Geo12 Revision


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Geo12 Revision

  1. 1. Geography Sem1 Revision
  2. 2. Geography Exam The Geography Exam comprises of 3 parts: Part A: Multiple choice questions - 20 marks Part B: Short answer & diagram interpretation 20 marks Part C: Extended Answer - 60 marks You have 3 hours to complete all sections and 10 Minutes reading time.
  3. 3. Geography Exam Part A: Multiple Choice This part usually consists of 10 mapping questions relating to the broadsheet. Then 10 questions that will refer to another content area - for example climate, physiographic regions, settlement patterns or the mineral activity you have studied. 20 questions and each is worth 1 mark
  4. 4. Geography Exam Part B: Short Answer & Diagram Interpretation This part usually consists of questions on mapping relating to the broadsheet and then some on related activities you have studied, for example climate, physiographic regions, the mineral activity you have studied. Section is worth 20 Marks in total, questions have different weighting. Activities could include- cross sections, vertical scale, sketching, describing and accounting for activities in area.
  5. 5. Geography Exam <ul><li>Part C: Extended Answer </li></ul><ul><li>3 questions: Sections 1, 2 & 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Section 1: Australian Landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2: South West Study Area </li></ul><ul><li>Section 3: Australian Land Uses </li></ul><ul><li>Each section will have TWO questions made up of usually 3 parts. You choose ONE question from each section. See the paper hand out examples. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Content of your exams <ul><li>GeoPac1 - Physiographic Regions </li></ul><ul><li>GeoPac2 - Climatic Regions </li></ul><ul><li>GeoPac3 - Vegetation Regions </li></ul><ul><li>GeoPac4 - SWSA </li></ul><ul><li>GeoPac5 - Diary Farming </li></ul><ul><li>GeoPac6 - Bauxite Mining </li></ul><ul><li>GeoPac7 - Tropical Fruit Farming </li></ul><ul><li>GeoPac8 - Settlement Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>GeoPac9 - Network of Settlement Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>GeoPac10 - Population Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>GeoPac11 - Urban Morphology </li></ul><ul><li>GeoPac12 - Urban Processes </li></ul><ul><li>GeoPac13 - Country Town </li></ul><ul><li>GeoPac14 - Demography </li></ul>
  7. 7. GeoPac1: Physiographic Regions of Aust. <ul><li>WHAT DO I HAVE TO KNOW??? </li></ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY THE REGIONS - Coastal Lowlands, Eastern Highlands, Central Lowlands, Great Western Plateau </li></ul><ul><li>MAP THE REGIONS </li></ul><ul><li>CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REGIONS - altitude, drainage, landforms, sub-regions - now evidence names of landforms, external/internal drainage, heights of land surface </li></ul><ul><li>ACCOUNT FOR THE CHARACTERISTICS - Why are the regions the shape that they are? For example these landforms are the result of tectonic and gradational forces. Tectonic - build up Gradational - wear down - THIS IS THE IMPORTANT PART TO KNOW! You should explain the process - for example the Central Lowlands are a result of transportation and deposition. Explain what deposition and transportation are. </li></ul>
  8. 8. GeoPac1: Regions Summarized <ul><li>Great Western Plateau </li></ul><ul><li>Is an ancient plateau - over 4.6 billion years old </li></ul><ul><li>Is an old erosional surface - oldest region in Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Covers more than 60% of Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Flat and Low - averages approx. 300m a.b.s. </li></ul><ul><li>Some uplifted areas - Kimberly Plateau, Hamersley Ranges </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 50% is overlain by sand depositional - Great Sandy Desert, Gibson Desert </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage - Coastal Regions drain externally - Swan River, Murray River </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Interior Drains internally - why their are many salt lakes , most intermittent example Lake Grace. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Processes - tectonic forces originally uplifted the land but now gradational forces are wearing it away - wind, water etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. GeoPac1: Regions Summarized <ul><li>Eastern Highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Serious of elevated tablelands </li></ul><ul><li>Very young geologically - volcanoes in South Aust. 5000 yrs old. </li></ul><ul><li>Tablelands separated by deep valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Cape York in north - to - Tasmania in south </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 2000metres - Aust. Alps </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic peaks - Glass House Mts </li></ul><ul><li>Highlands are relatively steep on eastern margin and relatively gentle on western margin </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Externally through the Central Lowlands to the west and Coastal Lowlands to the east. Example Murray Darling River - largest in Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processes: </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic activity originally uplifted the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Gradational processes, especially fluvial erosion, have since degraded the land surface. Blue Mt.s originally the size of the Himalayas </li></ul>
