Chandrayaan I


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Chandrayaan I

  1. 1. T.Dhinakar Raj (20063410) CHANDRAYAAN Mission to Moon
  2. 2. Objective The Chandrayaan-1 mission is aimed at high-  resolution remote sensing of the moon in visible, near infrared (NIR), low energy X-rays and high- energy X-ray regions. To prepare a three-dimensional atlas (with high  spatial and altitude resolution of 5-10 m) of both near and far side of the moon. To conduct chemical and mineralogical mapping of  the entire lunar surface for distribution of mineral and chemical elements such as Magnesium, Aluminum, Silicon, Calcium, Iron and Titanium as well as high atomic number elements such as Radon, Uranium & Thorium with high spatial resolution.
  3. 3. Launch Vehicle Launch vehicle used is PSLV-XL  PSLV has four stages, using solid and liquid  propulsion systems alternately. PSLV-XL is the upgraded version of PSLV. In PSLV-XL, the six strap-on motors carry 4 tonne more propellant compared to PSLV; There is also an increase in the length of each strap-on. PSLV-XL (PSLV-C11) is used to inject the 1380 kg  mass spacecraft into a 255 x 22860 km orbit.
  4. 4. Launch Vehicle
  5. 5. Launch Vechicle (contd..)
  6. 6. Mission sequence
  7. 7. Mission sequence (contd..) Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft was launched from  Sriharikota by PSLV-XL (PSLV-C11) on 22 October 2008 at 06:22 hrs in an highly elliptical initial orbit (IO) with perigee (nearest point to the Earth) of 255 km and an apogee (farthest point from the Earth) of 22,860 km, inclined at an angle of 17.9 deg to the equator. In this initial orbit, Chandrayaan orbited the Earth once in about six and a half hours. The spacecraft's Liquid Apogee Motor (LAM) firing  was done on 23 October at 09:00 hrs,when the spacecraft was near perigee, to raise the apogee to 37,900 km while the perigee to 305 km. The spacecraft took eleven hours to go round the Earth once.(EBN1)
  8. 8. Mission sequence (contd..) The orbit was further raised to 336 km x 74,715  km on 25 October at 05:48 hrs .In this orbit, spacecraft took about twenty-five and a half hours to orbit the Earth once. (EBN2)  The LAM was fired again on 26 October at 07:08 hrs to take the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft to extremely high elliptical orbit with apogee 164,600 km and perigee at 348 km. Chandrayaan-1 took about 73 hours to go round the Earth once. (EBN3)  On 29 October, orbit raising was carried out at 07:38 hrs IST to raise the apogee to 267,000 km and perigee to 465 km. Chandrayaan’s present orbit extends more than half the way to moon and takes about six days to orbit the Earth. (EBN4)
  9. 9. Mission sequence (contd..) On 4 November at 04:56 hrs , Chandrayaan  entered the Lunar Transfer Trajectory with an apogee of 380,000 km.  On 8 November at 16:51 hrs , the spacecraft’s Liquid engine was fired to reduce its velocity to insert the spacecraft in the lunar orbit (LOI) and enable lunar gravity to capture it. As a result, the spacecraft was in an elliptical orbit with periselene (nearest point to the moon) of 504 km and aposelene (farthest point from the moon) of 7,502 km.  The first orbit reduction was carried out successfully on 9 November at 20:03 hrs IST. Thus the spacecraft was in lunar orbit with 200 km periselene. The aposelene remains unchanged (i.e 7,502 km).
  10. 10. Mission sequence (contd..) After careful and detailed observation, a series of  three orbit reduction were successfully carried out and the spacecraft’s orbit was reduced to its intended operational 100 km circular polar orbit on November 12.  On 14 November at 20:06 hrs , the Moon Impact Probe (MIP) was ejected from the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and hard landed on the lunar surface near the South Polar Region at 20:31 hrs after 25 minutes journey. It placed the Indian tricolour, which was pasted on the sides of MIP on the Moon  Currently, the scientific instruments/payloads are being commissioned sequentially and exploration of Moon with the array of onboard instruments have begun.
  11. 11. Mission sequence (contd..)
  12. 12. Spacecraft Cuboid in shape of approximately 1.5 m side.  Weighing 1380 kg at launch and 675 kg at lunar  orbit. Accommodates eleven science payloads.  This deployable solar array consisting of a single  panel generates 750W of peak power. After deployment, the solar panel plane is canted  by 30º to the spacecraft pitch axis. The spacecraft employs a 0.7m diameter  parabolic antenna for payload data transmission. he spacecraft uses a bipropellant integrated  propulsion system to reach lunar orbit as well as orbit and attitude maintenance while orbiting the Moon.
