Chapter 12:
Marine Life and the
Marine Environment
      by Lily Young
Main Divisions of the
    Marine Environment
• Over 250,000 known marine species
  (and increasing)

• Range from microsco...
Main Divisions of the
      Marine Environment
Number of species:
Main Divisions of the
      Marine Environment
Number of species: 1. Land
Main Divisions of the
      Marine Environment
Number of species: 1. Land
                   2. Benthic
Main Divisions of the
      Marine Environment
Number of species: 1. Land
                   2. Benthic
                  ...
Main Divisions of the
      Marine Environment
Number of species: 1. Land
                   2. Benthic
                  ...
Main Divisions of the
      Marine Environment
Number of species: 1. Land
                   2. Benthic
                  ...
Classification of Marine
       Organisms
Carolus Linnaeus devised classification
           system in 1758
Classification of Marine
         Organisms
  Carolus Linnaeus devised classification
             system in 1758
5 kingdoms:
Classification of Marine
         Organisms
  Carolus Linnaeus devised classification
             system in 1758
5 kingdoms...
5 Kingdoms
5 Kingdoms




What is the term for placing organisms into
            various categories?
5 Kingdoms




What is the term for placing organisms into
            various categories?
                 taxonomy
Classification of Marine
       Organisms
3 domains, based on habitat and mobility:

 1. Plankton = floaters (algae, animals...
What is the term used to describe squid, who spend
           part of their life as plankton?
What is the term used to describe squid, who spend
           part of their life as plankton?

         meroplankton (mero...
What is the term used to describe squid, who spend
           part of their life as plankton?

         meroplankton (mero...
What is the term used to describe squid, who spend
           part of their life as plankton?

         meroplankton (mero...
Adaptations to Physical
Conditions of the Ocean
Adaptations to Physical
 Conditions of the Ocean
Cold water
Adaptations to Physical
  Conditions of the Ocean
Cold water
  • hard to swim through (high viscosity,
    high density)

...
Adaptations to Physical
  Conditions of the Ocean
Cold water
  • hard to swim through (high viscosity,
    high density)

...
Adaptations to Physical
 Conditions of the Ocean
Warm water
 • adaptations: ornate plumage/
   appendages to increase surf...
Adaptations to Physical
Conditions of the Ocean
Adaptations to Physical
 Conditions of the Ocean
Salinity
Adaptations to Physical
 Conditions of the Ocean
Salinity
• osmosis = movement of water
  molecules through semi-permeable...
Adaptations to Physical
Conditions of the Ocean
Adaptations to Physical
   Conditions of the Ocean
High salinity
Adaptations to Physical
   Conditions of the Ocean
High salinity
   • low H2o
   • dehydrating fish
   • adaptations: drink...
Adaptations to Physical
Conditions of the Ocean
Adaptations to Physical
  Conditions of the Ocean
Low salinity
Adaptations to Physical
  Conditions of the Ocean
Low salinity
  • high H2o
  • fish absorb water easily
  • fish do not dri...
Adaptations to Physical
Conditions of the Ocean
Adaptations to Physical
   Conditions of the Ocean
Dissolved gases: Oxygen
Adaptations to Physical
   Conditions of the Ocean
Dissolved gases: Oxygen
   • high oxygen adaptation: gills extract
    ...
Adaptations to Physical
   Conditions of the Ocean
Dissolved gases: Oxygen
   • high oxygen adaptation: gills extract
    ...
Adaptations to Physical
   Conditions of the Ocean
Dissolved gases: Oxygen
   • high oxygen adaptation: gills extract
    ...
Adaptations to Physical
Conditions of the Ocean
Adaptations to Physical
  Conditions of the Ocean
Transparency
Adaptations to Physical
  Conditions of the Ocean
Transparency
  • sea water has high transparency;
    allows sunlight to...
Thank you!
Chapter 12
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  • Chapter 12