  10. 10. GeoPac1: Regions Summarized <ul><li>Central Lowlands </li></ul><ul><li>Geologically young - 150 million yrs old </li></ul><ul><li>Covers approx. 25% of the continent - stretches from Gulf of Carpentaria in north to the mouth of the Murray River in south. </li></ul><ul><li>Large basin/depression consisting of sedimentary rocks covered with thick deposits of alluviums (soil composed of fine particles washed down by rivers, eroded material) </li></ul><ul><li>Large artesian water deposits lie below the two northern sections of the lowlands. I.e. Great Artesian Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Low height above sea level 150m a.b.s.l.- below sea level in some places - Lake Eyre </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern and southern basins external drainage; generally perennial and coordinated. Example Murray Darling River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central basin internal drainage; intermittent. Example Lake Eyre </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processes - Area was formed by the transportation and deposition of sediments eroded and transported from highlands by ancient and existing rivers. </li></ul>
  11. 11. GeoPac1: Regions Summarized <ul><li>Coastal Lowlands </li></ul><ul><li>Covers approximately 5% of continent. </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially a depositional region. </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow, flat belt of land that borders most of the continent </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation varies from 0 - 200m </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of landforms - cliff, sand dunes, mud flats etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes - It was formed by waves depositing sand and rives depositing sediments near and at their mouths. Fluvial processes have been responsible for weathered material being brought from higher continental areas by rivers and streams and this material being returned to the beach by marine processes as a result of wave action and long-shore drift. The area most inhabited by humans. </li></ul>
  12. 12. GeoPac2: Climatic Regions of Aust. <ul><li>Australia’s climate is generally hot and dry - average is >450mm/year </li></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical Savanna (Monsoonal) </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical Rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Humid Sub-tropical </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-Arid </li></ul><ul><li>Arid/desert </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate maritime (Marine West Coast) </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling Factors - Latitude, altitude, prevailing winds, distance from ocean, ocean </li></ul><ul><li>currents and great mountain barriers. LAPDOG - not all factors have same amount of </li></ul><ul><li>influence on each area. </li></ul><ul><li>The above are the 7 Climatic Regions of Aust. You need to be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>1. IDENTIFY THEM IF YOU HAVE TO ON A MAP </li></ul><ul><li>2. LIST THE CHARACTERISTICS of each - rainfall, seasons, temperature, diurnal differences </li></ul><ul><li>3. ACCOUNT FOR THESE CHARACTERISTICS - WHY? LAPDOG. </li></ul>
  13. 13. GeoPac2: Climatic Regions of Aust. <ul><li>To understand and explain to an examine that you do have an understanding of Australia’s </li></ul><ul><li>climate you need to understand the following: </li></ul><ul><li>What the Heat Equator is. Also called the apparent march of the sun. This will help you to understand and explain the different pressure systems such as subpolar lows, subtropical highs or monsoonal pressure systems. </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHS - characterized by stabe, fine, sunny, clear conditions - depends where you are in the world whether it will be cold or hot. </li></ul><ul><li>LOWS - characterized by unstable, rainy, cloudy conditions - again it depends where you are in the world whether it will be hot or cold. </li></ul><ul><li>LAPDOG - all of the different controlling factors of which the above are in regard to. </li></ul>