  13. 13. Spacecraft(contd..) The propulsion system carries required  propellant for a mission life of 2 years, wit  The spacecraft has three Solid State Recorders (SSRs) Onboard to record data from various payloads.SSR-1 will store science payload data and has capability of storing 32Gb data.SSR-2 will store science payload data along with spacecraft attitude information ,satellite house keeping and other auxiliary data. The storing capacity of SSR-2 is 8Gb.M3 (Moon Mineralogy Mapper) payload has an independent SSR with 10Gb capacity. h adequate margin.
  14. 14. Payload
  15. 15. Payload instuments Terrain Mapping stereo Camera  Hyper Spectral Imaging camera  Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument  High Energy X-ray spectrometer  Moon Impact Probe  Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer  Near Infra Red spectrometer  Sub KeV Atom Reflecting Analyser  Radiation Dose Monitor Experiment  Moon Mineralogy Mapper 
  16. 16. Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC)
  17. 17. Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) The 4,000 pixels (1 pixel covers an area of 5  metre x 5 metre from a height of 100 km from the moon) in the Terrain Mapping Camera are arranged in a linear manner.  area covered in an instant is 5 m x 20 km  The area covered during 20 minutes of imaging will be 1,800 km (1.5 km will be imaged in a second).  The camera has four exposure settings and this lets the camera record data from areas not well illuminated by the sun, particularly those lying in higher latitudes up to the poles. (ie 4 gain values)
  18. 18. Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) The expected data rate is of the order of 50 Mbps.  The dimension of TMC payload is 370 mm x 220 mm x 414 mm and mass is 6.3 kg. Will help to know about the evolution of moon.  When gain increases, the resolution suffers.  It will prepare a 3-dimensional atlas with high  spatial and elevation resolution of 5 m. TMC payload is developed by ISRO. 
  19. 19. Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC)
  20. 20. Hyper Spectral Imaging camera
  21. 21. Hyper Spectral Imaging camera The aim is to obtain spectroscopic data for  mineralogical mapping of the lunar surface in visible and near infra red region  The uniqueness of the HySI is in its capability of mapping the lunar surface in 64 contiguous bands , the spectral range of 0.4-0.95 µm region with a spectral resolution of better than 15 nm and spatial resolution of 80 m, with swath coverage of 20 km.  The reflected light falling on HySI is split into spectral bands of different wavelengths by a wedge filter. The filter is placed in such a manner that the spectral separation happens in a north- south direction.
  22. 22. Hyper Spectral Imaging camera The wedge filter is an interference filter with  varying thickness along one dimension so that the transmitted spectral range varies in that direction Hence each of the 512 pixels arranged in the  north-south direction will represent continuously differing spectral wavelengths One end of the array will have 421  nanometre and the other end will have 964 nanometre wavelength The payload mass is 2.5 kg and its size is  275 mm x 255 mm x 205 mm. HySI payload is developed by ISRO. 
  23. 23. Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument ( LLRI )
  24. 24. Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument ( LLRI )
  25. 25. Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument ( LLRI ) To provide ranging data for determining accurate  altitude of the spacecraft above the lunar surface LLRI works on the time-Of-Flight (TOF) principle  In this method, a coherent pulse of light from a  high power laser is directed towards the target whose range is to be measured. A fraction of the light is scattered back in the  direction of the laser source where an optical receiver collects it and focuses it on to a photoelectric detector LLRI consists of a Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped  yttrium aluminium garnet)laser with 1064 nm wave source operating at 10 Hz pulse repetition mode.
  26. 26. Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument ( LLRI ) pulse width of 10 ns is transmitted to the lunar  surface  The reflected laser pulse from the lunar surface is collected by a 200 mm Optical receiver and focused on to a Silicon Avalanche Photodetector.  This payload weighs less than 10kg.  LLRI payload is developed by ISRO  It is used along with TMC
  27. 27. High Energy X-ray Spectrometer (HEX)
  28. 28. High Energy X-ray Spectrometer (HEX) The High-Energy X-ray spectrometer  covers the hard X-ray region from 30 keV to 270 keV.  This is the first experiment to carry out spectral studies of planetary surface at hard X-ray energies using good energy resolution detectors  The High Energy X-ray (HEX) experiment is designed primarily to study the emission of low energy (30-270 keV) natural gamma-rays from the lunar surface due to 238U and 232Th and their decay chain nuclides.
