Parkinson’S Disease


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Parkinson’S Disease

  1. 1. By: Trudie Harrison, Krista Lawler, Todd Bender, & Natasha Flores
  2. 3. <ul><li>Parkinson disease is a brain disorder.  It occurs when certain nerve cells (neurons) in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra die or become impaired. Normally, these cells produce a vital chemical known as dopamine. Dopamine allows smooth, coordinated function of the body's muscles and movement.  When approximately 80% of the dopamine-producing cells are damaged, the symptoms of Parkinson disease appear. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>The key signs of Parkinson disease are: </li></ul><ul><li>Tremor (shaking) </li></ul><ul><li>Slowness of movement </li></ul><ul><li>Rigidity (stiffness) </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty with balance </li></ul><ul><li>Other signs of Parkinson disease may include: </li></ul><ul><li>Small, cramped handwriting </li></ul><ul><li>Stiff facial expression </li></ul><ul><li>Shuffling walk </li></ul><ul><li>Muffled speech </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Early symptoms of PD are subtle and occur gradually.  In some people the disease progresses more quickly than in others. Slow progressively moving disease. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Parkinson disease affects both men and women in almost equal numbers.  It shows no social, ethnic, economic or geographic boundaries.  In the United States, it is estimated that 60,000 new cases are diagnosed each year, joining the 1.5 million Americans who currently have Parkinson disease.  While the condition usually develops after the age of 65, 15% of those diagnosed are under 50. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Genetics – 15 – 25% of people with Parkinson's report having a relative with the disease . The vast majority of Parkinson's cases are not directly inherited, but researchers have discovered several genes that can cause the disease in a small number of families. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Factors - Epidemiological research has identified several factors that may be linked to PD, including rural living, well water, herbicide use and exposure to pesticides. </li></ul><ul><li>There is though no evidence to prove there is environmental factors that cause Parkinsons. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Carbidopa/Levodopa-may cause- low blood pressure, nausea, confusion, dry mouth, dizziness. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbidopa/Levodopa-(controlled release) may cause-low blood pressure, nausea, confusion, dry mouth, dizziness. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbidopa/Levodopa- Entacapone-may cause- nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, dizziness, harmless discoloration of urine, saliva and/or sweat. </li></ul><ul><li>Along with these medications you can take Dopamine- which is a drug that stimulates the parts of the human brain that receive dopamine. </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Vitamin E- has been suggested to lower the risk of PD risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Health Food- papaya and blueberries have been suggested to slow nerve cell death. </li></ul><ul><li>Neither one of these medications have provided any real evidence that they slow down the progression of Parkinson’s or manages symptoms. </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Newest Version of surgery- DBS, (deep brain stimulation) this was developed in 1990 and is the standard treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>-How this surgery is done – </li></ul><ul><li>Electrodes are inserted into the targeted brain region using MRI and neurophysiological mapping to ensure that they are in the right place. Next an impulse generator or IPG (similar to a pacemaker) is implanted under the collarbone to provide an electrical impulse to a part of the brain involved in motor function. Patients have a controller, which allows them to check the battery and to turn the device on or off. An IPG battery lasts for three to five years and is easy to replace under local anesthesia. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Has No Known Cure
  11. 14. <ul><li>Patient and Doctor relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Support Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><li>Physical, Speech and Occupational Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Trials </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Choosing a doctor is very important for a person with parkinson’s since they may work with a doctor for many years. </li></ul><ul><li>A person should feel comfortable communicating with their neurologist. </li></ul><ul><li>A person should have an open line of communication with their neurologist. </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Support groups can provide a caring environment for asking questions about parkinson’s. </li></ul><ul><li>People who attend support groups can share stories, form friendships and trade advice with people who have experienced similar problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people find online support groups beneficial. </li></ul><ul><li>To find a support group a person can call or email the Parkinsons Disease Foundation. </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>A poor appetite and inadequate food intake affect many people who have parkinsons. </li></ul><ul><li>A person who has parkinsons should maintain a full diet that contains all the daily nutritional requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Extra fresh fruits and vegetables can help prevent constipation’ </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking plenty of fluids can help prevent dehydration . </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>These types of therapies can help parkinsons patients control their symptons and make their daily life easier. