Neck Dissections

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Neck Dissections

  1. 1. Neck Dissections: Classifications, Indications, and Techniques Dr Kuljinder Sodhi
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Status of the cervical lymph nodes </li></ul><ul><li>is important prognostic factor in SCCA of the upper aerodigestive tract </li></ul><ul><li>Cure rates drop in half when there is </li></ul><ul><li>regional lymph node involvement </li></ul>
  3. 3. SURGICAL ANATOMY <ul><li>Fascial layers of the neck </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial cervical fascia </li></ul><ul><li>Deep cervical fascia </li></ul><ul><li>– Superficial layer </li></ul><ul><li>SCM, strap muscles, trapezius </li></ul><ul><li>– Middle or Visceral Layer </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid,Trachea, esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>– Deep layer (also prevertebral fascia) </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebral muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Phrenic nerve </li></ul>
  4. 4. Muscles of the neck <ul><li>Sternocleidomastoid Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>medial third of clavicle(clavicular </li></ul><ul><li>head), manubrium (sternal head) </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion – mastoid process </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve supply – spinal accessory </li></ul><ul><li>Blood supply – </li></ul><ul><li>1) occipital a. or direct from ECA </li></ul><ul><li>2) superior thyroid a. </li></ul><ul><li>3) transverse cervical a. </li></ul><ul><li>Function – </li></ul><ul><li>turns head toward opposite side and tilts head toward the ipsilateral shoulder </li></ul>
  5. 5. Omohyoid muscle <ul><li>Origin – upper border of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion – 1) via the intermediate tendon </li></ul><ul><li>onto the clavicle and first rib </li></ul><ul><li>2) hyoid bone lateral to the sternohyoid muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Blood supply – Inferior thyroid a. </li></ul><ul><li>Function – </li></ul><ul><li>1) depress the hyoid </li></ul><ul><li>2) tense the deep cervical fascia </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical considerations </li></ul><ul><li>– Absent in 10% of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>– Landmark demarcating level III from IV </li></ul><ul><li>– Inferior belly lies superficial to The brachial plexus, Phrenic nerve, transverse cervical vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Superior belly lies superficial to IJV </li></ul>
  6. 6. TRAPEZIUS <ul><li>Origin – </li></ul><ul><li>1) medial 1/3 of the sup. Nuchal line </li></ul><ul><li>2) external occipital protuberance </li></ul><ul><li>3) ligamentum nuchae </li></ul><ul><li>4) spinous process of C7 and T1-T12 </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion – </li></ul><ul><li>1) lateral 1/3 of the clavicle </li></ul><ul><li>2) acromion process </li></ul><ul><li>3) spine of the scapula </li></ul><ul><li>Function – elevate and rotate the scapula and </li></ul><ul><li>stabilize the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical considerations </li></ul><ul><li>– Posterior limit of Level V neck dissection </li></ul><ul><li>– Denervation results in shoulder drop and winged scapula </li></ul>
  7. 7. DIGASTRIC MUSCLE <ul><li>Origin – digastric fossa of the mandible </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion – </li></ul><ul><li>1) hyoid bone via the intermediate tendon </li></ul><ul><li>2) mastoid process </li></ul><ul><li>Function – 1) elevate the hyoid bone </li></ul><ul><li>2) depress the mandible (assists </li></ul><ul><li>lateral pterygoid) </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical considerations </li></ul><ul><li>“ Residents friend” </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior belly is superficial to: </li></ul><ul><li>ECA, Hypoglossal nerve, ICA, IJV </li></ul><ul><li>– Anterior belly </li></ul><ul><li>Landmark for identification of mylohyoid for dissection of the submandibular triangle </li></ul>
  8. 8. MARGINAL MANDIBULAR NERVE <ul><li>Should be preserved in neck dissections </li></ul><ul><li>Most commonly injury dissection level Ib </li></ul><ul><li>Can be found: </li></ul><ul><li>– 1cm anterior and inferior to angle of mandible </li></ul><ul><li>Deep to fascia of the submandibular gland </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial to adventitia of the facial vein </li></ul>