  14. 14. GeoPac2: Climatic Regions Summarized <ul><li>Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Location - coastal areas of south west of Australia I.e. Perth and the Gulfland areas of South </li></ul><ul><li>Australia I.e. Adelaide. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Warm temp. climate </li></ul><ul><li>Hot, dry summers and cool, mild, wet winters </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate Rainfall - 500 - 1200mm Adelaide ~ 550mm Perth ~ 820mm </li></ul><ul><li>Average temp - 15 °- 30° summer </li></ul><ul><li>Can have summer extremes ~ 40 ° plus </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-polar lows dominate in winter along with westerly winds and sub-tropical highs dominate in summer </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-tropical position </li></ul><ul><li>Hot summers - heat equator over Tropic of Capricorn </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall - sub-polar low pressure systems with their fronts </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean has moderating influence. </li></ul>
  15. 15. GeoPac2: Climatic Regions Summarized <ul><li>Tropical Savanna (Tropical wet-dry or Monsoonal) </li></ul><ul><li>Location - Northern Australia. I.e.. Darwin & Western Australian Kimberleys </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>tropical climate of north west </li></ul><ul><li>Hot, wet and humid conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Temp. are high and similar all year - 18 °- 30° </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct seasons - hot, wet summer & very warm, dry winter. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate to heavy rainfall - 1500mm </li></ul><ul><li>Weather Extremes - tropical cyclones </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>high temp. little differences - proximity to equator and coastal location </li></ul><ul><li>High summer rainfall - monsoon - over Kimberly’s, low winter rainfall monsoonal pressure system over India. HEAT EQUATOR </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical LOW over Northern Australia from Nov - March, SubTropical HIGH over Northern Australia from April - October. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be affected by tropical cyclones in summer. </li></ul>
  16. 16. GeoPac2: Climatic Regions Summarized <ul><li>Temperate Maritime (Marine West Coast) </li></ul><ul><li>Location - Highlands of NSW and Victoria & Tasmania </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Warm, moist summers and cool to cold, wet winters </li></ul><ul><li>Rain in all seasons with cooler conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate to heavy rainfall from 600mm in some areas to over 2500mm </li></ul><ul><li>Temp range 17° , summer, 8° , winter </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Cooler temperatures - high latitudes and high altitudes </li></ul><ul><li>High rainfall onshore winds associated - sub polar lows and fronts </li></ul><ul><li>Orographic rain - Eastern Highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-polar lows in winter </li></ul>
  17. 17. GeoPac2: Climatic Regions Summarized <ul><li>Arid </li></ul><ul><li>Location - areas of central Australia I.e. Warburton, Alice Springs </li></ul><ul><li>Dry, evaporation exceeds precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Hot, dry summers, warm, dry winters </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 250mm of rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Av temp - 40° summer, 10°winter </li></ul><ul><li>High diurnal variations - day and night temp. </li></ul><ul><li>Erratic and unreliable precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Distance from sea - in the middle of the continent </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance of sub-tropical highs all year - under Topic of Capricorn. </li></ul>
  18. 18. GeoPac2: Climatic Regions Summarized <ul><li>Semi-Arid </li></ul><ul><li>Location - crescent shape surrounding the outside of the arid area - transition between arid areas </li></ul><ul><li>and other climatic zones. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional climate from any other climate to the arid climate </li></ul><ul><li>Hot summers and cool to warm winter temp. </li></ul><ul><li>Hotter in the northern parts, cooler in the southern </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 250-500mm of rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Av temp - 28° summer, 10°winter </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Distance from sea </li></ul><ul><li>Rain-shadow effect from Eastern Australian Highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Low rainfall - tropical and polar maritime air masses depending on location. </li></ul>
  19. 19. GeoPac3: Vegetation Regions/Realms of Aust. <ul><li>Aust. Plant life is very unique. Rainfall is the most important factor affecting the type and distribution of vegetation, so vegetation regions correspond with climatic regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Alpine </li></ul><ul><li>Forests - Tropical, Temperate, wet and dry Sclerophyll </li></ul><ul><li>Savanna/Woodland </li></ul><ul><li>Scrubland/Shrubland </li></ul><ul><li>Grassland </li></ul><ul><li>Desert vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling Factors - Climate, soils, landforms, biotic factors </li></ul>
