Road To Solo Optimized Low Res

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Road To Solo Optimized Low Res

  1. 1. Road to Solo Driving LEARNING TO DRIVE • DRIVING TO LEARN L P P
  2. 2. The Road to Solo Driving handbook This work is the copyright of VicRoads. Published by VicRoads Apart from uses permitted under the Copyright Act is designed to help you understand 60 Denmark Street, Kew, Victoria 3101 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process the road rules, responsibilities and ©Roads Corporation, Victoria, without written permission from VicRoads. prepare you for the challenges of Australia 2000 driving. You will need to read and Road laws and legal requirements understand the Road to Solo First published 2000 Road laws change from time to time. Tests may Driving thoroughly before sitting Crown© Copyright 2000 change accordingly. It is your responsibility to for your learner permit test. Reprinted with amendments ensure that you have the most recent edition of June 2008. When you receive your learner this handbook and any update sheets. If you permit you will be given the are in doubt, check with any of the VicRoads National Library of Australia Customer Service Centres listed on the inside Learner Kit containing the two cataloguing-in-publication data: back cover. booklets Guide for Learners with Roads Corporation. the Learner Log Book, and the Road to Solo Driving: This handbook sets out various legal requirements Guide for Supervising Drivers. The Learning to drive – driving to learn for drivers. These are intended as a guide only. Guide for Learners will help you Includes index. They do not purport to set out in full all of the make the most of your practice ISBN 0 7311 9000 9 requirements of the law. sessions, get the essential driving 1. Automobile driver education – For a complete knowledge of the road law, you experience you need, and keep Victoria – Handbooks, manuals, etc. should consult the appropriate Acts and Regulations. 2. Traffic regulations – track of your progress as you work Remember that ignorance of what the law says on a Victoria – Handbooks, manuals, etc. towards your Ps. It includes the particular subject will not be regarded as an excuse 3. Traffic safety – Victoria – Learner Log Book you must use to by the Courts. Handbooks, manuals, etc. show you have had enough driving Almost everything in this handbook applies to car I. Roads Corporation (Vic) practice to get a licence. It will drivers. Motorcycle riders should refer to the Victorian help you structure your minimum 343.9450946 Rider handbook for further information. Much of the 120 hours of driving if you are information also applies to pedal cyclists. The word Several organisations have contributed under 21 years of age. ‘driver’ is generally used to cover the different road to the preparation of this handbook, and Give the Guide for Supervising users and to simplify the language. It does not mean their help is gratefully acknowledged. Drivers booklet to your supervising that one group is more important than the other. driver.
  3. 3. Road to Solo Driving LEARNING TO DRIVE DRIVING TO LEARN
  4. 4. List of contents 2 Learning to drive 33 • Why read this handbook 5 • How do you learn to drive? 35 • How to use this handbook 6 • Some facts about new solo drivers 35 Ten steps to getting your licence • 7 • Practice is the best way 36 • The Graduated Licensing System 22 • Your supervising driver is there to help 39 • Put variety into your driving practice 41 • Traps along the road to solo driving 44 • Checking your progress 46 3 1 Managing risk The challenges of driving 51 27 • Alcohol and drugs • Facing the real challenges of driving 54 27 • Mobile phones • Some facts about driving 54 28 • Speed • How complicated is driving? 55 29 • Fatigue 55 • Seat belts 57 • Vehicle maintenance 57 • Managing driving risk 58 • Your crash risk as a solo driver 59 • Reducing your risk of a crash 60
  5. 5. 4 – Sharing the road with buses 132 Rules and responsibilities 65 – Sharing the road with police • Alcohol and emergency vehicles 68 132 • Drugs, medicine and driving – Sharing the road with trucks 72 • The law about seat belts and other heavy vehicles 74 133 • Speed limits – Sharing the road with animals 76 135 • Road signs – Railway level crossings 80 136 • Road markings • Parking 86 138 • Traffic controls at intersections • Penalties 93 146 • Give Way rules • Legal responsibilities 95 149 • Turning • Crash responsibilities 106 151 • Freeways • First aid after a crash 114 152 • Driving safely in tunnels • Test yourself questions 115 158 • Sharing the road safely 116 – Co-operative driving 116 – Keeping your cool when driving 117 – Sharing the road with other motorists 118 – Sharing the road with pedestrians 123 – Sharing the road with cyclists and motorcyclists 127 • Resources to help you 161 – Sharing the road with trams 129 • Index 164
  6. 6. You will need to study this handbook before sitting Road to Solo Driving is an innovative handbook the learner permit and probationary licence tests. for new drivers. Once you have passed the learner test, you will be As new drivers are three times more likely to be given the Guide for Learners with the Learner Log involved in casualty crashes than more experienced Book and the Guide for Supervising Drivers. This drivers, this handbook will help you to become a forms the Learner Kit – a complete package for safe driver and not a road toll statistic. learner drivers. Road safety research has found that a major Use the handbook as you learn to drive. It will reason for new drivers being over involved in help support the partnership between you, your crashes is that they have not had a sufficient supervisor and your driving instructor. range of supervised driving experiences to be able The Victorian Government is committed to to anticipate driving situations safely. improving road safety. Road to Solo Driving is As a result when learners under 21 years of age one of the important initiatives which will help when they take their probationary licence test they achieve this goal. are required to produce a Learner Log book to Follow the advice in the Learner Kit, and you show they have completed a minimum of 120 hours will be better prepared for safe solo driving in of supervised driving practice, including at least 10 the future. hours of driving at night. 4
