermentation industries, dextrose is used extensively, as raw material. When dextrose is processed by the electrolytic or fermentative method, calcium gluconate is obtained. Hydrogenation of dextrose leads to Sorbitol, a base for Vitamin C. In manufacturing antibiotics dextrose is used as an important ingredient of the media. In the pharmaceutical industry, dextrose is used for intravenous injections, and as a binder in the compounding of tablets.ANHYDROUS DEXTROSE:Maize Products brings you India's first injectable grade of Anhydrous Dextrose IP/BP/USP for the manufacture of intravenous solutions. TECHNICAL DATA:DescriptionA white crystalline powder, odourless and sweet in taste% Moisture (Max) at 105ºC0.5% Sulphated ash (Max)0.10Acidity for 5 g (Max)0.125 ml of 0.1 N NaOH Specific rotation 10% w/v at 25ºC+52.50 to 53.20Dextrins & less soluble sugarsComplies with limit tests as perIP/BP/USP.ChloridesNot more than 125 ppmArsenicNot more than 1 ppm Heavy metalNot more than 5 ppm SulphatesNot more than 200 ppm TESTING :In addition to IP/BP/USP test parameters, each and every lot of Anhydrous Dextrose manufactured by Maize Products is tested for filtration (properties in 25% solution through 0.80 micron, 47 mm dia. filter membrane at 20 lbs. Pressure to imitate the condition of plant filtration) and to check for invisible impurities of solution. Random checks are also carried out for HMF, pyrogens and HPLC analysis.APPLICATION:A noteworthy contribution to the field of medicine, the IP/BP/USP grade Anhydrous Dextrose is used in intravenous injections vital for preventing dehydration. In many critical conditions, especially during comas, operations, excessive blood loss due to injuries, wherever oral administration is not possible and is very useful in cases of Diarrhoea & Heat strokes. Dextrose 5%, 10% or 20% helps restore fluid energy equilibrium while a normal saline solution is for prompt compensation of primary water electrolyte deprivation.SARBITOL:As a hexahydric alcohol, Sorbitol is a member of the polyhydric alcohol family, the lowest of which are ethylene glycol and glycerol. The close chemical relationship between Sorbitol and the lower alcohols (like glycol and glycerol) is responsible for the similarity in their general physical properties and applications in industrial technology.PROPERTIES: Sorbitol is soluble in water to approximately 83 parts Sorbitol in 100 parts of water by weight.Viscosity as well as specific gravity of Sorbitol 70% solution is higher than that of glycerine at the same concentration as can be seen in figure1 and Table1. Sorbitol is extremely useful as humectant. Because it is stable and non-volatile even with water vapour, there is no loss during heating or cooking or by evaporation. Unlike ethylene glycol, Sorbitol is non-toxic and non-irritant. The taste of Sorbitol is mild, sweet, cooling, and unobtrusive. Sorbitol is more resistant to bacteriological degradation than sugar. This resistance also makes it less vulnerable to mould growth than most other humectant plasticising material. Sorbitol is chemically inert and compatible with many chemical substances. In general, the hexitols and particularly Sorbitol have the ability to chelate iron, copper and aluminium ions in aqueous solutions. Sorbitol undergoes several chemical reactions like oxidation, reduction, esterification and etherification, yielding such important products as ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), Sorbitan sorbides etc.TECHNICAL DATA:SOLUTION IN WATER TEMP. 20ºCPercentage Glycerol/sorbito70Specific Gravity SorbitolGlycerolViscosity cp SorbitolGlycerol51.0201.0101.2301.143101.0401.0201.4301.212151.0601.0351.7771.311201.0751.0502.0601.517251.1001.0602.6901.77301.1201.0701.0602.1351.1401.0853.8002.5401.1601.1005.2003.2451.0901.1157.0004.1501.2101.13011.0005551.2301.14018.0006601.2601.15032.0008651.2801.17062.00011701.3051.185140.00018751.3301.200350.00028801.3701.2201.500050SpecificationsAppearanceColourless to faintD Sorbitol in 100 gmsYellow Syrupy liquidRefractive Index at 20ºCMore than 64 Gms.Specific Gravity at 20ºC1.445 to 1.465% Sulphate ash by weight (Max)More than 1.285% Reducing Sugar0.1(As Glucose ) by weight (Max)0.2pH6 to7 Arsenic part per million (Max)3 ppm Heavy metal (as lead) parts per million10 ppmChloride (Max)50 ppmSulphate (Max)100 ppm APPLICATION:In general, hexitols and their derivatives particularly Sorbitol, are used in diverse industries