  20. 20. GeoPac3: Vegetation Regions - Forests <ul><li>Tropical Forest - coastal areas of QL & NSW </li></ul><ul><li>Tall trees, layered forest with closed canopy and upper, middle and lower stories. Great </li></ul><ul><li>variety of plants, hot, wet climate creates an all year round growing season. Example plants ferns </li></ul><ul><li>Monsoonal Forest - Coast of Northern Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical forest too - areas of slightly less rainfall than the tropical forest shorter, more widely </li></ul><ul><li>spaced trees, some deciduous - drop leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted to wet and dry season . Example plants - Boab Tree, mangroves </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate Forest - Tasmania </li></ul><ul><li>A rainforest of conifers, beeches and other trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted to the cool, wet conditions. Example plants - Beeches, conifers </li></ul><ul><li>Sclerophyll Forest - Southeast and southwest coastal areas of Australia </li></ul><ul><li>A wider space forest consisting of eucalypts with a shrub and herb layer </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of 600 - 900mm rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Wet - taller and denser than dry Sclerophyll Forests. Wet also has buttress roots. </li></ul><ul><li>Example plants - Jarrah, Marri trees upper canopy Banksia and Grass Trees in lower layers. </li></ul>
  21. 21. GeoPac3: Vegetation Regions/Realms of Aust. <ul><li>Woodland - north and northeast and southeast Aust. </li></ul><ul><li>Widely space trees with grasses (savanna). Tropical wet-dry regions </li></ul><ul><li>Example plants - Wandoo, Salmon Gum </li></ul><ul><li>Shrubland/scrubland - southern Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Scrub and heath - short and bushy plants - mulga, salt bush, mallee </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of less than 300mm of rainfall. Adapt to dry conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Example plants - Mulga, mallee, saltbush </li></ul><ul><li>Grassland - Inland of the 500mm annual isohyet </li></ul><ul><li>Different species of short and tall grasses - spinifex </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of rainfall 250 - 500mm - esp. in northern areas of seasonal rain </li></ul><ul><li>Example plants - spinifex, Mitchell and Flinders grasses </li></ul>
  22. 22. GeoPac3: Vegetation Regions/Realms of Aust. <ul><li>Desert vegetation - central Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Sparse, low shrubs, succulents and low </li></ul><ul><li>grasses. </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall less than 250mm, erratic and high </li></ul><ul><li>temp. Example plants - spinifex, salt bush </li></ul><ul><li>Mt Vegetation - Southern Alps, Tasmania </li></ul><ul><li>Snow Gums, heath. Cool temperatures and dry </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions - precipitation falls as snow </li></ul><ul><li>Example plants - Alpine Ash </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal vegetation - coastal areas </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal dune plants - adapted to high temp., wind </li></ul><ul><li>and salt. </li></ul><ul><li>Example plants - wattle, spininfex </li></ul>
  23. 23. Vegetation of Australia
  24. 24. GeoPac4: South West Study Area <ul><li>Topography : 3 regions - </li></ul><ul><li>1. Coastal lowlands - 0 - 60m above sea level, narrow belt, extensive sand dune system (Quindalup, Spearwood, Bassendean, Pinjarra Dune Systems), deposition of eroded materials from Darling Plateau, rivers coastal limestone, granite outcrops. 30km in width. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Darling scarp - Moora - Donnybrook, formed by fault, rises steeply to more than 200m, dissected by many rivers </li></ul><ul><li>3. Darling plateau - flat, extensive elevated area, east of Scarp, consists mostly of granite, av. elevation is 300 - 600m </li></ul><ul><li>Climate of SWSA - Mediterranean & Semi-Arid </li></ul><ul><li>Temp. - decreases from north to south Jan - Geraldton av. 25° Pemberton . 20°. </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal areas warmer in winter, cooler in summer - modifying effect of ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall decreases from coast to interior - Walpole 1400mm, Southern Cross 275mm - rainfall also less reliable further inland </li></ul><ul><li>Most rainfall occurs from May to October - cold fronts & sub polar lows </li></ul><ul><li>Orographic rain from Scarp </li></ul>
  25. 25. GeoPac4: South West Study Area <ul><li>Vegetation of SWSA </li></ul><ul><li>1. Forests - Karri, Jarrah & Tuart </li></ul><ul><li>2. Woodland - Banksia, Wandoo, Salmon Gum </li></ul><ul><li>3. Shrubland - mallee, she-oak </li></ul><ul><li>4. Coastal - wattles, casuriinas </li></ul><ul><li>Fauna of SWSA </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are adapted both behaviorally and structurally to the environment of SWSA. </li></ul><ul><li>Most nocturnal - hot temp. of day </li></ul><ul><li>Most small - vegetation and water supporting them is not great enough to support larger animals </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced species have caused a lot of damage </li></ul><ul><li>Very unique - Chudditch, Western Quoll, Mallee Fowl, Kangaroo, Wallabies etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Soils of SWSA - 3 types - </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal sands - poor structure and infertile </li></ul><ul><li>Pinjarra Plain - Inland sand plain soils - heavier in lower areas, prone to salinity - alluviums </li></ul><ul><li>Ridge Hill Shelf - Laterites - weathered granite, generally infertile - contains bauxite </li></ul>