  7. 7. Why read this handbook? Welcome to Road to Solo Driving! Age requirements, driver licences, the Graduated Licensing System, keeping a Learner Log Book, As you will find out, you need obligations, learner permits, P plates, demerit years of experience – not a few points, road rules, tests, Blood Alcohol Concentration: as a first-time driver, the ‘system’ days, weeks or months – to learn to can be a bit confusing. drive safely. It’s a long road and As you read Road to Solo Driving, things will there are no shortcuts. become clearer. The aim of this handbook is to This handbook is for all intending drivers and will help you: assist you if you are going for a learner permit, a • prepare for the challenges of driving probationary licence, or converting an interstate or overseas licence to a Victorian licence. • find out how you learn to drive You are the one in charge of your driving, but • manage and reduce your risks as a driver many people are there to help you along the way. • understand the rules and responsibilities You will need their help because the best way to of driving. learn to drive is with lots of practice. Every new driver faces the same challenges and has to meet However, reading a handbook won’t make you a them in the same way by practising driving better driver. The most important thing is how you frequently and making sure the practice has choose to use the information in it. We show you more variety. the way, but in the end it’s up to you! 5
  8. 8. How to use this handbook This handbook is divided into four sections. Definition box. Bold words highlighted in Each is colour coded with a vertical band on dark green are followed by a box containing the outside edge of each page. the definition. The preliminary pages detail the ten steps to getting your licence and becoming a driver. Bold words highlighted in DARK GREEN, PART 1 looks at the challenges facing new are followed by a box containing the solo drivers. definition. PART 2 covers the process of learning to drive and the importance of supervised driving practice. Hot tip. Next to this icon the text appears PART 3 looks at the risks of driving and strategies highlighted in red to give a suggestion to for new solo drivers to manage these risks. help you along the way. HOT TIP PART 4 details road rules and responsibilities. A number of devices have been used to make it Fact file. The text in a yellow box is an easier for you to read and use this handbook. important fact you should note. These include: Road law. When there is a statement of road law, the word ‘must’ appears in bold type. 6
  9. 9. Ten steps to getting your licence Get your copy of Road to Solo Driving 1 Book your learner permit test 2 Pass your learner permit test 3 Pay for and receive your learner permit 4 Start learning to drive and driving to learn 5 Book your probationary licence test 6 Pass your probationary licence test 7 Pay for and receive your probationary licence 8 Continue learning to drive and driving to learn 9 Receive your 10 full driver licence and keep learning! 7
  10. 10. Ten steps to getting your licence STEP 1 STEP 2 Get your copy of Book your Road to Solo Driving learner permit test Make sure you have the latest edition of You must have turned 16 before you can be tested. this handbook and take some time to read You can book your learner permit test by phone or it thoroughly. in person. Once you are familiar with the information in the handbook and know the road rules, you are ready You will be asked for your personal details such to be tested for your learner permit. as your full name, date of birth, address and phone number. You will also be asked when and where you would like to be tested. Booking and test fees apply and must be paid at the time of booking. Language options To book by phone (Please have your credit card ready) When you go for your learner permit test or your probationary licence test, you can You will need to phone: choose to do the road law questions and the • 13 1171 Victorian calls Hazard Perception Test on the computer in any of the 20 languages available (for a full • +61 3 9854 2666 Overseas calls list, see page 21). • 1300 652 321 if you have impaired hearing or speech, and use a Telephone Typewriter (TTY). 8
  11. 11. You will be given an appointment number which you should write down so you can tell it to the VicRoads officer who tests you. To book in person Go to any of the VicRoads Customer Service Centres listed on the inside back cover of this handbook. Note: If you cannot keep your appointment, you must give VicRoads 24 hours notice to cancel your test. Otherwise fees will not be refunded unless you produce a medical certificate or other supporting evidence. If you transfer your appointment, an additional appointment fee will apply. 9
  12. 12. Ten steps to getting your licence How will you be tested? STEP 3 Pass your • You will read an eyesight chart to test learner permit test your vision. • You will do a computerised, multiple-choice test When you go to be tested, bring: based on this handbook to test your knowledge of road law and road safety. • your appointment number A sample computer test is available on the • evidence of identity and age, as set out VicRoads website at www.vicroads.vic.gov.au on page 11 You can practise the full version of the learner • payment for your 10 year learner permit if you permit test online to help you familiarise yourself pass the test. with the structure and layout of the test. If you have poor vision you are required to bring The learner permit practice test can also be an eyesight certificate from an optometrist or printed. opthalmologist (eye doctor). If you have a disability or illness that may affect your driving, you will need to bring a medical report from your doctor stating that you are medically fit to drive. If you are unsure or would like advice, contact VicRoads for further information. Once you hold a learner permit, you must tell VicRoads if you develop any medical condition that might affect your driving. 10
