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  1. 1. Wheat<br />Wheat is a grass, originally from the Fertile Crescent region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize (784 million tons) and rice (651 million tons). Wheat grain is a staple food used to make flour for leavened, flat and steamed breads, biscuits, cookies, cakes, breakfast cereal, pasta, noodles, couscous and for fermentation to make beer, other alcoholic beverages, or biofuel. Wheat is planted to a limited extent as a forage crop for livestock, and its straw can be used as a construction material for roofing.<br />Atta flour<br />Atta flour is a form of wheat flour commonly used in South Asian cooking. It is a whole wheat flour made from hard wheat. Hard wheats have a high protein content, so doughs made out of atta flour are strong and can be rolled out very thin. Breads made from atta flour include chapati, roti and puri.<br />It is obtained when the complete wheat grains are ground to get flour from which nothing is removed. It is creamy / brown in colour and relatively coarser as compared to flour. Since there are no removals from atta all the constituents of the wheat grain are preserved.<br />Traditionally, atta is made by stone grinding process, a process which imparts a characteristic aroma and taste to the bread. High Bran content of Atta makes it a fiber rich food. The high temperatures of friction reached in a " chakki" (stone grinder) are of the order of 110-125 deg C. At such high temperatures the carotenes present in the bran tend to give out the characteristic roasty smell of atta and contribute to the sweetness of the atta.<br />Types of flour<br />Almond flour :<br />It is made from ground almond nuts.<br />Amaranth flour<br />It is a flour produced from ground Amaranth grain. It was commonly used in pre-Columbian meso-American cuisine. It is becoming more and more available in speciality food shops.<br />Atta flour <br />It is a whole-grain wheat flour important in Indian and Pakistani cuisine, used for a range of breads such as roti, naan and chapati.<br />Bean flour <br />It is a flour produced from pulverized dried or ripe beans.<br />Brown rice flour <br />It is of great importance in Southeast Asian cuisine. Also edible rice paper can be made from it.<br />Buckwheat flour<br />It is used as an ingredient in many pancakes in the United States. In Japan, it is used to make a popular noodle called Soba. In Russia, buckwheat flour is added to the batter for pancakes called blinis which are frequently eaten with caviar. Buckwheat flour is also used to make crêpes bretonnes in Brittany. On Hindu fasting days (Navaratri mainly, also Maha Shivaratri), people eat items made of buckwheat flour. The preparation varies across India. The famous ones are Kuttu Ki Puri and Kuttu Pakoras. In most of northern and western states they call this Kuttu ka atta.<br />Cassava flour <br />is made from the root of the cassava plant. In a purified form (pure starch), it is called tapioca flour (see in list, below)<br />Chestnut flour <br /> is popular in Corsica, the Périgord and Lunigiana for breads, cakes and pastas. It is the original ingredient for " polenta" , still used as such in Corsica and other Mediterranean locations. Chestnut bread keeps fresh for as long as two weeks.[3] In other parts of Italy it is mainly used for desserts.<br />Maida flour <br /> is a finely-milled wheat flour used to make a wide variety of Indian breads such as paratha and naan. Maida is widely used not only in Indian cuisine but also in Central Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine.<br /> Noodle flour: <br /> is special blend of flour used for the making of Asian style noodles. The flour could be from wheat or rice.<br />Nut flours <br />are grated from oily nuts—most commonly almonds and hazelnuts—and are used instead of or in addition to wheat flour to produce more dry and flavourful pastries and cakes. Cakes made with nut flours are usually called tortes and most originated in Central Europe, in countries such as Hungary and Austria.etc<br />Preparation<br />Atta is obtained from grinding complete wheat grains. It is creamy brown in colour and quite coarse compared to other types of flour. Since nothing is removed from true wholemeal atta, all the constituents of the wheat grain are preserved. Atta available in market varies in its fibre content from very low to whole of natural fibre in wheat, around 12%.