  9. 9. SPINAL ACCESSORY N. <ul><li>Originates in the spinal nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Passes through two foramen </li></ul><ul><li>– Foramen Magnum – enters the skull posterior to the vertebral artery </li></ul><ul><li>– Jugular Foramen – exits the skull with CN IX,X and the IJV </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital artery crosses the nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Descends obliquely in level II </li></ul><ul><li>(forms Level IIa and IIb) </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrates the deep surface of the SCM Exits posterior surface of SCM deep to Erb’s point </li></ul><ul><li>Traverses the posterior triangle ensheathed by the superficial cervical fascia and lies on the levator scapulae </li></ul><ul><li>Enters the trapezius approx. 5 cm above the clavicle </li></ul>
  10. 10. PHRENIC NERVE <ul><li>Sole nerve supply to the diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied by nerve roots C3-5 </li></ul><ul><li>Runs obliquely toward midline on the anterior surface of anterior scalene </li></ul><ul><li>Covered by prevertebral fascia </li></ul><ul><li>Lies posterior and lateral to the carotid sheath </li></ul>
  11. 11. HYPOGLOSSAL N. <ul><li>Motor nerve to the tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Cell bodies are in the Hypoglossal nucleus of the Medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>Exits the skull via the hypoglossal canal </li></ul><ul><li>Lies deep to the IJV, ICA, CN IX, X, and XI </li></ul><ul><li>Curves 90 degrees and passes between the IJV and ICA </li></ul><ul><li>Extends upward along hyoglossus muscle and into the genioglossus to the tip of the tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Iatrogenic injury Most common site - floor of the submandibular triangle, just deep to the duct </li></ul>
  12. 12. STAGING OF THE NECK <ul><li>“ N” classification AJCC (1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent for all mucosal sites except the </li></ul><ul><li>nasopharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid and nasopharynx have different </li></ul><ul><li>staging based on tumor behavior and </li></ul><ul><li>prognosis </li></ul>
  13. 13. NODAL STAGE <ul><li>NX: Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed </li></ul><ul><li>N0: No regional lymph node metastasis </li></ul><ul><li>N1: Metastasis in a single ipsilateral lymph node, < 3 </li></ul><ul><li>N2a: Metastasis in a single ipsilateral </li></ul><ul><li>lymph node 3 to 6 cm </li></ul><ul><li>N2b: Metastasis in multiple ipsilateral </li></ul><ul><li>lymph nodes, none more than 6 cm </li></ul><ul><li>N2c: Metastasis in bilateral or contralateral nodes < 6cm </li></ul><ul><li>N3: Metastasis in a lymph node more than 6 cm in greatest dimension </li></ul>
  14. 14. LYMPH NODE LEVELS
  15. 15. Patterns of lymphatic metastasis are as follows: <ul><li>With oral, tongue, retromolar trigone, and tonsillar fossa subsites, the jugulodigastric, submandibular, and midjugular lymph node stations are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>With the floor of the mouth as the subsite, the submandibular and jugulodigastric lymph node stations are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>With the soft palate, base of the tongue, oropharynx, supraglottis, and hypopharynx subsites, the jugulodigastric, midjugular, and contralateral lymph node stations are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>With the nasopharynx as the subsite, lymph node stations of the widest nodal distribution are involved . </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Contralateral metastasis is found in the supraglottis, the base of the tongue, and the posterior pharyngeal wall palate. </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral metastasis is found in the nasopharynx, the base of the tongue, the soft palate, the floor of mouth, and the supraglottis. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple cervical metastases (adenocarcinoma) occur with thyroid carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Nodal metastasis
  18. 18. Classification of Neck Dissections <ul><li>Academy’s classification </li></ul><ul><li>1) Radical neck dissection (RND) </li></ul><ul><li>2) Modified radical neck dissection (MRND) </li></ul><ul><li>3) Selective neck dissection (SND) </li></ul><ul><li>Supra-omohyoid type </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral type </li></ul><ul><li>Posterolateral type </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior compartment type </li></ul><ul><li>4) Extended radical neck dissection </li></ul>
  19. 19. Medina classification (1989) <ul><li>Comprehensive neck dissection </li></ul><ul><li>Radical neck dissection </li></ul><ul><li>Modified radical neck dissection </li></ul><ul><li>Type I (XI preserved) </li></ul><ul><li>Type II (XI, IJV preserved) </li></ul><ul><li>Type III (XI, IJV, and SCM preserved) </li></ul><ul><li>Selective neck dissection (previously </li></ul><ul><li>described) </li></ul>
  20. 20. RADICAL NECK DISSECTION <ul><li>All lymph nodes in Levels I-V including spinal accessory nerve (SAN), SCM, and IJV </li></ul><ul><li>Indications </li></ul><ul><li>– Extensive cervical involvement or matted lymph nodes with gross extracapsular spread and invasion into the SAN, IJV, or SCM </li></ul>