  13. 13. This includes gas, telephone and electricity bills Evidence of Identity up to one year old, or Medicare, student identity Before you sit for your learner permit or your and credit or account cards with banks, building probationary licence you must prove who you societies and credit unions; and are and that you live in Victoria by taking certain 3 Evidence of Victorian residence if this has not documents to the VicRoads Customer Service been shown on either the primary or secondary Centre. evidence documents provided. If documentary Only original documents are acceptable – evidence cannot be provided, a referee statement photocopies of documents, certified or otherwise, signed by a Victorian driver licence holder who are unacceptable. has known you for at least one year may be accepted. The statement must include the name Documents needed for evidence of identity and address of both the referee and the applicant. The list of acceptable documents is available One document must contain your signature. from any VicRoads Customer Service Centre If your signature does not appear on any of the or from the VicRoads website: documents provided, you will need to present a www.vicroads.vic.gov.au letter from your employer, school principal or You must provide: any person authorised to witness a statutory declaration, witnessing your signature. 1 A ‘primary evidence’ document such as an Australian photo driver licence/learner permit, If there is a difference in names between the birth certificate, a passport (not expired by more primary and secondary evidence documents you than two years) or an Australian naturalisation or will need to provide additional documents citizenship document; and such as a marriage certificate issued by the Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages in 2 A ‘secondary evidence’ document to confirm the Australia or a Change of Name Registration. current use of your name in the community. 11
  14. 14. Ten steps to getting your licence The Declaration of Completion in the Learner Log STEP 4 Book must also be signed by both the applicant and Pay for and receive the supervising driver. The List of Supervising Drivers must also be completed by all supervising your learner permit drivers, including driving instructors. You will then Once you have passed the test, you will: be given your learner permit. Those aged 21 years or over are encouraged to use the Learner Log • pay for your learner permit, which is valid for Book, but do not need to present it when they go 10 years for their probationary licence. • have your photo taken for your learner permit • be given a Learner Kit containing the Guide for STEP 5 Learners with the Learner Log Book, and the Start learning to drive Guide for Supervising Drivers. The Guide for and driving to learn Supervising Drivers provides important information and tips for supervising drivers. When you have your learner permit, it is important you get as much varied and supervised practice as If you are under 21 years of age you must complete possible. If you are under 21 years of age when a minimum of 120 hours supervised driving you apply for your probationary licence you must experience including 10 hours of driving at night. keep the Learner Log Book and get a minimum of You must bring the completed Learner Log Book 120 hours of supervised driving experience with you when you go for your probationary including at least 10 hours at night. licence. This will be checked before you take the To help you do this you should: practical drive test to make sure entries are complete and correct, with all necessary details • keep reading this handbook completed, including licence details and signatures • read the Guide for Learners, and of supervising drivers. encourage your supervising driver(s) to read the Guide for Supervising Drivers 12
  15. 15. • record and monitor your driving practice by STEP 6 recording the details in the Learner Log Book. Book your When you are learning to drive, you must: probationary licence test • have an accompanying driver with you who has To get your probationary licence, you must: a full (non-probationary) car licence • have turned 18 years old • carry your learner permit whilst driving • have held a learner permit for a continuous period of at least: • display L plates on the front and rear of ❏ your vehicle 12 months if you are aged under 21 years when you apply for probationary licence • have a zero Blood Alcohol Concentration ❏ 6 months if you are over 21 years of age but (BAC) (see pages 68 – 71 for more information) under 25 years • not use a mobile phone, hands free or hand ❏ 3 months if you are aged 25 years or held, or do messaging of any kind over. • not tow a caravan, or a trailer If you are the holder of a motorcycle licence or permit and have held this for 12 • drive a car only (not a bus or truck). or more months then these periods may be reduced. • drive a car ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION (BAC) BLOOD only (not a bus or a truck). • not be disqualified from driving in Victoria, in Australia or overseas is a measure of the amount of alcohol you have in your blood. • pass a computerised Hazard Perception Test before a driving test can be conducted. (See Drive Test, page 16 - 17). 13
  16. 16. Ten steps to getting your licence • If you got your learner permit on or after 1 July CONTINUOUS PERIOD means that the 2007 and you are under 21 years of age when you permit must not have been broken by a suspension or a apply for a probationary licence you must produce break in continuity such as allowing the permit to expire evidence of having completed 120 hours of before regaining a new permit. It also refers to supervised driving (including at least 10 hours at the period immediately before you apply for your licence. night) by presenting the Learner Log Book. All necessary details must be completed and each You can book your test: entry signed. The Declaration of Completion must • by phone (see pages 8-9) be signed by both the applicant and a supervising driver and the List of Supervising Drivers must be • in person (go to any of the VicRoads Customer completed and signed by all supervising drivers. Services Centres listed on the inside back cover of this handbook). Incomplete or incorrect Learner Log Books will not Note: if you cannot keep an appointment you will need be accepted. You will not be able to take your test to give VicRoads 24 hours notice to cancel your test, and all fees will be forfeited. otherwise fees will not be refunded unless you produce a In the event that entries in the Learner Log Book medical certificate or other supporting evidence. If you are found to be incomplete or incorrect, there are transfer your appointment, an additional appointment SIGNIFICANT CONSEQUENCES. The learner fee will apply. will lose their booking and test fees, and be STEP 7 prevented from taking the probationary licence test for at least six weeks. You may be liable to Pass your HEAVY PENALTIES under the Road Safety Act probationary licence test 1986. You can be tested at any of the VicRoads Customer Service Centres listed on the inside back cover of this handbook. 14