viz. pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, toothpastes, cigarettes, foods, textiles, adhesives, confectionery, printing ink, etc. One of the major uses of Sorbitol is as a humectant and conditioning agent. Many products under day-to-day atmospheric changes require the addition of a humectant to assist them to retain their freshness, softness and flexibility and to maintain ideal manufacturing conditions.To summarise, the principal advantages which Sorbitol exhibits over other polyols are Sorbitol GIVES UP water very slowly to dry atmosphere Sorbitol TAKES UP water very slowly from a humid atmosphere CONFECTIONERY :In candy manufacture, Sorbitol is used together with sugar to increase shelf life. The function of Sorbitol is to retard the solidification of sugar often associated with staleness in candy. It also helps to improve softness, taste and texture. In butter creams additional benefit is enhanced flavour. Sorbitol may be used in diabetic chocolates. Sorbitol is used as humectant and softener in shredded coconut, its decided advantage over invert sugar being that the darkening of the product does not occur. Sorbitol 70% added to peanut butter has been shown to reduce dryness and crumbliness and improve spreadability.TEXTILES: Sorbitol functions in textile applications basically as a dispensing agent, humectant bodying agent and sequestering agent. In printing, a paste of 2% to 3% Sorbitol solution 70% (on the weight of the gum in the dye paste) prevents levering of the paste, improves brightness and intensity of colour, assists penetration, prevents bleeding and promotes leveling.In textile sizing, Sorbitol acts as a humectant and especially in winter it preserves the film of adhesive from becoming dry and maintains its plasticity. In finishing, it gives a soft feel, good drape and proven dimension stability to the fabric.TOBACCO: The moisture content of cigarettes is very important, and change in moisture content, due to change in humidity, is minimised if Sorbitol is used as conditioner. Also Sorbitol is non-volatile and hence there is no danger of losing the conditioner during drying and other pressing operations. Sorbitol is compatible with various ingredients used in tobacco mixture. Because of its sweetness and cooling taste, Sorbitol contributes to the flavour of chewing tobacco besides conditioning the product.ADHESIVES: Sorbitol is the ideal answer since it neither loses nor absorbs any appreciable quantity of water, unlike conventional humectants like glycerine or ethylene glycol. Sorbitol increases the viscosity of the glue composition so that more water is needed, resulting in greater economy.Sorbitol functions as a moisture conditioning agent and its non-volatility ensures non-cracking labels and envelops with minimum of curling.PHARMACEUTICALS: Sorbitol finds use as a bodying agent in pharmaceutical syrups and elixirs. The use of Sorbitol in cough syrups reduces the tendency of the bottle caps to stick due to the crystallisation of the sugar present. Sorbitol is a good humectants and plasticiser and these properties make it useful in emulsion ointments, non-fat soluble ointments and gelatine capsules. Ointments, creams and pastes will show satisfactory spreading capacity with sorbitol as adjuvant.Aqueous Sorbitol Solutions are not subjected to fermentative decomposition, and that is why Sorbitol finds increasing use in the preparation of dental formulations for buckle cavity.COSMETICS: Sorbitol is widely used in cosmetics, both as a humectant to retard loss of water from O/W type of creams and as an emollient.Sorbitol solution 70% has proved a useful additive for improving the aesthetic appeal of glycerine carbolic soap by imparting better transparency. Generally speaking, Sorbitol solution 70% can replace other humectants, by weight where the humectant percentage is less than 10%.TOOTHPASTES: Sorbitol effectively replaces glycerine and sugar in toothpastes imparting the required degree of plasticity and sweetness, humectant and plasticising properties of Sorbitol.SKIN CREAM AND CREAM FOUNDATION: Sorbitol replaces glycerine as humectant and conditioning agent and helps to reduce the greasiness as well as the particle size of the disperse.EMULSION: Sorbitol retards the loss of water by evaporation from oil in water emulsion and is more effective than glycerine of the same concentration when this is less than 10%.FOODS: Sorbitol imparts to frozen desserts, body and texture, as well as some sweetness. Sorbitol is used