  29. 29. High Energy X-ray Spectrometer (HEX) To identify excess 210Pb (Lead) in lunar polar  regions deposited there as a result of transport of gaseous 222Rn(Radon) ,a decay product of 238U(Uranium) from other regions of the Moon. This will enable us to understand transport of other volatiles such as water to the polar regions. To explore the possibility of identifying polar regions covered by thick water-ice deposit.  The geometric detector area of 144 cm2 is realized by cascading nine Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) arrays, each 4 cm x 4 cm (5mm thick), composed of 256 (16x16) pixels  A specially designed collimator provide a field of view (FOV) of 40 km X 40 Km. The weight of HEX is about 16kg.  HEX payload developed by ISRO
  30. 30. Moon Impact Probe
  31. 31. Moon Impact Probe The impact probe of 35 kg mass will be  attached at the top deck of the main orbiter and will be released during the final 100 km x 100 km orbit at a predetermined time to impact at a pre- selected location.  The total flying time from release to impact on Moon is around 25 minutes.  The primary objective is to demonstrate the technologies required for landing the probe at a desired location on the Moon and to qualify some of the technologies related to future soft landing missions.
  32. 32. Moon Impact Probe Radar Altimeter – for measurement  of altitude of the Moon Impact Probe and for qualifying technologies for future landing missions. The operating frequency band is 4.3 GHz ± 100 MHz.  Video Imaging System – for acquiring images of the surface of the Moon during the descent at a close range. The video imaging system consists of analog CCD camera.
  33. 33. Moon Impact Probe Mass Spectrometer – for measuring the  constituents of lunar atmosphere during descent. This instrument will be based on a state-of-the-art, commercially available Quadrupole mass spectrometer with a mass resolution of 0.5 amu and sensitivities to partial pressure of the order of 10-14 torr.  The dimension of the impact probe is 375 mm x 375 mm x 470 mm  It is developed by ISRO
  34. 34. Moon Impact Probe
  35. 35. Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS)
  36. 36. Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) When a primary X-ray beam strikes a sample the x- ray can either be absorbed or scattered by the atoms in the sample. The X-ray when absorbed by an atom transfers all its energy to an innermost electron. If the primary X-ray has sufficient energy, this electron gets ejected from the inner shell creating vacancies causing an unstable condition for the atom. The atom returns to its stable condition when electrons from an outer shell is transferred to the inner shell and in this process a characteristic x-ray is released. Because electrons in atom of a given element has a unique set of energy levels, each element produces x-rays with a unique set of energies. Thus one can non- destructively measure the elemental composition of a
  37. 37. Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) C1XS would use X-ray fluorescence  technique (1.0-10 keV) for measuring elemental abundance of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Ti distributed over the surface of the Moon.  C1XS has been designed as a thin, low profile detector. The instrument uses the recently developed technology of the Swept Charge Device (SCD) X-ray sensors  The Sun provides a natural source of X-rays and strikes the lunar surface and it is possible to infer elemental composition of lunar surface through detection of characteristics X-rays.
  38. 38. Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) Observe the Moon during the rising phase of  the solar cycle when X-ray signals are expected to be significantly enhanced Throughout the normal solar conditions,  C1XS will be able to detect abundance of Mg, Al and Si in the lunar surface During solar flare events, it may additionally  be possible to detect other elements such as Ca, Ti and Fe. The total mass of C1XS and XSM is 5.2 kg.  The hardware has been developed at the  Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK in collaboration with the ISRO Satellite Centre
  39. 39. Near-IR Spectrometer (SIR-2)
  40. 40. Near-IR Spectrometer (SIR-2) SIR-2 is a grating NIR point spectrometer  working in the 0.93-2.4 microns wavelength range with 6 nm spectral resolution. It collects the Sun’s light reflected by the Moon with the help of a main and a secondary mirror. This light is fed through an optical fiber to the instrument’s sensor head, where it is reflected off a dispersion grating. The dispersed light reaches a detector, which consists of a row of photosensitive pixels that measure the intensity as a function of wavelength and produces an electronic signal, which is read out and processed by the experiment’s electronics.
  41. 41. Near-IR Spectrometer (SIR-2)
  42. 42. Near-IR Spectrometer (SIR-2) Survey mineral lunar resources for future  landing sites and exploration.  Diagnostic absorption bands of various minerals and ices, which are expected to be found on the surfaces of planetary bodies, are located in the near-IR range, thus making near-infrared measurements of rocks particularly suitable for identifying minerals.  SIR-2 is developed by the Max-Plank- Institute for Solar System Science, through the Max-Plank Society, Germany
  43. 43. Sub keV Atom Reflecting Analyser (SARA)
  44. 44. Sub keV Atom Reflecting Analyser (SARA) SARA will image the Moon surface using low  energy neutral atoms as diagnostics in the energy range 10 eV - 3.2 keV to address the following scientific objectives:  Imaging the Moon’s surface composition including the permanently shadowed areas and volatile rich areas  solar wind-surface interaction  SARA is realized through ESA, in collaboration with Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Sweden and Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, ISRO.