  17. 17. For your test, you or your driving supervisor or • You will do a computerised Hazard Perception instructor have to provide a registered, Test to see how safely you respond to traffic roadworthy car that is fitted with L plates. situations. • You will do a practical driving test to assess your You must bring: driving skills (see Drive Test, page 16-17). • your appointment number • If you got your learner permit on or after 1 July • your current learner permit Note: If you cannot 2007 and you are under 21 years of age when • your completed Learner Log Book which prove that you have you apply for a probationary licence you must completed 120 includes the completed Declaration of hours of driving provide evidence of completing 120 hours Completion and List of Supervising Drivers (if practice including (including 10 hours at night) of supervised you are under 21 years of age, when you apply 10 hours of night driving in the correctly completed Learner Log for a probationary licence) driving you will not Book. The Declaration of Completion must be be permitted to sit • payment for your probationary the test. Your signed by both learner and supervising driver, licence if you pass the test. appointment and and the List of Supervising Drivers signed by all test fees will be If you have a medical condition that may affect drivers that supervised the learner. forfeited and you your driving and you have not previously told will also have to VicRoads, you must provide a medical certificate wait at least six For your test you must provide a registered which states your fitness to drive. Once you hold a weeks before you and roadworthy car. probationary licence, you must tell VicRoads if can take the licence test. you develop any medical condition that might The Hazard Perception Test affect your driving. The Hazard Perception Test is designed to see How will you be tested? how safely you respond to traffic situations. • You will read an eyesight chart to test your vision. This test can be undertaken at the age of 17 years 15
  18. 18. Ten steps to getting your licence and 11 months. This test must be passed before Drive Test the drive test can be conducted. The on-road driving test is designed to identify drivers with the safe driving skills that develop with It will indicate how well you are able to obser ve driving experience. It will be difficult to pass the the whole road environment and anticipate test if you have not had enough supervised driving potential hazards (see Practice is the best way, experience. page 36). You need to be fully prepared before you come to A POTENTIAL HAZARD can be anything in sit for your test. the road environment that could present You will drive for about 30 minutes during the test and a danger or a risk while driving. the test route will include a range of driving conditions and tasks. You will have to show that you can: For each item in the Hazard Perception Test, you will see a video of a traffic situation and be • control the vehicle correctly given a driving task such as slowing down or • obey the road rules making a turn. • co-operate with other road users You have to respond safely to each traffic situation. • demonstrate acceptable safe driving skills. For some items, there is a time when it is safe to During your test, your ability to drive safely in perform the driving task; for these items you less demanding situations will first be assessed. should click a mouse button during the safe time. This part of the test is to make sure that you have basic car control and traffic skills. If you pass this For other items, there is no time when it is safe to part of the test, you will then be assessed in a perform the driving task; for them, you do not have broad range of realistic traffic situations. to click a mouse button. If you do something that is unsafe in the test, the test will be stopped and you will fail. 16
  19. 19. black letters with the words ‘Driver under Further information about the test will be available instruction’. Your P plates must also be displayed. at www.vicroads.vic.gov.au If you are tested in a car that has dual controls STEP 8 and your instructor holds a current Driving Pay for and receive Instructor Authority Number, you can have your your probationary licence driving instructor with you. Otherwise, only the VicRoads testing officer will be with you. Other Once you have passed the test, you will: passengers are not usually permitted. • pay for your probationary licence If a car has DUAL CONTROLS, it has • have your photo taken for your licence. additional pedal(s) on the passenger side for use by the accompanying driver. You will then be given your probationary licence. STEP 9 If you are tested in a vehicle that is fitted with Continue learning to drive automatic transmission you will be restricted to and driving to learn driving only vehicles that are fitted with automatic transmission during your probationary period. Now that you are able to drive without a The only way this restriction can be removed supervising driver or instructor, your real earlier is by passing another drive test in a learning will begin! Having your probationary manual car. licence will mean you have the minimum skills required for driving solo. It will be up to you If you hold a probationary licence and you are to improve your driving, and to drive safely undergoing instruction or testing in a manual and responsibly. vehicle, you must display a yellow plate measuring approximately 150mm by 150mm inscribed in 17
