Hmong families in Minnesota <ul><li>During the past three decades, Hmong have made significant progresses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public assistance dependency changed from 71% in 1990 to 34% in 2000; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty rate was down from 60% in 1990 to 38% in 2000; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High school completion rates increased from 37% to 47% at the same period; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rates of homeownership changed from 0% in 1980 to 39% nationally and 54% in Minnesota in 2000; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And educational attainment with a bachelor’s degree or higher rates jumped from 4% to 8%. </li></ul></ul>Source: Grover & Todd, 2004; Thao & Pfeifer, 2004.
Hmong families in Minnesota <ul><li>Hmong are among the poorest citizens in the Twin Cities (median household income of $35,917 vs. Caucasian ($56,642) and other Asians ($51,948). </li></ul><ul><li>Their median home value of $93,200 is the lowest compared to other racial and ethnic groups’ home value (Mind the Gap, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 47 percent of the Hmong adults were not in the labor force compared to 29 percent Minnesota adults (2000 Census). </li></ul><ul><li>Only 4 percent of the Hmong in the Twin Cities have jobs in high-paying occupations, with annual salaries ranging from $60,000 to $97,000 vs. Asian (24%) and Caucasian (20%). </li></ul>
The largest Hmong population is under the age of 19 years old Source: Star Tribune (2002, April 10). 48% 32% 31% 22% Note: Youthful refers to the percentage of children between ages 5-19.
Segmented Assimilation Theory Diverse Paths of Adaptation Assimilate to the middle-class, mainstream culture Adapt and integrate biculturally Segmented assimilate to the underclass culture Sources: Portes & Rumbaut, 2001; Zhou & Banston, 1998.
Youth’s perception of parents’ acculturation: To what extent have you adopted the American ways of doing things? Note. Change the percentages in your handout. 100 113 Total 8.0 9 Very much 18.6 21 Much 61.9 70 A little 11.5 13 Note at all Percentage Frequency Scale
Acculturation Gaps Language fluency was assessed on a 5 Likert-like scale where 1 = not at all, 3 = enough to get by, and 5 = very well. Acculturation item was assessed on a 4 Likert-like scale where 1 = not at all, 2 = a little, 3 = much, and 4 = very much. * n = 30 for parents and 78 for youths for this item. Acculturation Item Parents (n = 94) Youth (n = 177) Sig. Speak English 2.63 (1.23) 3.39 (.58) < .05 Speak Hmong 4.76 (.67) 3.24 (.73) < .05 Adopted American Ways* 1.63 (.67) 2.58 (.61) < .00
Parent-Adolescent Conflict Variables Family Cohesion Parent-Child Conflict Familism (% High) (% High) (% High) Source: Portes & Rumbaut (2001). Legacies: The story of the immigrant second generation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Cambodia 24.7 55.1 33.7 Hmong 30.0 66.0 46.0 Lao 32.6 42.4 50.0 Vietnamese 27.7 49.4 43.9 Chinese 34.2 37.4 21.9 Philippines 28.6 46.7 24.3 Mexico 38.6 32.2 31.2 Cuba 35.8 38.3 24.3
Key Findings: Most Frequently Mentioned Issues of Parent-Adolescent Conflict by Youth Topic of Conflict Boys (%) Girls (%) (n=102) (n=79) Conflict with Father Getting low grades 30.23 25.70 Watching television 29.20 18.63 Helping around the house 27.14 35.70 Not doing homework 26.00 14.31 Play stereo/radio loudly 25.03 17.12 Conflict with Mother Helping around the house 35.33 54.43 Not coming home on time 28.40 39.24 How neat clothing looks 27.50 24.10 Not doing homework 26.73 23.14 Getting low grades 26.71 24.10 Note. (1) Fewer F-D conflicts vs. M-S conflicts. (2) Fathers’ conflicts were gender specific vs. mothers’
Key Findings: Issues of Most Intense Parent-Adolescent Conflict by Youth Topic of Conflict Boys (%) Girls (%) (n=102) (n=79) Conflict with Father Acting like gangsters 3.73 3.11* Doing drugs 3.29 4.00* Dyeing hair 3.31 3.05 Not wanting to get a job 3.18 3.00 Not going to school 3.09 3.54 Conflict with Mother Dyeing hair 3.21 2.56 Not going to school 3.16 3.71* Talking back to parents 3.15 3.39 Doing drugs 3.06 4.09* Drinking beer/liquor 2.94 3.89* <ul><li>Significance at p < .05 </li></ul><ul><li>Scale: 1 = very calm to 5 = very angry </li></ul>Note. Gender biased when looking at the intensity of conflicts.
