Mobile ad hoc networking: imperatives and challenges<br />ImrichChlamtac, Marco Conti, Jennifer J.N. Liu<br />Presenter: T...
Agendas<br />Wireless networks<br />Ad hoc networks<br />Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET)<br />MANET applications<br />Enabl...
IP backbone<br />Gateways<br />Server<br />Router<br />Wireless networks<br />Computer network that is wireless<br />Infra...
Disadvantages<br />Disaster areas <br />no infrastructure<br />Large construction sites<br />Too expensive<br />Inconvenie...
Solution???<br />Mobile ad hoc network<br />Mobile ad hoc network (MANET), or simply ad hoc network, comprises nodesthatfr...
MANET<br />Formed by wireless hosts<br />Without using pre-installed infrastructure<br />Routes between hops may contain m...
Key Elements of MANETs<br />Formed dynamically through independent nodes<br />Nodes do not have any pre-specified nodes<br...
MANET applications<br />Tactical Networks<br />Military communication, operation<br />Automated Battlefields<br />Sensor N...
MANET applications (continued)<br />Emergency Services<br />Replacement of a fixed infrastructure in case of earthquake, h...
Mobility<br />Space divided into cells<br />A base station is responsible to communicate with hosts in its cell<br />Mobil...
MANET Architecture<br />
MANET Research activities<br />Based on its architecture, research activities are grouped into three main areas<br />Enabl...
Enabling Technologies<br />Classification depends on networks coverage area<br />Body (BAN)<br />Personal (PAN)<br />Local...
Collision – Hidden-Station Problem<br />A wishes to communicate with B.  However A cannot detect communication from C but ...
Collision – Exposed-station Problem<br />Nodes A, B, and C can all detect communications from one another.  However, Only ...
Research issues<br />Energy conservation<br />Network security and cooperation<br />Simulation and performance evaluation<...
Energy conservation<br />Energy conservation<br />Battery power is finite<br />Limits services and applications that the n...
Energy conservation (Continued)<br />
Network Security - MANET<br />Physically insecure network<br />Network security requirements<br />Confidentiality<br />Aut...
Eavesdropping<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />Who has a radio receiver<br />Same frequency used by the ad hoc network<br />Man-i...
Impersonation - Security Attacks<br />Nodes join to the network undetectably<br />Black hole attack<br />Malicious node us...
Denial of Service - Security Attacks<br />Attempts to create routes to non-existent node<br />The attacker attempts to con...
Disclosure Attack - Security Attacks<br />Reveal the physical location of nodes<br />Reveal the structure of the network<b...
Quality of Service - MANET<br />Capability of network to provide better service<br />Controls jitter and latency<br />Mana...
Conclusion<br />MANETs is challenging and promising system concepts<br />Requires new type of architectures and protocols<...
Questions<br />
References<br />I Chlamtac, M Conti, JJN Liu, "Mobile ad hoc networking: imperatives and challenges." Ad Hoc Networks, 1(1...
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Mobile ad hoc networking: imperatives and challenges

  1. 1. Mobile ad hoc networking: imperatives and challenges<br />ImrichChlamtac, Marco Conti, Jennifer J.N. Liu<br />Presenter: Tanzir Musabbir<br />
  2. 2. Agendas<br />Wireless networks<br />Ad hoc networks<br />Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET)<br />MANET applications<br />Enabling technologies<br />Security issues<br />Conclusions<br />Questions<br />
  3. 3. IP backbone<br />Gateways<br />Server<br />Router<br />Wireless networks<br />Computer network that is wireless<br />Infrastructure-based networks<br />Less expensive to setup<br />
  4. 4. Disadvantages<br />Disaster areas <br />no infrastructure<br />Large construction sites<br />Too expensive<br />Inconvenient<br />Military operations<br />Less time to setup<br />
  5. 5. Solution???<br />Mobile ad hoc network<br />Mobile ad hoc network (MANET), or simply ad hoc network, comprises nodesthatfreely and dynamically self-organizeintoarbitrary and temporary network topologywithoutany infrastructure support. (Chlamtac, Conti, and Liu, 2003)<br />
  6. 6. MANET<br />Formed by wireless hosts<br />Without using pre-installed infrastructure<br />Routes between hops may contain multiple hops<br />Does not use centralized administration<br />MANETs are often referred to as multihop wireless and hoc networks<br />
  7. 7. Key Elements of MANETs<br />Formed dynamically through independent nodes<br />Nodes do not have any pre-specified nodes<br />Make decision based on the current network situation<br />Nodes are expected to behave as routers<br />As routers, nodes must assist in discovery and maintenance of network routes<br />