  20. 20. Ten steps to getting your licence • not drive a high powered vehicle (unless you For those aged under 21 years when applying are driving the vehicle during working hours at for a probationar y licence: the request of your employer or have been You must hold your probationary licence for a granted a written exemption by VicRoads) minimum of 4 years, before you can be given your • not use a mobile phone, hands free or hand full driver licence. A full licence will not be given to held, or do messaging of any kind you until your probationary period is over. • not tow a caravan or a trailer (unless for work or From 1 July 2008 there will be P1 and P2 if under instruction) probationary licences. The P1 licence period lasts for a minimum of 1 year and if you have a good • not carry more than one passenger aged driving record you will progress to the P2 licence between 16 and 21 years of age period that lasts for a minimum of 3 years. In • drive only a vehicle fitted with automatic addition to obeying the rules that apply to all transmission if you were tested in a vehicle drivers, when you are driving on a P1 probationary fitted with automatic transmission. licence, you must: In addition to obeying the rules that apply to all • display RED P plates on the front and rear of drivers, when you are driving on a P2 probationary your vehicle (plates measuring approximately licence, you must: 150mm square bearing a white letter P on a red background) • display GREEN P plates on the front and rear of your vehicle (plates measuring approximately • carry your probationary licence with you at all 150mm square bearing a white letter P on a times green background) • have a zero Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) (see Alcohol, page 68) • carry your probationary licence with you at all times 18
  21. 21. You must hold your probationary licence for a • not use a mobile phone while driving minimum of 3 years, before you can be given your • have a zero Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) full driver licence. A full licence will not be given to (see Alcohol, page 68) you until your probationary period is over. • not drive a high powered vehicle (unless you From 1 July 2008 there will be P1 and P2 are driving the vehicle during working hours at probationary licences. If you are 21 or over you the request of your employer or have been will move straight to a P2 probationary licence. granted a written exemption by VicRoads) In addition to obeying the rules that apply to all • drive only a vehicle fitted with automatic drivers, when you are driving on a P2 probationary transmission if you were tested in a vehicle licence, you must: fitted with automatic transmission. • display GREEN P plates on the front and rear of There are severe penalties that may be applied your vehicle (plates measuring approximately for breaching any of these conditions, including 150mm square bearing a white letter P on a licence suspension, fitting of alcohol ignition green background) interlocks and severe penalties for drink drive • carry your probationary licence with you at all offences. A good driving record will be required times to progress to a full licence. • have a zero Blood Alcohol Concentration A good driving record means you avoid having (BAC) see Alcohol, page 68) your licence cancelled or suspended, as well as avoiding any drink and/or drug driving offences. • not use a mobile phone while driving For those aged 21 years or over when applying for a probationar y licence: 19
  22. 22. Ten steps to getting your licence • not drive a high powered vehicle (unless you are driving the vehicle during working hours at A HIGH POWERED VEHICLE is a vehicle that has: the request of your employer or have been granted a written exemption by VicRoads) • eight or more cylinders • a turbocharged or supercharged engine • drive only a vehicle fitted with automatic transmission if you were tested in a vehicle • an engine that has been modified to improve its fitted with automatic transmission. performance AND/OR There are severe penalties that may be applied for • is one of a certain number of high performance six breaching any of these conditions, including cylinder cars which include BMW M and M3, Honda licence suspension, fitting of alcohol ignition NSX, Nissan 350Z, Porsche (all models) and interlocks and severe penalties for drink drive Mercedes Benz SLK350. offences. Vehicles excluded from these restrictions are: A good driving record will be required to progress • diesel powered turbocharged or supercharged to a full licence. A good driving record means vehicles (without engine performance modifications) you avoid having your licence cancelled or • nominated vehicles with low powered turbocharged or suspended, as well as avoiding any drink and/or supercharged engines, including Suzuki Cappucino drug driving offences. 2D Cabriolet Turbo 3 cylinder 689cc and Daihatsu Copen L880 TD 2D Convertible 4 cylinder 659 cc • all models of the Smart car produced by Mercedes For more information about high powered Benz AND vehicles, visit VicRoads website www.vicroads.vic.gov.au or obtain an • vehicles driven as part of the driver’s employment information sheet from any VicRoads Customer and at the request of the employer. Service Centre. 20
  23. 23. Language Options STEP 10 When you go for your learner permit test or your Receive your probationary licence test, you can choose to do the full driver licence road law questions and the Hazard Perception Test on the computer in any of the following 20 languages: Before your P2 probationary licence expires, you will be sent a notice to renew it. You will need to Somai Albanian Italian take the renewal notice to any photo point listed on Spanish Arabic Laotian the accompanying pamphlet, pay the renewal fee and be photographed. You will then be issued with Turkish Cambodian Macedonian a full licence. Vietnamese Chinese (Mandarin) Polish If you do not receive a renewal notice, it is still Croation Romanian your responsibility to renew your licence by the English Russian expiry date of your licence. German Serbian Greek Sinhalese If you speak a language or dialect that is not on this list, you can have an interpreter present during the test. If you are deaf, you can ask to have an Auslan interpreter present. Interpreters are provided free of charge. When you book your test, just let the VicRoads officer know you need an interpreter. 21
  24. 24. The Graduated Licensing System During the first few months and years of driving, new drivers are more at risk of being killed or injured in a crash than experienced drivers. The Graduated Licensing System is one way of reducing this risk. New drivers are given progressive steps, in order to reduce their exposure to high risk situations as they move through the learner permit and the P1 and P2 probationary licence stages to earn their full driver licence. The conditions of the System for those aged under 21 years when they apply for a probationary licence are in Table 1. The conditions of the System for those aged 21 years or over when they apply for a probationary licence are in Table 2. 22