    1. 1. Chapter 12: Marine Life and the Marine Environment by Lily Young
    2. 2. Main Divisions of the Marine Environment • Over 250,000 known marine species (and increasing) • Range from microscopic bacteria and algae to the world’s largest animal, the blue whale • Pelagic = “of the sea” • Benthic = “sea bottom”
    3. 3. Main Divisions of the Marine Environment Number of species:
    4. 4. Main Divisions of the Marine Environment Number of species: 1. Land
    5. 5. Main Divisions of the Marine Environment Number of species: 1. Land 2. Benthic
    6. 6. Main Divisions of the Marine Environment Number of species: 1. Land 2. Benthic 3. Pelagic
    7. 7. Main Divisions of the Marine Environment Number of species: 1. Land 2. Benthic 3. Pelagic Which has more biomass: the pelagic or benthic environment?
    8. 8. Main Divisions of the Marine Environment Number of species: 1. Land 2. Benthic 3. Pelagic Which has more biomass: the pelagic or benthic environment? The pelagic environment (more sunlight)
    9. 9. Classification of Marine Organisms Carolus Linnaeus devised classification system in 1758
    10. 10. Classification of Marine Organisms Carolus Linnaeus devised classification system in 1758 5 kingdoms:
    11. 11. Classification of Marine Organisms Carolus Linnaeus devised classification system in 1758 5 kingdoms: 1. Anamalia: multi-celled animals 2. Fungi: mold and lichen 3. Plantae: multi-celled plants 4. Monera: single-celled, lack nucleus 5. Protoctista: single and multi-celled, with nucleus
    12. 12. 5 Kingdoms
    13. 13. 5 Kingdoms What is the term for placing organisms into various categories?
    14. 14. 5 Kingdoms What is the term for placing organisms into various categories? taxonomy
    15. 15. Classification of Marine Organisms 3 domains, based on habitat and mobility: 1. Plankton = floaters (algae, animals, bacteria within ocean currents) 2. Nekton = swimmers (fish, squid, marine mammals and reptiles) 3. Benthos = bottom-dwellers (crab, starfish, etc.)
    16. 16. What is the term used to describe squid, who spend part of their life as plankton?
    17. 17. What is the term used to describe squid, who spend part of their life as plankton? meroplankton (mero = “a part”)
    18. 18. What is the term used to describe squid, who spend part of their life as plankton? meroplankton (mero = “a part”) What is the term for the opposite of meroplankton?
    19. 19. What is the term used to describe squid, who spend part of their life as plankton? meroplankton (mero = “a part”) What is the term for the opposite of meroplankton? holoplankton (“holo” = whole)
    20. 20. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean
    21. 21. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean Cold water
    22. 22. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean Cold water • hard to swim through (high viscosity, high density) • adaptations: streamlining
    23. 23. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean Cold water • hard to swim through (high viscosity, high density) • adaptations: streamlining
    24. 24. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean Warm water • adaptations: ornate plumage/ appendages to increase surface area
    25. 25. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean
    26. 26. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean Salinity
    27. 27. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean Salinity • osmosis = movement of water molecules through semi-permeable membrane (osmos = “to push”); • water molecules always move from less concentrated solution to more concentrated solution
    28. 28. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean
    29. 29. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean High salinity
    30. 30. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean High salinity • low H2o • dehydrating fish • adaptations: drink lots of water, secrete salts, small amount of urine
    31. 31. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean
    32. 32. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean Low salinity
    33. 33. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean Low salinity • high H2o • fish absorb water easily • fish do not drink water, cells absorb salts, large volume of urine
    34. 34. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean
    35. 35. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean Dissolved gases: Oxygen
    36. 36. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean Dissolved gases: Oxygen • high oxygen adaptation: gills extract dissolved oxygen from water • low oxygen: fish can’t breathe the air from the surface
    37. 37. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean Dissolved gases: Oxygen • high oxygen adaptation: gills extract dissolved oxygen from water • low oxygen: fish can’t breathe the air from the surface
    38. 38. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean Dissolved gases: Oxygen • high oxygen adaptation: gills extract dissolved oxygen from water • low oxygen: fish can’t breathe the air from the surface
    39. 39. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean
    40. 40. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean Transparency
    41. 41. Adaptations to Physical Conditions of the Ocean Transparency • sea water has high transparency; allows sunlight to penetrate to about 1000 m • adaptations: keen eyesight, camouflage, countershading = fish are dark on top, light on bottom
    42. 42. Thank you!

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