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ancient egypt


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ancient egypt

  1. 1. Please click anywhere to begin presentation and to move through slides.
  2. 2. Ancient Egyptian 9th Grade History ACIC School 2009 Ancient Egyptian
  3. 3. Geography <ul><ul><li>Located in the Nile river valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civilization developed by about 3,000 BC </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Geography <ul><li>Protected from invaders by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains and falls to the south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vast deserts on both sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean Sea to the north </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Geography This location kept Egypt separate from the rest of the world, so the Egyptians had a unique and enduring style of life and art for about 3,000 years.
  6. 6. People <ul><li>Communities were made up of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunters and fishermen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artists and craftsmen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers and herdsmen </li></ul></ul>Fishing Scene Tomb of Kenamun About 1430 BC
  7. 7. People Artists, craftsmen and scribes were honored and admired. A scribe is a scholar who could read and write. Scribes wrote on papyrus. Papyrus is a reed pounded to make a heavy type of paper. Seated Scribe Painted Limestone About 2500 BC
  8. 8. People <ul><li>The leader was called a pharaoh . </li></ul><ul><li>The pharaoh was believed to be half man, half god. </li></ul><ul><li>The afterlife of the pharaoh is an important theme in ancient Egyptian art. </li></ul>Tutankhamun Sarcophagus About 1340 BC
  9. 9. Contributions <ul><li>The ancient Egyptians: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made bricks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used sails on the water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used wheels on land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harnessed animals for work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trained donkeys to carry people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined copper and tin to make bronze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forged tools from copper. </li></ul></ul>Egyptian Boat
  10. 10. Contributions <ul><li>They also used hieroglyphics . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hieroglyphics are an early form of picture writing. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Architecture <ul><li>The greatest architectural achievements of the Ancient Egyptians were the pyramids. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyramids were built as tombs for the pharaohs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They contained the items that the Egyptians believed that the Pharaoh would need in the afterlife. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much of the art that remains was preserved in the pyramids. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Architecture <ul><li>The first pyramid was built for King Zoser. It was a “step pyramid”. It was designed and built by an artist and architect named Imhotep . </li></ul><ul><li>Imhotep is the first artist whose name is recorded in history. </li></ul><ul><li>This pyramid was built about 2600 BC. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Architecture <ul><li>The three “great pyramids” are located at Giza. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Architecture <ul><li>They are guarded by the Great Sphinx. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sphinx is carved from a rocky ledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was damaged by Muslim vandalism and sand and wind. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Architecture <ul><li>The ancient Egyptians also built beautiful temples. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the Temple of Re </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The post and lintel system was used to build this temple. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Mummies <ul><li>The pyramids and tombs contained the mummified remains of the pharaohs. </li></ul><ul><li>The ancient Egyptians believed that the soul (called the Ka) would need to use the body in the afterlife, so the bodies were carefully preserved. Many items in the tombs were left there to be used by the Ka in the afterlife. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Mummies
  18. 18. Mummies <ul><li>These are the mummified remains of a pharaoh named Ramses II. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mummies After embalming, mummies were carefully wrapped in yards of linen bandages.
  20. 20. Mummies The ancient Egyptians even mummified animals.
  21. 21. Sculpture <ul><li>Painted relief sculpture lined the walls of pyramids. </li></ul><ul><li>This is called a stele . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A stele is a carved upright stone slab used as a monument. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Sculpture This stele shows Ramses II slaying his enemies.
  23. 23. Sculpture Notice that the sculptures are stiff , formal , and stylized .
  24. 24. Sculpture Faces face forward, and the left foot is slightly ahead of the right. There are no open spaces in the stone that the figures are carved from.
  25. 25. Sculpture <ul><li>Artists used materials found in the Nile river valley. They were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turquoise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lapis Lazuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red coral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Sculpture
  27. 27. Sculpture This gold mask rested on the head of the mummy of King Tutankhaman.
  28. 28. Sculpture Notice how Ramses II faces forward. He appears to be very rigid. This is typical of ancient Egyptian sculpture.
  29. 29. Sculpture This sculpture of Queen Nefertiti is much more relaxed and graceful than most ancient Egyptian sculpture.
  30. 30. Crafts Craftsmen made furniture, jewelry, pottery, and other useful items.
  31. 31. Crafts
  32. 32. Crafts
  33. 33. Crafts
  34. 34. Crafts
  35. 35. Crafts
  36. 36. Crafts
  37. 37. Crafts
  38. 38. Painting Ancient Egyptians followed a very strict set of rules in their art. One of these rules was to show the human body from the most familiar or visible angle.