  25. 25. FULL DRIVER LICENCE LEARNER PERMIT P2 PROBATIONARY LICENCE P1 PROBATIONARY LICENCE The Graduated DRIVER'S 22 years 16 years 18 years 19 years MINIMUM AGE Licensing System for people who are • medically fit • P1 probationary licence held • P2 probationary licence held • medically fit DRIVER'S • evidence of identity for a minimum of one year for a minimum of 3 years • evidence of identity under 21 years of ELIGIBILITY • learner permit held (with no licence suspension) (with no licence suspensions) age when they continuously for a minimum apply for a of one year probationary • Learner Log Book kept licence (on or after with a minimum of 120 hours supervised driving practice 1 July 2008). including 10 hours at night • Eyesight test • good driving record • good driving record ASSESSMENT • eyesight test • Hazard Perception Test • knowledge test (This test must be passed before the practical driving test can be conducted. This test can be undertaken at the age of 17 years and 11 months) • Practical driving test • RED P plates displayed at front • GREEN P plates displayed at • under 0.05 BAC CONDITIONS • L plates displayed at front & & rear of vehicle when driving front & rear of vehicle when • must carry licence when rear of vehicle when driving • must carry licence when driving driving if under 26 years of age • must carry learner permit The rules driving • must carry licence when • not use a hand held mobile whilst driving for drivers • zero BAC driving phone while driving • accompanied by a driver may vary from • no mobile phone use, hands • zero BAC who has a full car licence state free or hand held, or • high powered vehicle (non probationary) to state, messaging of any kind restrictions • zero BAC it is advisable • high powered vehicle • if tested in an automatic • no mobile phone use, hands that you restrictions vehicle, only drives a vehicle free or hand held, or contact the • no towing a caravan with automatic transmission messaging of any kind interstate or trailer (unless for work or • not use a hand held mobile • no towing a caravan Transport if under instructions) phone while driving or trailer Authority to • not carry more than one • drives a car only (not a bus check if passenger aged between 16 or truck) additional and 21 years of age rules apply. • if tested in an automatic vehicle, only drives a vehicle with automatic transmission P P L DURATION 10 years 10 years (or 3 years on request) 1 years (P1) 3 years (P2) 23
  26. 26. FULL DRIVER LICENCE LEARNER PERMIT P2 PROBATIONARY LICENCE The Graduated 24 years 16 years 21 years DRIVER'S MINIMUM AGE Licensing System • probationary licence held • medically fit • medically fit for people who are DRIVER'S ELIGIBILITY for a minimum of 3 years • evidence of identity • evidence of identity 21 years of age or (with no licence suspensions) • learner permit held older when they continously for a minimum apply for a of 6 months if aged 21 to 24 years, or 3 months if aged probationary 25 years or over licence. • good driving record ASSESSMENT • eyesight test • eyesight test • knowledge test • Hazard Perception Test (this test must be passed before the practical driving test can be conducted) • practical driving test • accompanied by a driver • under 0.05 BAC • GREEN P plates displayed at CONDITIONS who has a full car licence • must carry licence when front & rear of vehicle when (non probationary) driving if under 26 years of age driving • must carry learner permit • not use a hand held mobile • must carry licence when whilst driving phone while driving driving • L plates displayed at front & • zero BAC rear of vehicle when driving • high powered vehicle • zero BAC restrictions • no mobile phone use, hands • if tested in an automatic free or hand held, or vehicle, only drives a vehicle messaging of any kind with automatic transmission • no towing a caravan • not use a hand held mobile or trailer phone while driving • drives a car only (not a bus or truck) P L DURATION 10 years 10 years (or 3 years on request) 3 years (P2) 24
  27. 27. 1 • Facing the real challenges of driving • Some facts about driving • How complicated is driving? 25
  28. 28. 1 The challenges of driving “Nearly everybody I know has a FACING THE REAL licence. So, driving must be easy.” CHALLENGES OF DRIVING New solo drivers have often done very little driving. Many people believe this is the This can result in them having almost no case. Why should you practise experience of the real challenges of driving. when you think driving is so easy? These challenges include: Don’t be fooled into believing • variety of traffic conditions – from light traffic in this is true. local streets to heavy peak hour traffic • extremes in weather – rain, fog or icy conditions • different driving manoeuvres – driving in roundabouts, making U-turns or turning at What is more different types of intersections challenging • effects of the time of day on visibility – night than driving? driving or sun glare when driving at dawn Nothing! or dusk • unexpected actions of other drivers and riders – stopping quickly, merging or turning without warning • types of roads – freeways, roads with trams or undivided main roads 27
  29. 29. • imperfect road surfaces – potholes, gravel or Not all driving mistakes result in a crash. Think slippery surfaces about the mistakes you’ve seen drivers make Getting where without causing a crash: • handling any of these challenges when faced you want with distractions inside the car – radio, noisy – cutting off other cars passengers or mobile phones. to be involves – not giving way – misjudging gaps The worst time to gain this experience is when you more than are driving solo, on your own – with no supervising – trying to overtake when it’s not safe just driving driver to give you advice or help. So make the most – just ‘not seeing’ other road users. of your time as a learner driver and don’t think that the car If driving is so easy, why do so many drivers you can master the challenges of driving overnight regularly make mistakes, sometimes resulting in – you’ll never really stop learning. Remember, crashes? being overconfident, especially as a new solo driver, can lead to making poor decisions when All young drivers face the same challenges it counts. because driving is complicated. It requires a lot of time and effort to become a good driver. SOME FACTS ABOUT DRIVING Research has shown that a minimum of 120 hours of • In Victoria, there are several hundred thousand supervised practice as a learner, and restrictions on crashes every year. new solo drivers for the first few years, can help reduce the risk of a crash. This is why Victoria has • These crashes are not ‘accidents’ – they are due introduced the Graduated Licensing System, to drivers making mistakes. including the mandatory 120 hours to be completed in the Learner Log Book by those aged under 21 years of age when applying for a probationary licence. 28