  21. 21. Modified Radical Neck Dissection (MRND) <ul><li>Excision of same lymph node bearing regions as RND with preservation of one or more nonlymphatic structures (SAN, SCM, IJV) </li></ul><ul><li>Type I: Preservation of SAN </li></ul><ul><li>Type II: Preservation of SAN and IJV </li></ul><ul><li>Type III: Preservation of SAN, IJV, and </li></ul><ul><li>SCM </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>TYPE I TYPE II </li></ul><ul><li>TYPE III </li></ul>
  23. 23. MRND Type I <ul><li>Indications </li></ul><ul><li>– Clinically obvious lymph node metastases </li></ul><ul><li>– SAN not involved by tumor </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale </li></ul><ul><li>RND vs MRND Type I: </li></ul><ul><li>Actuarial 5-year survival and neck failure rates for RND (63% and 12%) not statistically different compared to MRND I (71% and 12%)(Andersen) </li></ul><ul><li>No difference in pattern of neck failure </li></ul>
  24. 24. MRND Type II <ul><li>Indications </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely planned </li></ul><ul><li>Intraoperative tumor found adherent to the </li></ul><ul><li>SCM, but not IJV and SAN </li></ul>
  25. 25. MRND III <ul><li>Rationale </li></ul><ul><li>Suarez (1963) – surgery specimens of </li></ul><ul><li>larynx and hypopharynx – lymph nodes do not share </li></ul><ul><li>the same adventitia as adjacent BV’s </li></ul><ul><li>Sharpe (1981) showed ) 0% involvement of the SCM in </li></ul><ul><li>98 RND specimens despite 73 have nodal metastases </li></ul><ul><li>Survival approximates MRND Type I assuming IJV, </li></ul><ul><li>and SCM not involved </li></ul><ul><li>Neck dissection of choice for N0 neck </li></ul><ul><li>TYPE III </li></ul>
  26. 26. Selective Neck Dissections <ul><li>Cervical lymphadenectomy with preservation of one or more lymph node groups </li></ul><ul><li>Four common subtypes: </li></ul><ul><li>Supraomohyoid neck dissection </li></ul><ul><li>Posterolateral neck dissection </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral neck dissection </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior neck dissection </li></ul>
  27. 27. SELECTIVE NECK DISSECTION <ul><li>Also known as an elective neck dissection </li></ul><ul><li>Indication: primary lesion with 20% or greater risk of occult metastasis </li></ul><ul><li>May elect to upgrade neck intraoperatively </li></ul><ul><li>Frozen section needed to confirm SCCA in suspicious node (Rassekh) </li></ul><ul><li>Need for post-op XRT </li></ul>
  28. 28. SND: Supraomohyoid type <ul><li>Indications </li></ul><ul><li>Oral cavity carcinoma with N0 neck </li></ul><ul><li>Subsites - Lips, buccal mucosa, upper and lower </li></ul><ul><li>alveolar ridges, retromolar trigone, hard palate, and </li></ul><ul><li>anterior 2/3s of the tongue and FOM </li></ul><ul><li>– Medina recommends SOHND with T2-T4NO </li></ul><ul><li>or TXN1 (palpable node is <3cm, mobile, and </li></ul><ul><li>in levels I or II) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Bilateral SOHND <ul><li>Anterior tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Oral tongue and FOM that approach the midline </li></ul><ul><li>Adjuvant XRT given to patients with </li></ul><ul><li>> 2positive nodes +/- ECS. </li></ul>SND: Lateral Type • Definition – En bloc removal of the jugular lymph nodes including Levels II-IV
  30. 30. SND: Lateral Type <ul><li>En bloc removal of the jugular lymph nodes </li></ul><ul><li>including Levels II-IV </li></ul><ul><li>Indications </li></ul><ul><li>N0 neck in carcinomas of the oropharynx,hypopharynx, supraglottis, and larynx </li></ul>
  31. 31. SND: Posterolateral Type <ul><li>En bloc excision of lymph bearing tissues in </li></ul><ul><li>Levels II-V </li></ul><ul><li>Indications </li></ul><ul><li>Cutaneous malignancies </li></ul><ul><li>Melanoma </li></ul><ul><li>Squamous cell carcinoma </li></ul><ul><li>Merkel cell carcinoma </li></ul><ul><li>Soft tissue sarcomas of the scalp and neck </li></ul>
  32. 32. SND: Anterior Compartment <ul><li>En bloc removal of lymph structures in Level VI </li></ul><ul><li>Perithyroidal nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Pretracheal nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Precricoid nodes (Delphian) </li></ul><ul><li>Paratracheal nodes along recurrent nerves </li></ul><ul><li>– Limits of the dissection are the hyoid bone,suprasternal notch and carotid sheaths </li></ul><ul><li>Indications </li></ul><ul><li>– Selected cases of thyroid carcinoma </li></ul><ul><li>– Parathyroid carcinoma </li></ul><ul><li>– Subglottic carcinoma </li></ul><ul><li>– Laryngeal carcinoma with subglottic extension </li></ul><ul><li>– CA of the cervical esophagus </li></ul>
