Human Evolution The Origin of Modern Humans (Maybe)
Multiregional Evolution Theory <ul><li>• Since the Pleistocene (1.8 mil to 10,000 BP*) all human evolution has been within...
Hybrid-Origin Theory <ul><li>•  Some genetic variation between races is because of genetic inheritance from at least two h...
About Neanderthals <ul><li>•  Classified as either  Homo neanderthalensis  or  Homo sapiens neanderthalensis </li></ul><ul...
Lapedo Child •  Found in Portugal •  Given a ceremonial burial with pierced shell and red ochre •  Was alive approximately...
Mungo Man <ul><li>•  Lived about 40 kya, anatomically modern </li></ul><ul><li>•  Mitochondrial DNA shows he is not descen...
Microcephalin <ul><li>•  Condition that causes a tiny head, usually affects the brain in some ways as well </li></ul><ul><...
PDHA1 on the X-chromosome <ul><li>•  Originated about 1.86 mya </li></ul><ul><li>•  Division appeared about 200 kya, preda...
RRM2P4 on the X-chromosome <ul><li>•  A gene tree of it revealed a most recent common ancestor is from about 2 mya </li></...
Are you sure you don’t have a little Neanderthal in you? Would you like to?
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Multiregional Evolution Katina

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Multiregional Evolution Katina

  1. 1. Human Evolution The Origin of Modern Humans (Maybe)
  2. 2. Multiregional Evolution Theory <ul><li>• Since the Pleistocene (1.8 mil to 10,000 BP*) all human evolution has been within the wide-spread species Homo sapiens . </li></ul><ul><li>• Based on fossil and genetic evidence </li></ul><ul><li>• Opposite of the Single Origin Hypothesis/ Out of Africa Model </li></ul><ul><li>*BP: before present. Present=1950 AD </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hybrid-Origin Theory <ul><li>• Some genetic variation between races is because of genetic inheritance from at least two hominid species until the evolution of modern Homo sapiens sapiens about 35 kya </li></ul><ul><li>• Hybrid vigour means the offspring is superior to its parents because the different virtues are combined </li></ul>
  4. 4. About Neanderthals <ul><li>• Classified as either Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis </li></ul><ul><li>• Fossil evidence dates as recently as 30 kya </li></ul><ul><li>• Tools date as recently as 22 kya </li></ul><ul><li>• Almost exclusively carnivorous </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lapedo Child • Found in Portugal • Given a ceremonial burial with pierced shell and red ochre • Was alive approximately 24.5 kya • Dental and pubic proportions say early modern human • Body proportions like leg bone length ratios say Neanderthal • Indicates mixture or ancestral pattern for late Pleistocene European humans • But the presence of a certain uniquely derived feature of Early Modern Humans refutes this • Dating and Burial style indicate child is the result of extensively admixing populations
  6. 6. Mungo Man <ul><li>• Lived about 40 kya, anatomically modern </li></ul><ul><li>• Mitochondrial DNA shows he is not descended from “Eve” </li></ul><ul><li>• A segment of his mtDNA is found in Nuclear Chromosome 11 of many people today </li></ul><ul><li>• It challenges the idea that all humans are entirely descended from common ancestors who originated in Africa within the 200,000 years </li></ul>
  7. 7. Microcephalin <ul><li>• Condition that causes a tiny head, usually affects the brain in some ways as well </li></ul><ul><li>• A derived form MCPH1 called Haplogroup D appeared about 37 kya </li></ul><ul><li>• May have originated from a lineage which separated from Modern humans approximately 1.1 mya </li></ul>
  8. 8. PDHA1 on the X-chromosome <ul><li>• Originated about 1.86 mya </li></ul><ul><li>• Division appeared about 200 kya, predating the earliest modern human fossils </li></ul><ul><li>• Suggests transformation to modern humans occurred in a subdivided population </li></ul>
  9. 9. RRM2P4 on the X-chromosome <ul><li>• A gene tree of it revealed a most recent common ancestor is from about 2 mya </li></ul><ul><li>• This gene present only in East Asia, resulting in higher nucleotide diversity in non-Africans than Africans </li></ul><ul><li>• Supports interbreeding between anatomically modern humans and those of Eurasia </li></ul>
  10. 10. Are you sure you don’t have a little Neanderthal in you? Would you like to?

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