Uhs 2062 Organizational Development


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Slides prepared for my UHS 2062 UTM (Skudai, Malaysia ) students based on the references given. These are just guides to initiate further readings.

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Uhs 2062 Organizational Development

  1. 1. Organizational Development Prepared for UHS 2062 lectures at UTM Skudai, Johore, October 2009 srsiwok@gmail.com
  2. 2. Introduction Organizational development is the process of improving organizational performance by making organizational-wide changes.
  3. 3. Organizational structure  Organizational structure refers to the arrangement of positions in an organization and the authority and responsibility relationships among them (as every organization is made up of persons holding particular positions or playing certain roles).
  4. 4. An example of a structure Director of Operations Marketing specialist Shipping clerk
  5. 5. Dimensions of organizational structure  Traditional vs nontraditional organizational structure  Functional vs divisional structure  Centralized vs decentralized structure
  6. 6. Traditional vs Nontraditional  Traditional organization structure(TOS) has formally defined roles for their members, very rule driven and stable & resistance to change.  Jobs and lines of status /authority tend to be clearly defined in traditional structures (kept within organizational guidelines and standards).
  7. 7. Traditional vs Nontraditional  Nontraditional organizational structures (NOS), are characterized by less formalized work roles and procedures.  Flexible and adaptable, without rigid hierarchical characteristics.  NOS generally have fewer employees than the TOS.  NOS and TOS may occur in the same organization, but different
  8. 8. Traditional vs Nontraditional  NOS are often organized around a particular project or product line and are responsible for all aspects of the job.  Examples of NOS: ◦ NASA ◦ Film crews ◦ Financial institutions etc
  9. 9. Characteristics of NOS  High flexibility and adaptability  Collaboration among workers  Less emphasis on organizational status  Group decision making
  10. 10. Change of command  The chain of command is the number of authority levels in a particular organization.  The chain of command follows the line of authority and status vertically through the organization.
  11. 11. Span of control  The span of control is the number of worker who must report to a single supervisor.  An organization with a wide span of control has many workers reporting to each supervisor.  An organization with a narrow span of control has workers reporting to each supervisor.
  12. 12. Span of control  Based on the dimension of span of control, an organization can be described as either “tall” or “flat”.  A “tall” organizational structure has a long chain of command and a narrow span of control  A “flat ” organizational structure has a short chain of command and a wide span of control.
  13. 13. Organizational Change  First step towards organizational change is called the sacred cow hunt (Kriegel & Bradnt, 1996) : ◦ The paper cow ◦ The meeting cow ◦ The speed cow
  14. 14. Employees acceptance of change  Carnall (1990, in Aamodt, 2007) suggests that employees typically go through five stages of organizational change: denial, defense, discarding, adaptation and internalization.
  15. 15. Stage 1: Denial  Denies that any changes will take place  Try to convince that old ways is working  Find reasons why the proposed change will never work
  16. 16. Stage 2 : Defense  When employees begin to believe that change will actually occur, they become defensive and try to justify their positions and ways of doing things.
  17. 17. Stage 3 : Discarding  At some point employees began to realize that not only that the organization is going to change , but the employees are going to have to change as well .  Change is inevitable; thus old ways have to be discarded and start accepting the change as the new reality.
  18. 18. Stage 4 : Adaptation  Employees test the new system, learn how it functions, began to make adjustments in the way they perform.  Tremendous energy is spent and employees can often become frustrated and angry.
  19. 19. Stage 5 : Internalization  Employees become immersed in the new culture, become comfortable with the new system and accepted their new coworkers and the new work environment.
  20. 20. Important factors  The extent to which the employees readily accept and handle the change is dependent on : ◦ The reason behind the change ◦ The person making the change ◦ The personality being changed
  21. 21. Organizational culture  Also often referred to as corporate culture, or corporate climate.  Organizational culture comprises of the shared values, beliefs and the traditions that exist among the individuals in the organization.  It is the culture that establish the workplace norms of appropriate behaviors etc
  22. 22. What is culture?  Culture is the comprehensive term that includes the various understandings, traditions and guidance which we all belong (Gestwicki, 2007)  “Culture forms the prism which members of a group see the world and create shared meaning” ( Bowman and Burgess, 1993, in Gestwicki, 2007)
  23. 23. Changing culture  Assessing the new culture: ◦ Needs assessment ◦ Determining executive direction ◦ Implementing consideration ◦ Training ◦ Evaluation of the new culture
  24. 24. Other steps…  Creating dissatisfaction with the existing culture  Maintaining the new culture  Selection of employees
  25. 25. Empowerment
  26. 26. What does empowerment mean?  More accurate to describe empowerment as a process as an end state ( Gargiulo and Kilgo, 2005)
  27. 27. Making decisions to empower  Factors in making decision to empower: ◦ Importance of decision quality ◦ Leader knowledge of the problem area ◦ Structure of the problem ◦ Importance of decision acceptance ◦ Probability of decision acceptance ◦ Subordinate trust and motivation ◦ Probability of subordinate conflict
  28. 28. The Different Meanings of Empowerment When employer empowers employees, what they mean is giving more say in the day-to- day activities. Empowerment may mean differently to employer and to employees.
  29. 29. Levels of employee input  Following  Ownership of own product  Advisory  Shared /participative /team  absolute
  30. 30. Consequences of empowerment  Personal  Financial  Career
  31. 31. References  Aamodt, M.G (2007). Industrial /organizational psychology. An applied approach. Belmont, CA: Thomson  Riggio, R. E. (1996). Introduction to Industrial/ Organizational Psychology (2nd. Ed). New York: Harper Collins  Gargiulo, R & Kilgo, J ( 2005). Young children with special needs ( 2nd ed.). New York: Thomson