Uhs 2062 Employee Motivation


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Slides prepared for my UHS 2062 UTM (Skudai, Malaysia ) students based on the references given. These are just guides to initiate further readings.

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Uhs 2062 Employee Motivation

  1. 1. UHS 2062 LECTURES at UTM Skudai. Prepared by Siti Rokiah Siwok, August 2009 srsiwok@gmail.com
  2. 2. Motivation and Work  IO psychologists generally define work motivation as the internal force that drives a worker to action , as well as the external factors that encourage the actions.  Ability and skill determine the employee can do the job.  Motivation determines whether the employee will do the job properly.  Generally psychologist agree that increased employee motivation results in increased job performance.
  3. 3. Theory X and Theory Y  In his 1960 book, The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor proposed two theories by which to view employee motivation.  He avoided descriptive labels and simply called the theories Theory X and Theory Y.
  4. 4. Theory X  People cannot be trusted, they are irrational , unreliable and inherently lazy.  Therefore people need to be controlled and motivated using financial incentives, threats and punishment.  In the absence of such controls, people will pursue their own goals , which will be in conflict with those of their work organisation.
  5. 5. Theory Y  People seek independence, self-development and creativity in their work.  People can see further than their immediate circumstances and are able to adapt to new ones.  They are moral and responsible beings, who, if treated as such, will strive for good of their organisation.
  6. 6. Needs, values and wants  Work motivation and job satisfaction are also determined by the discrepancy between what we want, value and expect, and what actually the job provides.  Three theories focus on employees’ needs and values: Maslow’s needs hierarchy, ERG theory and two-factor theory.
  7. 7. Needs Theories  Need theories are based on the idea that there are psychological needs, that lie behind human behaviour.  When our needs are unmet we experience tension or disequilibrium which we try to put right; which means we behave in ways that satisfy our needs.
  8. 8. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  9. 9. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Hierarchical , meaning that the lower-level needs have to be satisfied before one is concerned with the next level (like the staircase).  Each level is taken a step at a time and thus the higher level need cannot be reached until the lower- level need is satisfied
  10. 10. Humanistic perspective  The humanistic perspective emphasis free will , the ability to make choices and come to decisions in their lives (Feldman, 2006).  Carl Rogers, a major proponent of the humanistic perspective, suggests that all people have a need for positive regard, results from the undelying need to be loved and respect.  Maslow suggest s that self actualization is the primary goal in life.  Self actualization is a state of self fulfillment in which people achieve their highest potential in their own unique way (Feldman, 2006).
  11. 11. Evaluation of Maslow’s Theory  “Maslow’ theory is popular and stood the test of time, but not very much supported by research.  The biggest “problem” with regards to the levels. …need there be five? Or two or three enough?  There are people who skip levels .  What about overlapping of levels?
  12. 12. ERG Theory  To address the limitation of Maslow’s Theory, , Clayton Alderfer proposed the ERG theory, which like Maslow's theory, describes needs as a hierarchy.  The letters ERG stand for three levels of needs: Existence, Relatedness, and Growth.  The ERG theory is based on the work of Maslow, so it has much in common with it but also differs in some important aspects.  Other research supports the number of levels as proposed by Alderfer
  13. 13. ERG Theory  According to this theory, people can skip levels.  ERG theory also explains why a higher-level need sometimes do not become more important once a lower-level need has been satisfied. There are other factors.  Overlapping of levels has been addressed by reducing the number of levels to three
  14. 14. Two-factor theory  Two-factor theory was proposed by Herzberg (1966), in which job related factors are divided into two categories: hygiene factors and motivators.  Hygiene factors are those job-related elements that related from, but not involving the job itself. Examples :  pay and benefits  making friends (These are results of the work, but do not involve the work itself)
  15. 15. Two-factor theory  Motivators are the job elements that concern the actual task and duties.  For employees to have motivation and satisfaction, both hygiene factors and motivators must be present.  This theory make sense but has not receive research support.  The theory is being critised because of the methods to develop the two factors
  16. 16. Two-factor theory Hygiene factors Motivators  Pay  Security  Co workers  Working conditions  Company policy  Work schedule  Supervisors  Responsibilities  Growth  Challenge  Stimulation  Independence  Variety  control
  17. 17. Comparison of Theories Maslow ERG Herzberg Self -actualization Growth Motivators Self-esteem Belonging and love (social) Relatedness Hygiene factors Safety Existence Physiological needs
  18. 18. References:  Aamodt, M.G (2007). Industrial /organizational psychology. An applied approach. Belmont, CA: Thomson  Arnold, J ( 2005). Work Psychology. Understanding Human Behaviour in the Workplace (4th ed). England : Pearson Education Ltd.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivation  http://www.wadsworth.com/cgi- wadsworth/course_products_wp.pl?fid  http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/mcgregor/  Feldman, R. S. (2006) Development across the lifespan. (4th ed). New Jersey: Pearson Education.