<br />Traditionally, atta is made by stone grinding, a process that imparts a characteristic aroma and taste to the bread. High bran content of true wholemeal atta makes it a fiber-rich food. This may help to regulate blood sugar as well have other health benefits. The temperatures attained in a chakki (mill or grinder, traditionally from stone)[1][2], produced by friction, are of the order of 110-125 deg C. At such high temperatures, the carotenes present in the bran tend to exude the characteristic roasty smell, and contribute to the sweetness of the atta.<br />The various quality control parameters for the atta industry are Ash Content, Moisture Content, Acid Insoluble Ash, Water Absorption, Alcoholic Acidity, Granulation Profile, Damaged Starch and Gluten Conten <br />As a food<br />Wheat germ crude (not whole grain)Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)Energy1,506 kJ (360 kcal)Carbohydrates51.8 gDietary fiber13.2 gFat9.72 gProtein23.15 gThiamine (Vit. B1)1.882 mg (145%)Riboflavin (Vit. B2)0.499 mg (33%)Niacin (Vit. B3)6.813 mg (45%)Pantothenic acid (B5)0.05 mg (1%)Vitamin B61.3 mg (100%)Folate (Vit. B9)281 μg (70%)Calcium39 mg (4%)Iron6.26 mg (50%)Magnesium239 mg (65%)Phosphorus842 mg (120%)Potassium892 mg (19%)Zinc12.29 mg (123%)Manganese 13.301 mg<br />Raw wheat can be powdered into flour; germinated and dried creating malt; crushed or cut into cracked wheat; parboiled (or steamed), dried, crushed and de-branned into bulgur; or processed into semolina, pasta, or roux. Wheat is a major ingredient in such foods as bread, porridge, crackers, biscuits, Muesli, pancakes, pies, pastries, cakes, cookies, muffins, rolls, doughnuts, gravy, boza (a fermented beverage), and breakfast cereals (e.g., Wheatena, Cream of Wheat, Shredded Wheat, and Wheaties).<br />Nutrition:100 grams of hard red winter wheat,contain about 12.6 grams of protein, 1.5 grams of total fat, 71 grams of carbohydrate (by difference), 12.2 grams of dietary fiber, and 3.2 mg of iron (17% of the daily requirement); the same weight of hard red spring wheat contains about 15.4 grams of protein, 1.9 grams of total fat, 68 grams of carbohydrate (by difference), 12.2 grams of dietary fiber, and 3.6 mg of iron (20% of the daily requirement)<br />Much of the carbohydrate fraction of wheat is starch. Wheat starch is an important commercial product of wheat, but second in economic value to wheat gluten.[19] The principal parts of wheat flour are gluten and starch. These can be separated in a kind of home experiment, by mixing flour and water to form a small ball of dough, and kneading it gently while rinsing it in a bowl of water. The starch falls out of the dough and sinks to the bottom of the bowl, leaving behind a ball of gluten.<br />Different products from wheat flour<br />KulchaKulcha with chole from Punjab, IndiaOriginPlace of originIndia, PakistanRegion or statePunjabDish detailsMain ingredient(s)Flour<br />Kulcha is a type of an Indian flatbread made from Maida flour. It is particularly popular in north India and Pakistan and is usually eaten with chole.<br />Kulcha is a typical Punjabi recipe, originating in Punjab. Amritsar is known for its Amritsari kulchas or Amritsari naan. Flour dough, mashed potatoes, onion (optional) and lots of spices are rolled into a flat round shape and baked in an earthen clay oven until golden brown. When baked, it is rubbed with butter and then eaten with spicy chole (chickpea curry).<br />Paratha<br />Mint Paratha from Punjab, IndiaOriginPlace of originIndiaRegion or stateIndia and other parts of southern AsiaDish detailsMain ingredient(s)Atta, Maida<br />A paratha (also spelled as parantha) is an Indian flat-bread that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Paratha is an amalgamation of the words parat) and atta which literally means layers of cooked flour.<br />It is one of the most popular unleavened flat-breads in Indian cuisine and is made by pan frying whole-wheat flour on a tava.[2] The paratha dough usually contains ghee or cooking oil which is also layered on the freshly prepared paratha.[3] Parathas are usually stuffed with vegetables such as boiled potatoes, radishes or cauliflower and/or paneer (South Asian cheese). A paratha (especially a stuffed one) can be eaten simply with a blob of butter spread on top or chutney, a spicy sauce made from yogurt and fresh herbs, but it is best served with pickles and yogurt, or thick spicy curries of meat and vegetables. Some people prefer to roll up the paratha into a tube and eat it with tea, often dipping the paratha into the tea.