Egypt

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Egypt

  1. 1. EGYPT
  2. 2. Geography <ul><li>Fertile soil in Nile Delta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floods every spring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth of the river </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cataracts: rocky area with swift currents and rapids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too rough to use for invasions </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Two Kingdoms <ul><li>Different dialects and customs </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Egypt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the Nile Delta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worshipped a cobra goddess </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upper Egypt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South of Lower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worshipped a vulture goddess </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Old Kingdom (2650 BCE-2100 BCE <ul><li>Pyramids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tombs for rulers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers were peasants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pharaohs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute Power: God, Judge, leader of army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Owned all the land in the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for prosperity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theocracy: State ruled by religious figures </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy: organization managed by officials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharaoh's relatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No power of their own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vizier was assistant </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Middle Kingdom (2055-1650) <ul><li>Economic prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Thebes </li></ul><ul><li>Sailors and merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Fortresses along Nile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade routes through Egypt not safe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hyksos conquered M.K. </li></ul>
  6. 6. New Kingdom (1500-332) <ul><li>1st permanent army </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foot soldiers, archers, charioteers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expanded empire </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheism under Akhenaten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sun god Aten </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polytheism restored under King Tut </li></ul><ul><li>Invasions plagued Egypt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broke into small states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Egyptian ruled after 343 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks took over until Rome conquered </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Hatshepsut (15000 <ul><li>Only woman pharaoh </li></ul><ul><li>Dressed like a man </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted huge trading expedition </li></ul><ul><li>Nephew destroyed nearly everything she created </li></ul>
  8. 8. Rames II or Ramses the Great <ul><li>Led battle against the Hittites </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled for 60 years </li></ul><ul><li>Built more temples and monuments than any other pharaoh </li></ul><ul><li>Most remembered Pharaoh </li></ul>
  9. 9. Religion <ul><li>Re, Amon-Re: Sun God </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Father of the Pharaohs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anubis: Protector of the Dead </li></ul><ul><li>Osiris: Civilization of Egypt (took Anubis job) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pieces of his body was chopped up and spread around Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isis: Goddess of nature and women </li></ul><ul><li>Horus: God of sky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Son of Osiris and Isis </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Religion continued <ul><li>Obelisks: pillars w/ pyramid shaped tops </li></ul><ul><li>Priests were responsible for taking care of the gods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rituals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Festivals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mummification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tombs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs food/drink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treasures for nobles and pharaohs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Painted walls </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Daily Life <ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharaoh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priest, Gov. officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artisans and Merchants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers, miners, soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women had more rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jobs, own property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very focused on appearance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makeup, wigs, skirts, robes, jewelry </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Art, Writing, and Science <ul><li>Great Sphinx </li></ul><ul><li>Hieroglyphics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosetta Stone: Translator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greek, Demotic, and Hieroglyphic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add, subtract, multiply and divide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geometry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering: pyramids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctors and medical knowledge </li></ul></ul>

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