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical therapy may increase muscle strength. </li></ul><ul><li>Speech therapy can help increase voice volume and assist with word pronunciations. </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational therapy give people alternative methods of doing tasks that they can no longer perform with ease. </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>Clinical trials help researchers answer specific questions about the safety and efficacy of new treatments by studying its effects on people. </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical trials are essential and necessary components of the scientific research process. </li></ul><ul><li>Without clinical trials and research there would not be a possibility of finding a cure in the future. </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Richard Sidman et all of the Harvard Institutes of Medicine in Boston injected African green monkeys with a chemical that damages neurons that make dopamine. (Much like the effects of Parkinson’s.) </li></ul><ul><li>Later these monkeys were injected with neural stem cells from human fetuses that had been miscarried at 13 weeks. A month later the monkeys showed marked recoveries. </li></ul><ul><li>Team now plans to see if immunosuppressive drugs and repeat injections can prolong the benefits over the longer term. (New Scientist, 2007.) </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Israeli researchers at the Fourth International Scientific Symposium on Tea and Human Health in Washington D.C. experimented with animal neurons that had been chemically poisoned to model the death of dopamine producing cells in Parkinson’s Disease. </li></ul><ul><li>In this test tube study, low doses of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) revived sick and dying neurons. The withered cells became fatter and more robust. </li></ul><ul><li>Second study mice got oral doses of EGCG (comparable to what me might receive from 3 – 4 cups of green tea)for 2 weeks after the animals already lost about half their dopamine making cells. Dopamine production rebounded for these animals. Not sure yet if it permenently rescued the cells or just bought the animals extra time. </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Parkinson’s Disease has been connected to exposure to pesticides. People exposed to low levels of pesticides had a 9 percent higher risk of developing Parkinson's, say the researchers, who work at Aberdeen University. People exposed to high levels had a 39 percent greater risk. Several North American studies have also connected Parkinson's and pesticides. </li></ul><ul><li>The study also found that being knocked unconscious ups the risk of Parkinson's . One knockout increased the odds of getting the disease by 28 percent More than one knockout increased the odds by 156 percent. </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>People who exercise regularly and vigorously more than just an occasional stroll around the block may see their efforts rewarded with a lowered risk of Parkinson's disease. That's the promising news from researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health who found that subjects who were the most active, performing 30 minutes of moderate to intense physical exercise a day, had a 40% lower chance of developing the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Gene therapy may be living up to its promise. Dramatic and sustained improvements have been reported in the first people to get gene therapy for Parkinson's disease. In all 12 patients, symptoms improved by at least 25 percent for up to a year after the treatment, as measured by standard tests of Parkinson's severity. </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>Damlo, Sherri. “AAN Releases Recommendations on Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.” American Family Physician 75.6 (3/15/2007): 922+. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Injection of Brain Cells Offers Hope for Parkinsons.” New Scientist 194.2608 (6/16/2007): 67. </li></ul><ul><li>Parkisons Disease:An Overview . Ed. Parkinsons Disease Foundation. 10/22/2007. Parkinsons Disease Foundation. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Parkisons Disease: Causes . Ed. Parkinsons Disease Foundation. 10/22/2007. Parkinsons Disease Foundation. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Parkisons Disease: Medication & Treatments . Ed. Parkinsons Disease Foundation. 10/22/2007. Parkinsons Disease Foundation. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Parkisons Disease:Surgical Treatments . Ed. Parkinsons Disease Foundation. 10/22/2007. Parkinsons Disease Foundation. <>. </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>Parkisons Disease: Symptoms . Ed. Parkinsons Disease Foundation. 10/22/2007. Parkinsons Disease Foundation. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Pesticides Linked to Parkinsons.” Current Science 9/21/2007: 13. 22 Oct 2007 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Raloff, Janet. “Tea Compound Aids Dying Brain Cells.” Science News 172.13 (9/29/2007): 206. </li></ul><ul><li>The Role of The Patient . Ed. Parkinsons Disease Foundation. 10/22/2007. Parkinsons Disease Foundation. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Vastag, Brain. “Brain Stem Cells Help Parkinson's Monkeys.” Science News 172.3 (7/21/2007): 45. </li></ul>