in frozen desserts for diabetics because it is slowly absorbed from the intestine and is metabolised as fructose. In the manufacture of sugarless chewing gum, Sorbitol provides water soluble solids; further a 70% solution of Sorbitol resists fermentation of acids by micro-organisms in mouth and therefore it is believed not to contribute to the incidence of dental caries. In artificially sweetened canned fruits, the undesirable aftertaste of saccharine. In low-caloric soft drinks, sorbitol finds use as a bodying agent in addition to its use as a sequestering agent in canned soft drinks.DIABETIC DIETS: Extensive research has led to the adoption of Sorbitol to substitute sugar as sweetening agent in diabetic diets. MAIZE STARCH IP/BP/USP:Maize starch is a cereal starch having low ash and protein content. It does not thin down appreciably during the process of sizing or any other application where thick emulsion paste is required. This has an added advantage over a root starch such as tapioca or a potato starch. Maize starch is transformed into a very smooth paste within an hour or even a lesser time under pressure-cooking. As the foaming is usefully associated with high pH it is not necessary to add any of the antifoaming agents while working with maize starch, because pH of the Maize Starch paste is always maintained in the neutral range. In addition to this the starch is easily dispersed in hydrophilic media when the product is immersed in.TECHNICAL DATA:IdentificationPolyhedral granules size 2.0 to 23 um. Rounded granules size 25 to 32 um.ColorWhite to slight creamish% Moisture12 to 14 % Ash(Max)0.25% Solubles (Max)0.5% Ether extract (Max)0.25Acidity[5.0 gm in 100 ml. Ethyl Alcohol]Not more than 1ml 0.1N NaOH% Protein0.5 to 0.6 pH of 10% solution4.5 to 7.0 IronLess than 40 ppm.FlorescenceAbsentOxidising substanceAbsentMICROBIOLOGY LIMITS: (BIOLOAD)Total viable countsLess than 1000/gm Total fungal countsLess than 50/gm E.coli/10 gmAbsentSalmonella/10 gmAbsentAPPLICATION:PHARMACEUTIAL APPLICATION:Maize Starch (IP/BP/USP) is specially manufactured for the pharmaceutical Industry. The major use of starch in pharmaceutical formulation is as a binder & filler for tablets and capsules, coating and dusting media for various type of coating such as sugar and entric coating. It is widely accepted in the areas of dry granulation techniques where the active ingredients are hygroscopic and is difficult to dry after wet binding, Maize Starch (IP/BP/USP) has proved as an efficient dry-binder.WHY MAIZE STARCH (IP/BP/USP) ?Maize Starch (IP/BP/USP) is specially treated to control the bio-Load mainly Total Viable Counts [TVC], Yeast Mould and Gram -ve bacteria.The controled bio-Load facilitates the end user to improve their end product as the above mentioned bacterial contamination affects the shelf life of the product, especially in the case of antibiotic and vitamin formulations.CORN GLUTEN:Of all the grain commonly used in Live Stock & Poultry, Corn is by far the most important. Corn is palatable, readily digested by human and Monogastric and ruminant animals and is one of the best source of Metabolizeable Energy (ME) among the Grains.Corn is composed of four principal ingredients viz. Starch (Carbohydrate), Gluten (Proteinous material), Fat (Lipids) and Fibers (Cellulosic Material) and providing valuable feed ingredients to produce high quality Live Stock and Poultry. The Co-product of Corn refining form 25% to 30% of Corn processed and goes into feed product. There are four main Co-products obtained viz. Corn Gluten Meal, Gluten Feed, Corn Germ Meal and Corn steep extracts as can be seen from schemstic outline of Corn-wet milling process Corn Gluten Meal is prepared by recentrifugation, filtering and drying of gluten slurry obtained in starch gluten separation in the mill. It has a high protein, high nutrient density, high energy ingredient consisting of insoluble protein in combination with minimal quantity of starch and fiber fractions. This high protein concentrate is commonly provided at minimum 62% protein. It is highly digestible, contains ME 4131 K Cal/Kg. on D.B. for chicks and rich source of available Carotene 49-72 mg/Kg. and Xanthophyll 244-550 mg/Kg.TECHNICAL DATA:Proximate Analysis of CGM (Corn Gluten Meal) PROXIMATE ANALYSIS : % Moisture (Max)10.0% Protein on D.B. (Min)62.0% Starch on D.B. (Max)17.0 % Fat on D.B. (Max)7.0% Fiber on D.B. (Max)2.0% Ash on D.B. (Max)1.7% Total digestible Nutrient84.0FORMULATIONS: Protein