  30. 30. How complicated is driving a car when compared HOW COMPLICATED with playing a ball game? IS DRIVING? You will most With ball games… With driving… likely have played one or Roads can vary enormously – ranging from busy city The playing field or court looks the same each time more ball games, streets to country roads, from freeways to shopping you play – a regular size and marked out in a set way. centre car parks, from highways to local streets. such as football, netball, You can find yourself driving every day of the week, You usually play at a regular time, perhaps on basketball or early in the morning, through the day and late a Saturday afternoon. hockey. You will at night…and in all weather conditions. have practised You’ll find people of all ages on the road – ranging You often play with teammates and other teams for many, many from small children and teenagers, right up to the of a similar age and ability. hours trying to elderly. Skills and abilities will vary – an older improve your pedestrian may not move as quickly as a teenager, a child on a bike may have little control. skills. Learning to drive a car Some are walking, and some are riding bikes or Everyone has the same equipment and can run also requires motorcycles. Others drive small cars, big cars, around the field or court at a similar rate. lots of practice trucks or semi-trailers. Speeds can vary from a few kilometres an hour up to 110 km/h. to develop your skills. On the road everyone is headed somewhere Everyone has one aim – to score a goal or point – different and may be thinking about things other and so you can often predict the play. than driving. The unexpected happens often. 29
  31. 31. • Using your mirrors, doing headchecks, Whether it is playing a ball game, a musical changing gears and using turn indicators need instrument, a computer game or activities like to all be done at the right times. inline skating, driving is much more complicated, demanding and far more dangerous. Does it make any sense that people usually spend more time practising sport, music or any other A HEADCHECK means looking over your pastime than they do practising behind the wheel shoulder to see things through the rear side windows – but don’t take your eyes in preparation for solo driving? off the road ahead for more than Even a common driving task like turning right at a second. an intersection is very complicated: • As you approach the intersection you will need • Now you are faced with the challenges in the to judge when to start slowing down, what your turn itself. Is this gap large enough? Is that speed should be at various places on approach vehicle approaching too quickly? Will they stop and whether you’ll need to stop completely. because the traffic light has changed? • You will need to take the traffic around you Now imagine all of these things, and many others into consideration. Are they changing lanes? as well, all needing to happen in a short length of Are the vehicles in front braking more than you? road and a short period of time. Lots to think about Are there pedestrians about to cross the road? and do. • Perhaps you will need to change lanes to do the turn. Is there a gap? When do you change? Do you need to slow down to let a gap ‘catch up’ to you? 30
  32. 32. Given how complex driving is, it is important you prepare for the challenge! Point to remember: Prepare for the challenge 1 OBSERVE THE TRAFFIC Observe the traffic around you. Are other vehicles changing lanes or braking more sharply than you? Are there pedestrians about to cross the road? JUDGE THE DISTANCE Judge the distance between you and the vehicles in front and behind – before turning or changing lanes. THINK AHEAD Think ahead when you want to turn off or change lanes. Remember to indicate, do a headcheck and allow a big enough gap. FIGURE 1 31
  33. 33. 2 Learning to drive • How do you learn to drive? • Some facts about new solo drivers • Practice is the best way • Your supervising driver is there to help • Put variety into your driving practice • Traps along the road to solo driving • Check your progress 33
  34. 34. 2 Learning to drive Research shows that new solo drivers with about Understanding that driving is 120 hours of learner driver experience have a complicated is one thing, becoming crash risk that is 30% lower than new drivers a skilled driver is another. with only about 50 hours of experience. This is why 120 hours has been set as the target for Lots of people can help you – your learners in Victoria. driving instructor, supervising drivers and friends. But learning to drive is SOME FACTS ABOUT NEW mostly up to you and the only way SOLO DRIVERS to become a safe and skilled driver Drivers with little experience make all sorts of is by doing lots of supervised mistakes – increasing the risk of a crash: driving practice. • They are less able than experienced drivers to The only way HOW DO YOU LEARN predict possible problems. By the time they have recognised the hazard it may be too late. to learn to drive TO DRIVE? • They tend to concentrate more on their basic The more you do something, the better at it you is by doing lots driving skills than experienced drivers and can get. Athletes, musicians and artists know there is find it hard to deal with unexpected events. of supervised no substitute for continued practice – refining and improving skill and performance. • They can be easily distracted from driving by practice things such as mobile phones, music or the It is exactly the same with driving. How well you radio, and passengers. can drive is limited to the amount of driving • They tend to watch the vehicle immediately in experience, you have – the more experience the front rather than looking further ahead, to the safer you will be. sides and behind. So they may miss things that can warn of potential problems. 35