  8. 8. MANET applications<br />Tactical Networks<br />Military communication, operation<br />Automated Battlefields<br />Sensor Networks<br />Home applications: allow users to manage home device locally and remotely<br />Environment applications: tracking the movements of animals<br />
  9. 9. MANET applications (continued)<br />Emergency Services<br />Replacement of a fixed infrastructure in case of earthquake, hurricanes<br />Home and Enterprise Networking<br />Shared whiteboard applications<br />Use PDA to print anywhere<br />Entertainment<br />Multi-user games<br />Robotic pets<br />
  10. 10. Mobility<br />Space divided into cells<br />A base station is responsible to communicate with hosts in its cell<br />Mobile hosts can change cells while communicating<br />Hand-off occurs when a mobile host starts communicating via a new base station<br />
  11. 11. MANET Architecture<br />
  12. 12. MANET Research activities<br />Based on its architecture, research activities are grouped into three main areas<br />Enabling technologies<br />Networking<br />Middleware and application<br />
  13. 13. Enabling Technologies<br />Classification depends on networks coverage area<br />Body (BAN)<br />Personal (PAN)<br />Local (LAN)<br />Metropolitan (MAN)<br />Wide (WAN)<br />
  14. 14. Collision – Hidden-Station Problem<br />A wishes to communicate with B. However A cannot detect communication from C but can detect communication from B.<br />C also wishes to communicate with B. Again C cannot detect communication from A but can detect Communication from B.<br />C is hidden from A and A is hidden from C.<br />Both A and C transmit and their signals collide leading to loss of both packets.<br />
  15. 15. Collision – Exposed-station Problem<br />Nodes A, B, and C can all detect communications from one another. However, Only C can detect communication from D.<br />Node B wishes to send to Node A and Node C wishes to send to Node D.<br />So Node B begins transmitting to Node A and Node C recognizes this. The medium is in use so Node C can not transmit to Node D. <br />Even though both transmission requests could be made going in opposite directions, the transmission does not happen. This is because Node C is exposed to Nodes A and B while D is not.<br />
  16. 16. Research issues<br />Energy conservation<br />Network security and cooperation<br />Simulation and performance evaluation<br />Quality of service<br />
  17. 17. Energy conservation<br />Energy conservation<br />Battery power is finite<br />Limits services and applications that the network can support<br />Solution<br />Topology management – goal is to reduce overall network power consumption<br />Routing protocols – minimize routing paths<br />
  18. 18. Energy conservation (Continued)<br />
  19. 19. Network Security - MANET<br />Physically insecure network<br />Network security requirements<br />Confidentiality<br />Authentication<br />Integrity<br />Non-repudiation<br />Availability<br />
  20. 20. Eavesdropping<br />A<br />B<br />C<br />Who has a radio receiver<br />Same frequency used by the ad hoc network<br />Man-in-the-middle attack<br />
  21. 21. Impersonation - Security Attacks<br />Nodes join to the network undetectably<br />Black hole attack<br />Malicious node uses the same routing protocol<br />Advertise itself as having the shortest path<br />Worm hole attack<br />Create a tunnel(wormhole link) between two malicious nodes<br />Captures wireless transmission from one end<br />Sends them to the other end through that tunnel<br />
  22. 22. Denial of Service - Security Attacks<br />Attempts to create routes to non-existent node<br />The attacker attempts to consume batteries of other nodes by requesting routes<br />Forwards unnecessary packets<br />Causes a system to be unavailability<br />A violation of security policy<br />
  23. 23. Disclosure Attack - Security Attacks<br />Reveal the physical location of nodes<br />Reveal the structure of the network<br />Two security mechanisms are applied<br />Preventive<br />Detective<br />Mechanisms are based on key-based cryptography<br />Secret keys are distributed through a secure channel<br />Public keys are distributed through certificates<br />
  24. 24. Quality of Service - MANET<br />Capability of network to provide better service<br />Controls jitter and latency<br />Manages and minimizes network congestion<br />Sharps network traffic<br />Sets network traffic priorities<br />
  25. 25. Conclusion<br />MANETs is challenging and promising system concepts<br />Requires new type of architectures and protocols<br />Popular research topic<br />Open areas<br />Secure routing protocol<br />Quality of service<br />Low power consumption<br />
  26. 26. Questions<br />
  27. 27. References<br />I Chlamtac, M Conti, JJN Liu, "Mobile ad hoc networking: imperatives and challenges." Ad Hoc Networks, 1(1), pp. 13-64, 2003.<br />http://cs.utsa.edu/faculty/boppana/6393/<br />www.ietf.org/html.charters/manet-charter.html<br />http://www.antd.nist.gov/wahn_mahn.shtml<br />

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