quality considerations are very complex. For non-ruminants Poultry and swine protein essential amino acids must be present and biologically available in feed protein in sufficient quantity and in correct proportion to meet the needs of animal. Ruminants have been shown to be responsive to protein quality in feed mixture in a less direct way because it has a different assimilation system than non-ruminants. In formulating feed for non-ruminants it is desirable to blend corn derived feed stuff with other protein containing feed stuffs which supply sufficient amount of limiting amino acids of corn protein so the overall amino acids pattern in formulated feed is balanced for particular species being fed. Corn Gluten meal is particularly valued for its high content of methionine an essential amino acid (Approx 2%). Protein of Corn Gluten meal in contrast to other feed stuffs is very nearly adequate in lysine, methionine and tryptophan.FATS & FIBERS: The Fat content of CGM* (Approx 5%) Contributes to improvement in energy value of feeds. Moreover, the high degree of unsaturation in these fats enhances the utilization of saturated fats in other components of the feed. The high proportion of Linoleic acid an essential fatty acid in CGM (Approx 3%) is important in Poultry feeds. The use of feed stuff is affected by the fiber content. The lower fiber content of CGM is desirable for high nutrient density broiler feeds. VITAMINS :CGM is good source of carotenoids which have Vitamin A activity and all the feed stuff from corn wet milling will make important contribution of choline and B Vitamins in any formulation in which they are significant ingredients.B vitamins are not added to formulated feeds for cattle, they are of considerable importance in Poultry and swine feed.MINERALS :CGM feed stuff is high in Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium, Iron and Zinc, Steep water tends to concentrate the minerals so that the trace metal content of CGM is enriched by addition of concentrated steep water to gluten fraction. In general feeds stuff of corn wet milling make significant contribution of essential minerals and trace elements to feed formation in which they are used.ENERGY: Cattle derive almost as much energy from higher fiber lower protein Gluten feed as from Gluten Meal. Poultry and Swine-non-ruminants can Metabolize a much higher proportion of energy in corn Gluten Feed.APPLICATION:Poultry Feed: Feeding requirement of Poultry is characterized by great variability in needs according to class of birds being fed. (Chickens, Broiler, Laying hens etc.) Pigments to produce desired colour of skin and egg yolk is another special feature of poultry feeds. Feed stuff from corn wet milling has an important place in fulfilling these requirements. Most heavily used feed stuff is CGM. It is high in nutrient density and energy value, a good source of Vitamins and Minerals, high in methionine and efficient source of Xanthophylls, which are valued for their skin and yoke pigmentation.Cattle: Corn Gluten feed and steep water are widely used for cattle and other ruminants. Because of complex digestive system cattle can thrive on feeds relatively rich in fiber content and are less demanding of the quality of protein feed. CARAMEL COLOURS:Caramel color has been used for generations to improve the taste and appearance of foods and beverages. Imparting color ranging from delicate yellow to the darkest browns, it remains a versatile and cost efficient coloring agent. This unique color is now brought to you by Sayaji Sethness Ltd. - a joint venture Company promoted by Sayaji Industries Ltd. (Ahmedabad) and Sethness Products Co. (U.S.A.) to manufacture Caramel colors. Sethness Products Company is a dedicated Caramel manufacturer since 1880. Today, they have the best technology in the world. Over the century they have developed and standardized the manufacturing process to obtaxin a product that meets the highest standards. This rich experience combined with their R & D back-up is available to us to bring to you the best product to meet every possible range of color, strength and hue. Sayaji Sethness is always willing to evaluate your particular application and offer technical support to match our products with your requirements.APPLICATION:BEVERAGESBAKINGSoft drinksDark breadsBeverage productsCookiesBlended whiskeyCake Mixes DarkWines, Brandy, VermouthCake Mixes LightBeerMalted DrinksFLAVOR, SEASONINGS & SAUCESOTHERSGravy & Gravy