Daily stress N = 286-296 51.2 219 16.1 69 8. You liked someone who didn't like you 50.0 214 16.8 72 7. You had to do almost all the cooking, cleaning, or childcare in your home because your parents had to work 50.9 218 17.1 73 6. A close family member or someone you live with got drunk or high 49.8 213 18.2 78 5. Your close friends got drunk or high 48.1 206 19.2 82 4. You heard people say bad things or make jokes about your culture or race 47.9 205 20.8 89 3. You did poorly on an exam or school assignment 43.5 186 24.3 104 2. Your parents talked about having serious money problems 39.3 168 28.3 121 1. You had to translate for one of your parents who does not speak English % Frequency % Frequency No Yes Item
Ethnic Identity (%) N = 220. Note. Most youth still have a strong ethnic identity despite the rate of acculturation and language shift. 0.9 8.6 43.2 47.3 I feel a strong attachment toward my ethnic group. 0.9 5.9 34.5 58.6 I feel good about my cultural or ethnic background. 0.9 6.4 40.5 52.3 I have a lot of pride in my ethnic group and its accomplishments. 2.3 5.5 35.9 56.4 I am happy that I am a member of the group I belong to. Somewhat disagree Strongly disagree Somewhat agree Strongly agree Item
Self-esteem (%) N = 218 37.6 13.3 20.6 28.4 At times I think I am no good at all. 29.7 10.5 24.2 35.6 I feel I do not have much to be proud of. 0.4 4.5 49.3 44.4 I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal basis with others. 6.3 1.8 43.0 47.5 I am able to do things as well as most other people. Disagree a little Disagree a lot Agree a little Agree a lot Item
Depression (%) N = 219 6.4 11.0 20.0 60.6 I felt depressed. 4.6 7.8 29.4 58.3 In the past week I felt sad. Most of the time (5 to 7 days a week) Occasionally (3 to 4 days a week) Some of the time (1 to 2 days a week) Rarely (less than once a week) Item
Delinquent acts Problem/Delinquent Behavior No Yes run away from home 159 29 cut classes 107 81 taken a car 159 29 beat up somebody 121 68 gone to court 140 49 placed in jail 145 44 broke into building 165 24 attacked with weapon 174 15 used weapon or force 187 2 picked up by police 152 37
School attachment Note. The percentage may not add up to 100% due to missing data. N = 304. 54.9% 26.3% 17.2% often Fairly often Never/seldom How often have you been in trouble for skipping or not attending school? 68.8% 18.8% 11.2% I often get in trouble at school for arguing, fighting or not following the rules. 3.3% 30.9% 64.5% My teachers think I am a good student. 7.9% 28.9% 61.9% Other students think I am a good student. 5.9% 22.7% 70.1% I get along well with my teachers. 21.8% 33.9% 43.1% I feel very close to at least one of my teachers. 11.8% 45.1% 41.8% In general, I like school a lot. Strongly agree/agree Mixed Strongly disagree/disagree Item
Males: Summary of Stepwise Regression Analysis for Self-Reported Delinquency * p <.05, ** p <.01 N= 206 -.451** .018 -.099 School commitment .204 Model 1 SE B B Variable
Females: Summary of Stepwise Regression Analysis for Self-Reported Delinquency * p <.05, ** p <.01. N = 206 .049 .232** .283 .770 Peer delinquency .060 .285** .026 .077 School commitment .059 -.376** .246 -1.028 GPA .083 .327** .055 .197 Antisocial attitudes .189 -.281** .029 -.087 Monitoring of mother change Beta SE B B Variable
Sibling differences in delinquency * p<.05; ** p<.01; n = 58. Forthcoming publication in the Jounal of Psychology. .09* 1.90(0.82) 2.38(0.78) Parent’s Labeling “ How often have your parents labeled you as a “bad” child?” .12** 8.80 (1.47) 7.59 (1.90) Organized Activities “ How much time you spend with organized sports like swimming, baseball, football, soccer, etc.?” .15** 12.39 (2.58) 15.13 (3.86) Antisocial Attitudes “ When I get mad, I say nasty things.” “ If someone hits me first, I let him/her have it.” .15** 1.43 (0.56) 2.14(1.09) Trouble for Skipping School “ How often have you been in trouble for skipping or not attending school?” .20** 3.75(0.91) 2.66 (1.26) School Performance “ How well do you think you keep up with your schoolwork?” Eta Squared (η2) Non-delinquent siblings: Mean (SD) Delinquent siblings: Mean (SD) Measure