  35. 35. New solo drivers are more likely to be involved in: PRACTICE IS THE BEST WAY • Crashes at an intersection when turning right in Every driving practice session really helps, even front of an oncoming vehicle going straight though you may not notice the small improvements: More supervised ahead, or being hit by a right turning vehicle. • your performance will get smoother practice equals New solo drivers tend to misjudge gaps in • you will make better decisions the traffic. • you will also get better at thinking about what fewer crashes might happen on the road around you. • Crashes into the rear of another vehicle. New later on solo drivers are more likely to be in the vehicle The right structure for your practice will help you that hits the one in front. These crashes are make sure you really are ready to drive solo by the often caused through speeding, not scanning the time you go for your licence test. There are four road ahead, and driving too close. stages you need to work through as a learner to become a safe driver: • Crashes that involve driving off the road. These crashes occur about twice as often on a straight • Stage 1 is all about controlling your car. It’s the section of road than on a curve. Speed is a main shortest stage, and aims to get you to start, stop cause, but other factors also contribute such as: and steer safely in a quiet area without traffic. – failing to predict a possible problem on the • Stage 2 is about applying your new car-control road ahead skills and looking out for other road users on quiet – being distracted or a lapse in concentration roads with little traffic. – poor vehicle control • Stage 3 takes longer and uses your Stages 1 and 2 – failing to adapt to a change in road or traffic skills on busier roads and in more difficult driving conditions. situations. Now you start becoming a real driver. You learn to deal with traffic and other hazards to Also alcohol affects safety related driving skills of become safe in varied driving situations. inexperienced drivers compared to experienced drivers. 36
  36. 36. HAZARD PERCEPTION is the ability to identify, assess, decide and respond to possible risks or dangers in the road scene around you. This is known as hazard perception. • Stage 4 also takes a long time and can be the longest stage. It involves driving as if you’re a Hazard perception is the ability to: solo driver. You still have your Ls on the car • identify possible risks or dangers in the road and a supervising driver beside you, but you’ll scene around you learn to make most of the driving decisions • assess the level of risk and predict what yourself. The aim is to build up lots of different might happen experiences where you act like a solo driver. • respond in a way and in time to avoid or deal Then when you hit the road on your own you’ll with these possible hazards. be ready. The Guide for Learners and the Guide for Possible hazards can be the vehicles around you, Supervising Drivers contains detailed advice about such as: what you and your supervising driver need to do in • the cars in front, behind and beside you each of these four stages. You will be given these • the motorcycle in the side street to your left booklets when you pass the learner permit test. • the truck double-parked up ahead • the car approaching in the overtaking lane five Safe driving is about being ready for what may car lengths behind you. happen Possible hazards can also be: What happens in your head is more important than • pedestrians how well you control your car. • cyclists Being able to predict what may happen around you • weather conditions – as a driver – is an essential skill, which only • potholes in the road comes with lots of experience. With the • traffic conditions information collected through lots of practice and • the tightness of a curve ahead experience, you begin to anticipate more and make • a blind crest on a hill. better decisions as a driver. 37
  37. 37. Hazards can be anything in the road environment You can that could present a danger or a risk while driving. New drivers often don’t see or anticipate the only check possible hazards around them. everything out by Because possible hazards can be anywhere, you doing can’t rely on just looking ahead and using your BLIND SPOT BLIND SPOT mirrors. Regardless of how well you set up your a headcheck! rear view mirrors, blind spots remain. These are areas behind the driver that can’t be seen using only mirrors, such as outside the rear passenger door on the driver’s side. You can only see in these blind spots by moving your head and quickly looking over your shoulder – this is called a headcheck (see headcheck definition, page 30). Do this as well as using FIGURE 2 mirrors to make sure you see everything around Be aware of your blind spots you, such as when reversing, changing lanes, merging or pulling out to overtake. As a driver, knowing exactly what is happening around you at all times is essential. Learn to constantly scan and you will be in a better position to anticipate hazards and respond in the best way. 38
  38. 38. YOUR SUPERVISING DRIVER IS THERE TO HELP To get started, have To SCAN means taking in the road scene around you by looking ahead, to the sides your first Driving takes much more effort in the beginning, and in rear view mirrors. when you are learning. It is just not possible for few lessons with new drivers to be able to do all that is required a professional when driving – that is why you have your supervising driver beside you. They don’t take the driving place of professional driving instructors, but instructor supervising drivers such as your parents, can provide the extensive practice opportunities you will need. They are there to help you: • with an extra pair of eyes to watch the road • with some decisions FIGURE 3 • as an early warning system – to help you Adjust your mirrors after you have positioned the anticipate potential hazards driver’s seat so that you can see clearly. When adjusted correctly there will be an overlap between • by being a sounding board – there are a lot of the view from your outside and inside mirrors. things to make decisions about. Adjust your outside mirrors so that they just catch a Over time, and with lots of practice, as you view of the edge of the car. In some cars, a good progress through the four stages of learning to guide is to be able to see the rear door handle in the drive, the role of your supervising driver will bottom corner of the side mirror. gradually change. 39

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