  39. 39. Painting Again, the figures appear to be rigid and stylized. Notice the left foot and body posture.
  40. 40. Painting Paintings tell us about the daily lives of the ancient Egyptians.
  41. 41. Painting This painting is somewhat unusual. Can you spot the reason why?
  42. 42. Painting The gods are often depicted in the tomb paintings.
  43. 43. Objectives <ul><li>Now that you have watched this presentation, can you </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe life in Ancient Egypt? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell what kinds of art were created in ancient Egypt? </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Can you define these terms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hieroglyphic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stele </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharaoh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papyrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scribe </li></ul></ul>What did the artist Imhotep do?
  45. 45. The Egyptians used hieroglyphics and various patterns to decorate the pharaohs’ coffins. You will use pattern and symbols that represent things that are important in your life to make a life-sized mummy case that that resembles those of the ancient Egyptians. What symbols will you use? Assignment
  46. 46. <ul><li>Then you will see the life of The Old Kingdom. </li></ul>
  47. 47. The old kingdom <ul><li>The old kingdom is a period of time when egypt was ruled by The Third Dynasty through the Sixth dynasty (2686 BC – 2134 BC). </li></ul>
  48. 48. Menes <ul><li>Menes is the most important person in Egyptian history. He is the man who united Egypt into 1 country </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>A statue of Menes </li></ul><ul><li>The state of the crown after the uniting. </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>The rest of the pharaohs in the 1 st dynasty are: </li></ul><ul><li>Aha </li></ul><ul><li>Djer </li></ul><ul><li>Djet </li></ul><ul><li>Den </li></ul><ul><li>Anedjib </li></ul><ul><li>Semerkhet </li></ul><ul><li>Qaa </li></ul>
  51. 51. The second dynasty <ul><li>The second dynasty was not important in so important in history even not effective. </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>The pharaohs in the 2 nd dynasty are: </li></ul><ul><li>Raneb </li></ul><ul><li>Nynetjer </li></ul><ul><li>Peribsen </li></ul><ul><li>Khasekhem </li></ul>
  53. 53. The third dynasty <ul><li>It was an important mark in the Egyptian history. It 1 st pharaoh was called Sanakht. At this time one of the most important mounumental builidngs was built. </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>This building as built by the 2 nd pharaoh in this dynasty he was called zoser. And the pyramid was called sakara pyramyd. </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>The rest of the pharaohs in the 3 rd dynasty are: </li></ul><ul><li>Sekhemkhet </li></ul><ul><li>Huni </li></ul>
  56. 56. The fourth dynasty <ul><li>It the most important dynasty in the old kingdom. Its 1 st pharaoh was Senfru. And the most important kings are Cheops , Chephren and Menkaura. </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>This dynasty is considered the most important because the most important symbols of the pharaohs was built in this dynasty and they are: </li></ul>
  58. 58. The pyramids <ul><li>The pyramids.they are one of the Seven Wonders of the world. The biggest is for Cheops then Chephren and at the end Menkaura. </li></ul>
  59. 59. The Great Sphinx <ul><li>They are guarded by the Great Sphinx. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sphinx is carved from a rocky ledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was damaged by Muslim vandalism and sand and wind. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. The fifth dynasty <ul><li>As the 2 nd dynasty it was not so effective in the Egyptian history. It had some small pyramids and some nice artifacts. Its 1 st king was Userkaf the son of Khentkaues, who was a member of the fourth dynasty. </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>The rest of the pharaohs in the 5 th dynasty are: </li></ul><ul><li>Sahura </li></ul><ul><li>Neferirkara Kakai </li></ul><ul><li>Shepseskara Isi </li></ul><ul><li>Raneferef </li></ul><ul><li>Nyuserra </li></ul><ul><li>Menkauhor Akauhor </li></ul><ul><li>Djedkara Isesi </li></ul><ul><li>Unas </li></ul>
  62. 62. The sixth dynasty <ul><li>The last powerful dynasties of the old kingdom. One of the remarkable pharohs of this dynasty was Pepi the second. </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>The pyramid of Pepi II at southern Saqqara is the last major monument of the Old Kingdom . None of the names of kings of the short - lived seventh dynasty are known and the eighth dynasty shows signs of and political decay . </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>The rest of the pharaohs in the 6 th dynasty are: </li></ul><ul><li>Teti </li></ul><ul><li>Userkara </li></ul><ul><li>Pepy I </li></ul><ul><li>Merenra </li></ul>
  65. 65. The end