Conclusion <ul><li>Individual level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young people are facing tremendous pressure from parents (i.e., family responsibilities, such as translation and household chores, and doing well in school). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although they still identify themselves with the Hmong culture, a third of them feel they don’t have much to be proud of. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About one in four youth doesn’t feel very close to at least one of their teachers, and close to three in four youth reported of getting in trouble at school for arguing, fighting or not following the rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Family level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant parent-child relationships seem to be shifting from reciprocal respect and cohesion to ambiguity and conflict. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls tend to receive more scolding vs. boys, esp. from mothers. Paradoxically, this seems to protect girls from many of the delinquent activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family dynamics, particularly lack of monitoring, serve as the most robust determining factor in adolescent problem behaviors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peer and Community levels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delinquent peers and lack of organized activities serve as the most robust mediating factors in changing the course of adolescent problem behaviors. </li></ul></ul>
Implications for Practice <ul><li>Adolescence is a period of life that is considered more difficult due to multiple changes (Arnett, 1999): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological change (e.g., puberty) and sex drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early maturation vs. late maturation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biological change associated with cultural expectation of courtship and marriage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biological change (i.e., acne), physical appearance, and self-esteem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive change (e.g., reasoning skills) and thinking ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calm, obedience to moodiness and disobedience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demand a more matured relationship, yet with lots of guidance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing school setting (e.g., elementary to middle or junior high) ( Eccles , Buchanan, et. al., 1991; Eccles, Midgley, et. al., 1993). </li></ul></ul>
Tips For Parents <ul><li>Parents want obedience, quiet, modest, self-control vs. individuality, self-expression, loud, and assertiveness from youths. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead to daily power struggles – nagging and rebellion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parents expect diligence by getting up early in the morning, cooking for and helping parents and relatives during family events vs. weekend is supposed to be a space for relaxation, recuperation, and socialization with friends for youths. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead to heartfelt argument and name calling (tub nkeeg, tsis paub tab) </li></ul></ul>
Tips for Professionals <ul><li>Teach youths to deal with difficult parents and resist the temptation of belonging to a “cool” group (and/or acting “cool”) and be accepted by others. </li></ul><ul><li>More than half of the youth do not feel they have much to be proud of. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Youths need to get access to quality out of school time programs and activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The earlier the better! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Youths need to be connected to other positive youths and caring adults. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fulfill their desire to belong and be accepted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boost their self-esteem and enhance their resistant skills. </li></ul></ul>
Tips for Professionals <ul><li>Cultural diversity training on Hmong culture and family life is needed for teachers, administrators, and professionals who work with Hmong youth. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers and professionals working with Hmong need to make efforts to connect with these young people and/or connect these young people to other caring adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers and professionals need to re-evaluate how they work with these youth (i.e., pressure at home; loneliness at school; feeling defeated). </li></ul><ul><li>Support groups for Hmong youth and/or with other non-Hmong youth may be necessary. </li></ul>