<br />Puri (food)<br />Puri served at an Indian restaurantOriginAlternate name(s)BooriPlace of originIndiaRegion or stateSouth AsiaDish detailsMain ingredient(s)attaVariationsBhatoora, Luchi, Sev Puri<br />Puri or poori or boori is a unleavened Indian bread, commonly consumed in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. It is consumed for breakfast or as a snack or light meal. Puri is also the name for bread in the Georgian language.<br />Puri is most commonly served at breakfast. It is also served at special or ceremonial functions, as part of ceremonial rituals along with other vegetarian food offered in prayer as prasadam.<br />Different Brands of atta<br />PillsburyAl Baker Chakki Fresh Atta Flour<br />indiaIndia <br />Annapurna chakki attaSwarna Chakki Fresh Atta Flour <br />indiaIndia <br />Chakki Atta Wheat Flour <br />Australia <br />price<br />Wheat prices fell by Rs 25 per quintal on the wholesale grains market today on sluggish demand against adequate stocks position. <br />Wheat deshi fell by Rs 25 to Rs 1,850-2,100 and wheat dara (for mills) shed Rs 10 at Rs 1,350-1,355 per quintal. <br />Marketmen said, increased supplies and expectations of higher output this season due to favourable weather conditions in growing areas mainly led to fall in wholesale wheat prices. <br />Following are today's quotations in Rs per quintal: <br />Wheat MP (deshi) 1,850-2,100, wheat dara (for mills) 1,350-1,355 chakki atta (delivery) 1,375-1,380, atta Rajdhani (10 kg) 185, Shakti bhog (10 kg) 185, Roller flour mill 740-760 (50 kg), Maida 840-870 (50 kilos) and Sooji 880-900 (50 kg). <br />packaging of atta<br />The bulk of wheat is converted into whole wheat flour or „atta‟, used to make flat bread or „rotis‟. While „atta‟ and „rotis‟ are central to Indian food, „packaged atta‟ is a novel concept. The market is characterized by traditional „chakki‟ atta, where the housewife buys grain and has <br />it freshly ground in a local flour mill or „chakki‟. The current size of the branded, packaged atta <br />is approximately one million tonnes or 2% of total market of approximately 45 million tonnes. The major market is of families where both husband & wife are working, office goers or those <br />families which don‟t have a flour mill nearby.<br />Most families still prefer going the traditional way and doubt the quality of packaged atta. <br />2%<br /> 98%<br />Packaged atta<br />flour mill atta<br />Production and consumption statistics<br />In 2003, global per capita wheat consumption was 67 kg, with the highest per capita consumption (239 kg) found in Kyrgyzstan.<br />Unlike rice, wheat production is more widespread globally though China's share is almost one-sixth of the world.<br />Top Ten Wheat Producers — 2007 (million metric ton) China109 India75.8 United States56 Russia49 France33 Pakistan23 Germany21 Canada20 Turkey17 Argentina16World Total725Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO).<br />Second largest wheat producer in the world<br />right0With a production reaching ten times in past five years, India is today the second largest wheat producer in the whole world. Various studies and researches show that wheat and wheat flour play an increasingly important role in the management of India’s food economy. Wheat production is about 70 million tonnes per year in India and counts for approximately 12 per cent of world production. Being the second largest in population, it is also the second largest in wheat consumption after China, with a huge and growing wheat demand.Production areaMajor wheat growing states in India are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Bihar. All of north is replenished with wheat cultivation. Wheat has a narrow geographic land base of production as compared to rice or pulses. Wheat is a temperate crop requiring low temperatures and most of the country is tropical. Growth promotional activitiesThe total procurement of wheat ranges from 8 to 14 million tonnes, accounting for about 11 to 20 per cent of the total production. The government system handles only a small proportion of the total wheat production and private merchants handle the large proportion. Yet the support price operation and the PDS play a significant role in maintaining reasonable and stable