BasesCocoa/ Chocolate Seasoning mixCoffee extenderSoy SauceTextured ProteinsCondimentsPharmaceuticalsFlavouring ExtractCandy/ LicoricePreservesVinegars Dairy products Cereals SoupsFABRILOSE:During the process of weaving, the warp threads are subjected to friction and tension. The flight of the crossing weft shuttle, the beating of the sley and the passing of the reeds cause friction. The drawing over of the cloth beam imposes tension, and the mechanical movements of the whole loom cause vibration, all of which bear upon the wrap. Unless protected by some means, the thread would wear out and fray in weaving. This, in a nutshell, is the purpose of warp sizing. For better working in the loom shed, resistance to abrasion is of vital importance. This is achieved by strengthening the warp yarn-by cementing fibres with certain adhesive substance which can be applied easily and can also be removed with equal ease when the cloth goes for bleaching and subsequent processing. Much of the success of the sizing operation depends upon the choice of the most suitable sizing ingredients, which serve the above purposePROPERTIES: FABRILOSE is a modified, thin, boiling starch. It has low and uniform viscosity, which does not change much with temperature unlike native starches, which show wide variation in viscosity. The keeping qualities of the native starch also show a marked variation, i.e. considerable degradation occurs on boiling.FABRILOSE's non-congealing characteristic, shorter boiling time, transparency of paste and lower viscosity ensure easy working, compared to thick boiling starches. Unlike gum and glues which require soaking, FABRILOSE is readily dispersed in water and can be boiled into a smooth paste without any pretreatment.One of the main drawbacks of tapioca size is that it thins down very much on boiling, resulting in an uneven pick up on the high speed machine. The viscosity of FABRILOSE does not change with boiling and ensures uniform pick up of size even on modern high speed sizing machines.TECHNICAL DATA:FabriloseABC%Moisture (Max)12 to 1412 to 1412 to 14 Viscosity in seconds of 3% paste on Ostwald U-type Viscometer at 75º C19 to 2525 to 2830 to 35pH4.5 to 74.5 to 77 to 8% Solubles0.500.500.50% Total ash (Max)0.250.250.25ADVANTAGES :FABRILOSE, because of the low viscosity ensures uniform pick up and penetration. There is a very negligible variation in viscosity on boiling, which results in uniform size from beam to beam on high speed modern sizing machines.FABRILOSE does not develop abrasive points on overdying and its flexible film gives the yarn the desired elasticity.FABRILOSE size achieves a striking balance of surface coating and penetration, which ensures effective binding and reduces the droppings considerably in the loomshed.FABRILOSE is compatible with all the ingredients used in sizing humectant, lubricant, gums, synthetic sizes, etc. FABRILOSE is easily removed during the customary desizing process. The above are deciding advantages that make FABRILOSE an ideal sizing ingredient. FABRILOSE is manufactured in different viscosities of fluidities, to suit the requirements of different types of warps. Depending upon the count and quality of the yarn, one can select a grade of FABRILOSE that will not only give penetration but enough superficial coat to counteract the abrasive action of healds and reeds at the loom stage. DEXTRINE:Dextrin is normally prepared by roasting starch in the presence of acid which materially changes the character and properties of starch. Chemically they are intermediate between starch and sugars derived from starch.PROPERTIES:Unlike starch, dextrins are soluble in water. The severity of the heat and acid treatment determines the degree of solubility, which is the basis for classifying or grading dextrins. Finished dextrins are very fine, powder varying in colour from pure white to light yellow.TECHNICAL DATA:WhiteYellow% Moisture (Max) 1010 % Ash (Max) 0.400.50pH 2.5 to 3.52.5 to 3.5% Cold water soluble (Min)45*85*% Reducing sugar (Min)6 to 83 to 5* As per need of the customerAPPLICATION:As dextrins do not easily react with chemicals, they are especially suitable for application in the textile field. In textiles printing, they are used as thickeners. Free of grit and other impurities, which usually accompany lower grades of starch, they ensure that the copper rolls (used in printing) do not suffer from abrasion. In sizing, they are used with starch for increased adhesiveness. In