  45. 45. Sub keV Atom Reflecting Analyser (SARA) The solar wind is a stream of charged particles—a  plasma—ejected from the upper atmosphere of the sun. It consists mostly of electrons and protons with energies of about 1 keV.  The Moon does not possess a magnetosphere and atmosphere. Therefore, the solar wind ions directly impinge on the lunar surface, resulting in sputtering and backscattering. The kick-off and neutralized solar wind particles leave the surface mostly as neutral atoms. The notable part of the atoms has energy exceeding the escape energy .  The SARA instrument consists of neutral atom sensor CENA (Chandrayaan-1 Energetic Neutrals Analyzer), solar wind monitor SWIM and DPU (Data Processing Unit).
  46. 46. CENA (SARA)
  47. 47. Radiation Dose Monitor Experiment ( RADOM )
  48. 48. Radiation Dose Monitor Experiment ( RADOM ) THE dominant radiation components at  Chandrayaan-1orbit at 100 km above the surface of the Moon are the galactic cosmic rays (GCR), modulated by the magnetic fields associated with the low energy solar wind (SW) ions and the solar energetic particles (SEP) events associated with solar flares during solar active periods. The basic objective of the RADOM experiment is to  monitor the radiation environment in lunar orbit. The main goal is the measurement of total absorbed radiation dose due to energetic particles of both galactic and solar origin and monitor effect of solar particles events to assess the dose received by the spacecraft and estimate the same
  49. 49. Radiation Dose Monitor Experiment ( RADOM ) It is a miniature spectrometer dosimeter containing  a single 0.3 mm thick semiconductor detector with 2 sq cm area  Predicting the effects of radiation on humans during a long-duration space mission requires i) accurate knowledge and modelling of the space radiation environment, ii) calculation of primary and secondary particle transport through shielding materials and through the human body, and iii) assessment of the biological effects of the dose.  RADOM mass is 160 g.  RADOM is from Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
  50. 50. Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar (Mini-SAR)
  51. 51. Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar (Mini-SAR) To detect water ice in the permanently shadowed  regions on the Lunar poles, upto a depth of a few meters. Although returned lunar samples show the Moon to  be extremely dry, recent research suggest that water- ice may exist in the polar regions. Because its axis of rotation, the poles of the Moon contain are permanently dark. This results in the creation of ―cold traps‖, zones that, because they are never illuminated by the sun, may be as cold as 70 K. Meteorites containing water-bearing minerals constantly bombard the Moon. Most of this water is lost to space, but, if a water molecule finds its way into a cold trap, it remains there forever – no physical process is known that can remove it. Over geological
  52. 52. Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar (Mini-SAR) An onboard SAR at suitable incidence would  allow viewing of all permanently shadowed areas on the Moon, regardless of whether sunlight is available or the angle is not satisfactory. The synthetic aperture radar system works at a  frequency 2.38 GHz, with a resolution of 75 m per pixel from 100 km orbit and its mass is 8.77 kg. The mini-SAR system will transmit Right Circular  Polarization (RCP) and receive both Left Circular Polarization (LCP) and RCP. ice can be optimally distinguished from dry lunar  surface. Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar (MiniSAR) is  from USA through NASA.
  53. 53. Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)
  54. 54. Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) M3 with high-resolution compositional maps  will improve the understanding of the early evolution of a differentiated planetary body and provide a high-resolution assessment of lunar resources.  The M3 scientific instrument is a high throughput imaging spectrometer, operating in 0.4 to 3.0 µm range. It measures solar reflected energy, using a two-dimensional HgCdTe detector array.  M3 will divide the approximately 2600-nm range to which it is sensitive into 261 discrete bands, each of which is only 10 nm wide
  55. 55. Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)
  56. 56. Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Each picture M3 produces will show  mountains, craters, or plains like a regular camera, but in a very narrow range of wavelengths  Sampling : 10 nanometers Spatial resolution: 70 m/pixel [from 100 km orbit] Field of View: 40 km [from 100 km orbit] Weight: about 7 kg Power average: about 13 W  Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) payload is from Brown University and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA through NASA
  57. 57. Thanks
  58. 58. Thanks to  s/home.htm  Hindu website  NASA website Questions 