Fascism, Nazisim, and Instability


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Fascism, Nazisim, and Instability

  1. 1. Fascism, Nazism, Militarism, and the March Towards War <ul><li>World positions </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression and Appeasement </li></ul>
  2. 2. WWI Results <ul><li>End of Absolutism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New governments begin to form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracies begin to form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many parties divide country </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coalition governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No one could gain a majority in many countries leading to deadlock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary alliances between parties were necessary to form majorities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. WWI Results <ul><li>Changing governments cause instability in the countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People in these countries wanted a return to better times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willing to forfeit their right in hopes that a stronger leader would be able to solve the problems the coalition governments could not </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Weimar Republic <ul><li>Germany develops a democracy after the war </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack democratic tradition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous political parties decentralizes decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germans blamed the new government for the defeat and the conditions of Versailles because they were the ones who signed the official surrender and treaty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General unrest in population due to poor conditions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Weimar Republic <ul><li>Inflation-a persistent, substantial rise in the general level of prices related to an increase in the volume of money and resulting in the loss of value of currency </li></ul><ul><li>Germany had not raised taxes during the war and now faced significant war debt, rebuilding costs, and reparation payments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Money becomes useless as new government attempts to pay off loans by printing more money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone on a fixed income saw their lives become worthless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bread cost billions of marks </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Dawes Plan <ul><li>International community realizes the German situation will lead to revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Reparation payments would begin at 1 billion marks for the first year and should rise over a period of four years to 2.5 billion marks per year. </li></ul><ul><li>The German Reichsbank would be reorganized under Allied supervision. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign loans (primarily from the United States) would be made available to Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>The sources for the reparation money should include transportation, excise, and custom taxes. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Europe Plays Nice.. For A While <ul><li>1925 leaders from Germany, France and other nations meet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign a treaty agreeing not to go to war with each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany agrees to respect the boundaries of France and Belgium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany admitted to the League of Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Spirit of Locarno” </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact <ul><li>US Secretary of State worked with France to come to an agreement to end all wars </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all countries in the world signed </li></ul><ul><li>No teeth in the treaty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you enforce this? Threaten a country with war? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The American Great Depression Scategories <ul><li>Take 5 minutes to brainstorm all of the important people, terms, and events of the American Great Depression and write them in list form on a piece of paper. While you watch the movie, circle each term you hear. The person with the most terms at the end of the movie circled will “win” the game </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ripple Effect <ul><li>Newtonian Physics: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction </li></ul><ul><li>The American economy was holding up the rest of the world through their booming manufacturing and foreign investing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall the foreign loans trying to cover domestic losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans consume less foreign goods </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Trade Wars <ul><li>Congress passes protective tariffs to try and revive the economy </li></ul><ul><li>World Trade drops off by 65% </li></ul>
  12. 12. Panic at the Disco… I mean Bank <ul><li>AH well imagine as walked threw the lines of a bank corridor and I can’t help but to hear no I can’t help but to hear an exchanging of words </li></ul><ul><li>JUST GIVE ME MY MONEY says the man in the suit to the banker (yea I know it doesn’t fit…_ </li></ul><ul><li>Think Mary Poppins at the bank with the children </li></ul>
  13. 13. Fascism <ul><li>Nationalistic, Authoritarian </li></ul><ul><li>Benito Mussolini started in Italy in 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Supremacy of nation and leader </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian rulers </li></ul><ul><li>No set ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Use of secret police to enforce their rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terror a major political tactic </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Economics Leads to Control <ul><li>In Italy, Germany, and Japan leaders use the great depression as a way to gain control LEGALLY! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans gave Hitler power to stand up to communists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King of Italy gave Mussolini power to try and appease the working class and maintain the monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese parliament severely limited with no civilian control of the military. Military uses Emperor to gain control </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Beginnings of Aggression <ul><li>Japan invades Manchuria </li></ul><ul><li>League of Nations too weak to impose any real threat </li></ul><ul><li>Japan leaves the League </li></ul>
  16. 16. Mussolini and Imperialism <ul><li>Invades Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to return to Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopian Emperor appeals to League of Nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condemn the attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British still allow supplies through the Suez </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe trying to avoid war at home </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Hitler <ul><li>Creates a larger army than that allowed by the Treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>League mildly objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The posters in Germany that said “Today Germany! Tomorrow the World!” should have been a significant clue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe is war weary and trying to get through the depression and does not want to start another conflict </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Hitler on the March <ul><li>Germany marches into the Rhineland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffer Zone between France and Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appeasement the talk of the day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not want another war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later Hitler admits he would have backed down had France and Britain challenged this move </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Axis Powers <ul><li>Mussolini sees the weakness of Europe and forms an alliance with Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>Japan allies itself with Germany one month later </li></ul>
  20. 20. Spanish Civil War <ul><li>Germany and Italy see this as an opportunity to spread Fascism </li></ul><ul><li>General Francisco Franco leads the Fascist revolt against the young republic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler and Mussolini send troops and supplies to help the cause </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The rest of Europe stays out of the conflict and Franco wins the war </li></ul>
  21. 21. So where is everyone anyway? <ul><li>Why didn’t Europe catch the warning signs? Why didn’t the United States get involved? </li></ul><ul><li>US is stuck in a period of isolationism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not want to get involved in another costly European conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrality Acts ban loans and the sale of arms to any nation at war </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. And Europe? <ul><li>Too busy cleaning up the mess from WWI to truly pay close attention </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with their own internal problems from the Great Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Why start another war if Hitler just wants a little more room? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Activity <ul><li>You are an advisor to a European Democracy and you do not believe in appeasement as a viable strategy. Try and persuade other world leaders to stand firm and denounce Hitler and Mussolini’s aggression with strong action. Use evidence to support your claim that action now could prevent a larger war. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to use examples from history </li></ul><ul><li>This should be a 3 paragraph speech that will be shared with other classmates! </li></ul><ul><li>This is worth 15 participation points </li></ul>