  33. 33. Extended Neck Dissection <ul><li>Any previous dissection which includes removal of one or more additional lymph node groups and/or non-lymphatic structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually performed with N+ necks in MRND or RND when metastases invade structures usually preserved </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Resection of the hypoglossal nerve, resection of digastric muscle, Carotid artery resection, </li></ul><ul><li>dissection of mediastinal nodes and central compartment for subglottic involvement, and removal of retropharyngeal lymph nodes for tumors originating in the pharyngeal walls. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Incisions
  35. 35. Apron incision Half apron
  36. 36. Conley’s Double-Y
  37. 37. H incision Macfee
  38. 38. Y incision Modified schobinger <ul><li>Schobinger </li></ul>
  39. 39. Steps <ul><li>Flap raising </li></ul><ul><li>Make the skin incision through the platysma and elevate the flap in the subplatysmal plane. </li></ul><ul><li>Traction with the surgeon's fingers and countertraction by the assistant with skin hooks </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate the posterior flap toward the trapezius muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and preserve the marginal mandibular nerve at the superior aspect of the flap . </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>The contents of the submental triangle are then elevated from the inferior border of the mandible and the opposite digastric muscle off of the mylohyoid muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Dissection in the proper plane allows for an en bloc elevation of the contents into the submandibular triangle and to the posterior border of the mylohyoid muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>Retraction of the mylohyoid muscle anteriorly allows for identification of the submandibular duct, which is ligated and divided </li></ul><ul><li>The dissected contents of sublevels IA and IB are then elevated over the digastric muscle in continuity with the nondissected portion of the neck </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>The contents dissected from level I are elevated caudally to visualize the superior internal jugular vein.. </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of the SAN can be performed anterior or posterior to the SCM. </li></ul><ul><li>If the SAN can be preserved, dissection is then continued from near to IJV towards the trapezius muscle, dividing the SCM. If the SCM is going to be preserved, the SAN must be carefully dissected by identifying the nerve both anterior and posterior to the SCM. </li></ul><ul><li>A posterior to anterior dissection is then performed beginning at the anterior border of the trapezius muscle, preserving the phrenic nerve and the brachial plexus, located deep to this fascia. </li></ul><ul><li>The SAN must then be freed from the soft tissues of the posterior triangle and can be carefully retracted away from the region of dissection with a vessel loop or nerve hook. Dissection is continued to the posterior border of the SCM. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>At this point, the posterior triangle contents, with or without the SAN and SCM, have been elevated to the lateral aspect of the IJV. If the SCM is being resected, transection is performed below the mastoid tip and above the clavicle as in a RND. </li></ul><ul><li>The nodes along IJV can usually be removed en bloc with the remainder of the dissection in a posteroanterior fashion, sharply incising the fascia of the jugular vein with a scalpel blade using a feather-light touch. If the IJV requires sacrifice due to metastatic nodal involvement or tumor thrombosis, the vein is ligated and divided superiorly and inferiorly following identification and preservation of the vagus nerve. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissection is continued anteriorly, elevating the fascia and soft tissues up to the infrahyoid strap muscles and the hyoid-digastric junction. </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of a fascial layer superficial to the carotid artery is usually possible, and exposure of the carotid artery should be discouraged unless necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Suction drains are strategically placed and a layered closure is performed . </li></ul>
  43. 44. Complications <ul><li>Intraop.Cx </li></ul><ul><li>Hemorrhage </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve damage </li></ul><ul><li>Thoracic duct injury </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumothorax </li></ul><ul><li>Post op. Cx </li></ul><ul><li>Hematoma </li></ul><ul><li>Wound infection </li></ul><ul><li>Skin flap loss </li></ul><ul><li>Salivary fistula </li></ul><ul><li>Chylous fistula 500 ml </li></ul><ul><li>Facial edema </li></ul><ul><li>Carotid artery rupture </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>

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