finishing, they give desired feel and handle to the fabric.The tack or stickiness of dextrin is increased by adding caustic soda or borax. The adhesive thus formed is widely used in various industries. In the adhesive industry itself, dextrins are preferred to glue which has an unpleasant odour and is subject to rapid bacterial decomposition. They are also preferred to starch, as they need less or no cooking and much less water to form the paste. This means reducing drying time and little likelihood of mould infection in warm climates. As adhesives, dextrin are thus used with greater advantage in book binding, carton sealing, cigarette pasting, label pasting of all kinds, paper box making, gum tapes, spiral tube winding etc. In dyestuff industry it is used as extenders.The role of dextrin in foundries is well-known. Here the main function is to give good green strength to moulds and to prevent deformation of the core, which is considerably handled before being fired in the oven. Another important point is that dextrin does not make the core too dense, so that there are no trapped gases which cause blow holes. All these advantages make dextrin very good as core binding materials.IDEAL FOR DRY DISTEMPER: Dextrin are largely used in dry distemper. 2% to 3% of dextrin mixed with chalk and pigment, acts as a carrier and imparts good adhesions of the colour to the wall.MAPROTON:Cationic starches represent a unique class of high performance starch derivatives which have gained commercial acceptance because of their affinity towards negatively charged substrate such as cellulose, aqueous suspensions of minerals and slimes and biologically active macromolecules. They have already found extensive use in the paper manufacture in which they function as internal binders and retention aids for various fillers and emulsions and are added to the paper furnish before the sheet is formed. They are effective for improving such physical properties of paper as bursting and tensile strength, elongation, fold endurance, and pick resistance. Usually 0.5% to 1% addition of cooked cationic starch, gives the same improvement in the paper as does 1.5% to 2% addition of corn starch. Other benefits of the cationic starches are improved drainage on the wire, better sheet formation and enhancement of the sizing efficiency of an alum rosin size. Cationic starches also improve the retention of fillers such as titanium dioxide, clay, calcium carbonate which are frequently incorporated in the furnish to improve the opacity of high grade printing papers, fine writing papers, light weight papers such as bread wraps, glassine, etc. With increasing filler retention, the sheet loses strength because inert fillers reduce the number of sites for fiber to fiber bonding. Because cationic starch acts both to improve strength properties and filler retention. Its use gives high strength properties at higher level of filler retentionA possible explanation for the improved strength obtains with cationic starch is that ionic attraction promotes a more intimate contact between the fiber surface and starch hydroxyls to increase hydrogen bond formation when the sheet is dried. TECHNICAL DATA:% Moisture (Max)14.00% Ash (Max)0.5 % Nitrogen0.20 +/- 0.02CHEMICAL COMPOSITION: MAPROTON is a modified starch, which possesses a cationic (positive) charge in water. The active group is a nitrogen compound, which is capable of forming salt. In aqueous solution these salts dissociate giving a positively charged starch radical.AFFINITY FOR CELLULOSE: The normal electro-kinetic potential of cellulosic fiber in water is negative. Thus, when MAPROTON is added to negative fiber system rapid absorption of MAPROTON occurs on the fiber surface. MAPROTON is more or less completely retained by the fiber system where as ordinary starch is far less retained. A beater starch will be efficient in the pulp alum system where as MARPROTON functions in the alum and alum free system.The retention mechanism of the starch is explained by: Filtration of the starch during sheet formation on the wire.Absorption of positively charged starch alum agglomerate by the negatively charged fiber.Direct absorption of the starch on to the fibers by hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of the starch and hydroxyl groups of the cellulose Under ordinary paper making conditions all the three mechanisms function to a degree resulting in increased strength properties in sheet. In practice, starch retention