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  1. 1. A brief statement which expresses an observation on life, usually intended as a wise observation.
  2. 2. Aphorism
  3. 3. a noun or noun substitute placed next to (in apposition to) another noun to be described or defined
  4. 4. Appositive
  5. 5. An elaborate, usually intellectually ingenious poetic comparison or image, such as an analogy or metaphor in which, say a beloved is compared to a ship, planet, etc. The comparison may be brief or extended.
  6. 6. Conceit
  7. 7. a poem that celebrates, in a continuous narrative, the achievements of mighty heroes and heroines, usually in founding a nation or developing a culture, and uses elevated language and a grand, high style.
  8. 8. Epic
  9. 9. that part of the structure that sets the scene, introduces and identifies characters, and establishes the situation at the beginning of a story or play. Additional exposition is often scattered throughout the story.
  10. 10. Exposition
  11. 11. also called a Shakespearean sonnet; a sonnet form that divides the poem into three units of four lines each and a final unit of two lines (4;PL4;PL4;PL2 structure). Its classic rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg,
  12. 12. English sonnet
  13. 13. the special language of a profession or group
  14. 14. Jargon
  15. 15. is grammatically correct before the period (Fair is my love, and cruel as she’s fair.)
  16. 16. Loose Sentence
  17. 17. A crude, coarse, often bitter satire ridiculing the personal appearance or character of a person.
  18. 18. Lampoon
  19. 19. a figure of speech which substitutes one term with another that is being associated with that term. A name transfer takes place to demonstrate an association of a whole to a part or how two things are associated in some way.
  20. 20. Metonymy
  21. 21. a word capturing or approximating the sound of what it describes
  22. 22. Onomatopoeia
  23. 23. A repetition of sentences using the same structure.
  24. 24. Parallel Structure
  25. 25. is the use of a conjunction between each word, phrase, or clause, creating a feeling of multiplicity, energetic enumeration, and building up
  26. 26. Polysyndeton
  27. 27. a section of a poem demarcated by extra line spacing
  28. 28. Stanza
  29. 29. One sensory experience described in terms of another sensory experience
  30. 30. Synesthesia
  31. 31. The writer's attitude toward his readers and his subject
  32. 32. Tone
  33. 33. A statement which lessens or minimizes the importance of what is meant. The opposite is hyperbole
  34. 34. Understatement
  35. 35. the way words are put together to form phrases, clauses, and sentences
  36. 36. Syntax
  37. 37. A figure of speech wherein a part of something represents the whole thing.
  38. 38. Synecdoche
  39. 39. a literary work that holds up human failings to ridicule and censure
  40. 40. Satire
  41. 41. treating an abstraction as if it were a person by endowing it with humanlike qualities
  42. 42. Personification (or prosopopeia)
  43. 43. A play on words wherein a word is used to convey two meanings at the same time
  44. 44. Pun
  45. 45. a sentence grammatically correct only at the end
  46. 46. Periodic Sentence
  47. 47. A situation or a statement that seems to contradict itself, but on closer inspection, does not
  48. 48. Paradox
  49. 49. A poem in praise of something divine or expressing some noble idea
  50. 50. Ode
  51. 51. A regular pattern of unstressed and stressed syllables in a line or lines of poetry
  52. 52. Meter
  53. 53. a recurrent device, formula, or situation
  54. 54. Motif
  55. 55. The atmosphere or feeling created by a literary work, partly by a description of the objects or by the style of the descriptions
  56. 56. Mood
  57. 57. a sonnet form that divides the poem into one section of eight lines and a second section of six lines, usually following the abbaabba cdecde rhyme scheme
  58. 58. Italian sonnet
  59. 59. A character who sets off the main character or other characters by comparison
  60. 60. Foil
  61. 61. a fictional character, often but not always a minor character, who is relatively simple, who is presented as having few, though sometimes dominant, traits, and who thus does not change much in the course of a story
  62. 62. Flat character
  63. 63. usually a formal lament on the death of a particular person
  64. 64. Elegy
  65. 65. a monologue that reveals a character’s innermost thoughts and feelings set in a specific situation and spoken to an imaginary audience
  66. 66. Dramatic monologue
  67. 67. a pleasant combination of sounds
  68. 68. Euphony
  69. 69. A mild word of phrase which substitutes for another which would be undesirable because it is too direct, unpleasant, or offensive
  70. 70. Euphemism
  71. 71. In literature, a word of phrase preceding or following a name which serves to describe the character
  72. 72. Epithet
  73. 73. A novel consisting of letters written by a character or several characters
  74. 74. Epistolary novel
  75. 75. “ the god from the machine” who usually appears at the last moment to untangle, resolves, or reveals some key to the plot
  76. 76. Deux ex machine
  77. 77. a very short, usually witty verse with a quick turn at the end
  78. 78. Epigram
  79. 79. when a sentence or thought runs into the next couplet or line without a pause at the end of the line; a run-on line.
  80. 80. Enjambment
  81. 81. a direct and specific meaning
  82. 82. Denotation
  83. 83. might be called "reverse parallelism," since the second part of a grammatical construction is balanced or paralleled by the first part, only in reverse order
  84. 84. Chiasmus
  85. 85. A pause metrical or rhetorical, within a line of poetry which may or may not affect the metrical count
  86. 86. Caesura
  87. 87. consists of unrhymed lines in iambic pentameter
  88. 88. Blank verse
  89. 89. an unpleasant combination of sounds
  90. 90. Cacophony
  91. 91. the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers
  92. 92. Antecedent
  93. 93. the repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences
  94. 94. Anaphora
  95. 95. compares two things, which are alike in several respects, for the purpose of explaining or clarifying some unfamiliar or difficult idea or object by showing how the idea or object is similar to some familiar one
  96. 96. Analogy
  97. 97. a reference—whether explicit or implied, to history, the Bible, myth, literature, painting, music, and so on--that suggests the meaning or generalized implication of details in the story, poem, or play
  98. 98. Allusion
  99. 99. A figurative work in which a surface narrative carries a secondary, symbolic or metaphorical meaning
  100. 100. Allegory
  101. 101. A figure of speech wherein the speaker speaks directly to an absent or dead person or to something nonhuman.
  102. 102. Apostrophe