food grain prices in the country for both the producers and consumersIndia’s wheat production increase is driven principally by yield growth and by shift in production from other crops to wheat and an increase in cropping intensity. Among the major factors that affect yield, fertilizer use appears to have less effect in recent years while expansion in irrigated and high yielding variety (HYV) area seem to play a more important role in raising yield. Depending on the population and income growth, poverty alleviation and the rate of urbanization, a demand-supply gap may open at a rate of about 1 to 2 per cent per year which is equivalent to 0.7 to 1.4 million tonnes of wheat, growing larger over the years. Promoting rapid economic development and income growth in India which embraces the poor and particularly the rural poor, may lead to considerable growth in demand for wheat and thus an expansion in trade opportunities.<br />Table 2<br />Top five wheat exporters  Wheat production2000 exports(in millions of tons)United States 69 4 31.9 Canada 29 19.2 Australia 21.6 17.6 European Union 104.2 16.5 Argentina 12.3 12.5 SOURCE: U.S. Wheat Associates. <br />Challenges in the Wheat Industry<br />For thousands of years, all wheat, regardless of variety, was grown, harvested, and co-mingled in storage. As milling and the wheat food industry became increasingly sophisticated, companies became aware of the uniqueness and importance of wheat varieties. They now wanted to keep different classes and varieties of wheat separate at harvest and to identify which were best for what end use. For example, millers, bakers, and farmers all looked for different qualities in wheat. Thus, wheat manufacturers asked the question: Who should determine what qualities would be developed in new varieties?<br />Milling. Early millers were the first to begin to distinguish the unique qualities of different wheat species. They could tell in the milling process that all wheat was not the same. For example, some varieties of wheat were difficult to mill, produced less usable flour, and produced more " animal feed." Their customers also had increasingly sophisticated needs as baking became more mechanized. Cereal science isolated specific wheat and flour characteristics, and milling as a science and food technology had begun.<br />Baking and wheat food industry. Those who bake or prepare pasta, Asian noodles, crackers, tortillas, cakes, steam breads, and many other wheat foods long ago determined that all flour is not the same. Certain characteristics in various flours performed better when producing specific end products. Food companies need dependable flour for consistent products. After thousands of years, baking and wheat food industries have their specifications down to a science in regard to starch and protein content and a wide variety of other performance factors in various types of flour.<br />Agriculture. The farmer recognizes and needs wheat varieties that are resistant to plant, and soil, and airborne diseases and insects, that are suited to certain climates, and that are able to produce adequate bushels for the cost of production. There is very little monetary incentive provided by the food industry for specific wheat attributes. A farmer's source of profit is the production of the quantity of bushels that generate profitability for the farming operation.<br />Gauging wheat quality. Solutions to the various tensions surrounding wheat quality began in 1937. Under the bipartisan leadership of Mennel Milling in Michigan and HYPERLINK "" " _top" Nabisco in New York, legislation was written that formed four wheat quality laboratories in the United States. These Agricultural Research Service laboratories operate under the direction of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Their goal is to guide the development of new wheat varieties to meet functional and nutritional needs of food processors while considering agricultural parameters for the growing regions they serve. In addition, representatives from milling, wheat food production and agriculture collaborate through the Wheat Quality Council.<br /> Conclusion: We can conclude that wheat flour is the best nutritious food. And we proud to that the India was second largest wheat flour producing country in the whole world.<br />And Pillsbury enjoys the highest Brand Awareness, whereas Annapurna enjoys having the highest Brand Recognition.<br />