lies in a range of 50% to 70% of that added. The excess is lost in white water. In case of MAPROTON, bonding occurs directly between the polymer and cellulose and does not require aluminium floc as intermediary. The opposite electrostatic charge between polymer and fiber increases the starch retention to almost 100% and this makes MAPROTON a superior wet-end additive.RETENTION AID FOR FILLERS: Filler retention is expressed as a percentage of fillers found in the paper to the weight of fillers present in the breast-box stuff calculated on the same dry fiber basis.When all the chemical additives are absent filler retention is around 20% to 50%.MAPROTON is important in improving filler retention. China Clay, Calcium Carbonate etc. are covered with hydroxyl groups. These hydroxyl groups are attached from the aqueous medium and cause a negative electro-kinetic potential. The positively charged nitrogen group in MAPROTON radical is the reason for the combination between the polymer and negatively charged filler particles. MAPROTON combines therefore with Cellulose and China Clay.Another successful application of MAPROTON is the improvement of titanium dioxide retention. The negative charges of titanium dioxide in water may be due to screening demand of the titanium ion, which causes it to attract positive hydroxyl ions.From the above it may be concluded that MAPROTON is capable of bonding with negatively charged pigment particles and cellulose. In this way filler, fiber and fines are effectively bonded together. Because of these several bonds between MAPROTON polymer, fibers and fillers, a more effective flocculation occurs, resulting in an improved retention of fillers and fines on the machine wire.DOSAGE: Usual dosage of MAPROTON recommended is between 0.5% to 1.0% on the dry weight of cellulose and no solution of anionic substances such as anionic defoamers should be present in the system because they will affect efficiency of MAPROTON as a retention aid. After the addition of MAPROTON the furnish should not pass regions of high hydrodynamic shear. This can result in the irreversible breakdown of the filler agglomerate. Typical vigorous agitation in centricleaners and hydro cyclone is detrimental.PREPARATION OF SOLUTION: MAPROTON is used as a solution in water and 5% to 10% solution can be prepared in a tank by agitation and heating with steam for about half an hour.The stock solution so prepared should be diluted while stirring to 0.5% to 1% concentration and passed through a fine mesh before adding it to the furnish. This reduces the viscosity and allows intimate contact.OPERATING PROCEDURE: One method of addition is to meter 5% solution of MAPROTON in the machine circulating water so that the solution reaching the fan pump is 0.5% to 1% approximately. Sufficient time should be allowed for adequate mixing of back water and concentrated MAPROTON solution.Another procedure is to dilute the concentrated solution by metering both the additional water and concentrated MAPROTON solution through a mixer; so, the material reaching the second stage dilution tank is premixed. From this the solution can be delivered to each machine through rot meter.In case of completely closed stock supply system 0.5% to 1% MAPROTON solution should be added to the diluted stock with the aid of high pressure metering pump after centrifugal cleaners, but just before the pressure head box.The MAPROTON solution must be completely and thoroughly mixed at the point of addition. This is highly essential as incomplete mixing results in the formation of flocks and streaks on the wire. As a general rule, lower the pulp consistency, more uniform is the distribution of MAPROTON.Therefore, the point of addition is very important and it should be added at a point where it will be adequately mixed by natural turbulence i.e.Across the first compartment of the breast box or head box. For breast box addition it is recommended to use a shower pipe which will distribute the solution of MAPROTON evenly across the complete width of the breast box. At the exit side of the secondary fan pump, to achieve good mixing in the laminar flow of the discharge pipe of the fan pump, the feed should end in multiple taps around the discharge pipe.To evaluate the advantages or efficiency the stock is sampled in the breast box for ash determination. The tray water should be analyzed for fiber and filler solids and strength characteristics of the finished paper should be recorded.The changes in the vacuum up to and including couch should be recorded. In short the use of MAPROTON has the following advantages: 1. Increase in filler and fiber retention2. Increase in the strength property of the paper3. Decrease of the suspended solids in the final effluent4. Reduces BOD in the mill effluent. SAYABOND:SAYABOND is a ready-mix corrugation adhesive made from Maize Starch. It is specially developed for use in the corrugated paper packaging boards keeping in mind the advantages of consistency and perfection in quality.PREPARATION OF CORRUGATION PASTE FROM SAYABOND:The ratio is 1:3.6 (1kg SAYABOND to 3.6 lt. Of Water). Take water in a container and stir it with a stirrer at 900-rpm. While the stirring is in progress, add SAYABOND gradually in to the vertex of water formed by stirrer. Continue the stirring for 20 minutes.The SAYABOND to water ratio may however, be changed to ensure required viscosity depending on the gsm, quality of paper and single facer or double backer bonding.TECHNICAL DATA:AppearanceOff white powder % Moisture (Max)14.0 pH10.5 to 11.5 % Ash5 to 7Viscosity of 1:36 at ambient temp.on Ford Cup No.450 +/- 10Secs.(Depending upon the requirement)Bulk Density0.55 to 0.65 gram/mlPenetrationNormalPaste ClarityOpaqueCoverageGoodBondingSuperbSettingFastestDelaminationNoFermentationNoToxicityNoShelf lifeOne year SAYASTICK:SAYASTICK is a modified starch powder suitable for making Pasting Liquid Glue (by hot process) on semi-automatic lamination/pasting machine. SAYASTICK is used for making 3-ply and 5-ply paperboards from two ply, in those units where the double backer facility is not available. Also one can use SAYASTICK for making 7-ply board from 5-ply board.PREPARATION OF LIQUID GLUE FROM SAYASTICK: In a tank equipped with heating arrangements, either by steam or by Electricity. Take water four times the weight of powder, Slowly disperse the powder in the water or then start heating. The stirrer should continuously run for all the time and when the temperature reaches 85º to 90º C., then stop heating. The gum is ready for use. The gum should have a temperature of 45º to 50º C., when it is taken in a tray for application. Depending on the required viscosity, water can be added to the glue.TECHNICAL DATA:AppearanceOff white powder % Moisture (Max)14.0pH8.5-9.5 % Ash4.0-6.0 Viscosity of 20% solution on Ford Cup No.4 at 90ºC 1:4 ratio 15-20 Sec. (Depending upon the requirement)Bulk Density0.55 to 0.65 Gram/ml.PenetrationNormalPaste ClarityOpaqueCoverageGoodBondingSuperbSettingFastestDelaminationNoFermentationNoToxicityNoShelf lifeOne year SAYATEX:CoatingZISE PRESS COATING China clay100 parts100 partsWater 45 parts45 partsDispersant0.3 parts0.3 partsSayatex17 parts20 partsWater37 parts60 partsSynthetic Latex6 parts 10 partsCalcium Stearate2 parts-Water to add-68 partsTYPICAL ANALYSIS :% Moisture (Max)12% Whiteness + 85Viscosity of 20% paste By Ostwald ViscometerAt 75ºC20-60 sec.Higher Viscosity as per Customer's requirements can be given.MACHINE AND OFF MACHINE COATING: The purpose of SAYATEX is to bind the pigment particles to each other, to the base stock, and also to act as a vehicle for the pigment and regulate ink receptivity.Synthetic Latex is used together with the starch, to impart flexibility and wet rub resistance to the coated paper.In general, cooking the solution separately and then adding it to the clay slip previously dispersed in water with the aid of dispersant prepare coated colour. It is also possible to cook in presence of the pigment. In general, additives (such as latex, etc.) of the binder are added last.APPLICATION:SAYATEX is dispersed in requisite amount of cold water with continuous stirring. It is then cooked at 85-90º C. The temperature is maintained for 20-30 minutes and the starch is ready for use.One of the main applications of SAYATEX starches is in the paper industry, either as a wet end additive or for the surface treatment of paper and board.AS A WET-END ADDITIVE :For this purpose, the recommended amount is 0.5% to 1% on the dry weight of pulp and should be used in conjunction with rosin size for more effective precipitation of rosin alum complex. This action increases the ink and water resistance of a finished sheet. Use of SAYATEX has the advantage of increasing the filler retention as well as the strength properties of the sheet. In the conventional system it can be added as paste or solution at the beater, and in a continuous system just before the refiners.