  26. 26. GeoPac4: South West Study Area: Interrelationships <ul><li>Climate & Vegetation - rainfall influences form and height of plants </li></ul><ul><li>Climate & Landforms - wind, water erode landforms, orographic rain, transport and deposition of material. Bottom of the Scarp receives more rainfall and deposition of soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil & Vegetation - certain species will only grow in certain types of soil, most species well adapted to infertility of the soils. </li></ul><ul><li>Fauna & Vegetation - provide food and habitat for fauna, seeds of some vegetation is distributed by fauna, food chain linkages. Possums and Eucalyptus </li></ul><ul><li>Relief & Vegetation - Scarp is covered by Jarrah, Tuart & Banksia in coastal or low lying areas, thinner soil on upper slopes, thicker slopes at bottom of scarp - influences vegetation and what the plants prefer. </li></ul>
  27. 27. GeoPac5: Dairy Farming/Intensive Pastoralism <ul><li>Locate the area in Western Australia where dairy farms occur - why does it occur here - cultural and physical factors. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the cultural (human altered) landscape of dairy farming. </li></ul><ul><li>Diary Farm as a system: </li></ul><ul><li>- 5 physical inputs - temperature (winter and summer averages/extremes including days of sunshine) , rainfall, soil, topography and natural vegetation. How much rain is needed, what temperature and seasons occur etc. </li></ul><ul><li>5 cultural inputs -capital equip., planting material, govt., labour, technology </li></ul><ul><li>5 Outputs - milk, hay, manure, meat and animals for sale </li></ul><ul><li>Processes that occur on the farm - milking, feeding, calving etc. </li></ul><ul><li>How has technology impacted upon diary farming - machinery, larger farms, GPS, fertilize etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Location of Diary Farming in relation to its market </li></ul>
  28. 28. Diary Farming
  29. 29. GeoPac7: Bauxite Mining <ul><li>Locate on a map of the SWSA - ALCOA’s lease area </li></ul><ul><li>- The Darling Scarp </li></ul><ul><li>- 2 mines - Huntley, Wagerup, Del Park etc. </li></ul><ul><li>- 2 Refineries - Pinjarra, </li></ul><ul><li>- Transportation methods - conveyor and railway </li></ul><ul><li>- Capital city of Perth </li></ul><ul><li>- 2 Ports - Kwinnana and Bunbury </li></ul><ul><li>What is the cultural landscape associated with Bauxite Mining - cleared land, rehabilitated areas, mine pit, roads, administration buildings etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs - physical - landscape cultural - labour, machinery, govt., settlements, roads, train, conveyor belt etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural landscape associated with bauxite mining - locate, list cultural features - pit, crusher etc, map or sketch of mine site and features, description of features of the mine and surrounding area. </li></ul><ul><li>5 Problems associated with Bauxite Mining. Describe the problems and what does ALCOA do to try and alleviate these problems - Air Pollution, Noise Pollution, Pollution of Ground Water, Loss of Habitat, Dieback. </li></ul><ul><li>5 steps to the Rehabilitation Process - shaping, contouring, ripping, seeding, </li></ul>
  30. 30. Bauxite Mining
  31. 31. GeoPac6: Tropical Fruit Farming <ul><li>Locate the area Monsoonal and Tropical climate where this agricultural activity occurs - Kununnarra, northern Queensland </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical and Wet/Dry - good for tropical fruit in terms of temperature BUT not enough consistent rainfall in wet/dry - need cultural input of dam </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical Fruit Farming as a system: </li></ul><ul><li>- 5 physical inputs - temperature (winter and summer averages/extremes including days of sunshine) , rainfall - up to 1500mm, soil, topography and natural vegetation. </li></ul><ul><li>5 cultural inputs -capital equipt., planting material, Govt (Kununnarra & Argyle Dam)., labour, technology - fertilizer, machinery </li></ul><ul><li>Processes - planting, harvesting, spraying. </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs - tropical fruit </li></ul><ul><li>How has technology impacted tropical fruit farming - historically very young industry in Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental impact - dam has created a new environment - increased wild life, erosion </li></ul>
  32. 32. GeoPac8: Settlement Patterns <ul><li>Settlements are forms of human habitation, consisting of collections of buildings and transport links. </li></ul><ul><li>2 Types Settlements - rural - small towns of less than 1000 people - homesteads of those who work in primary industry. </li></ul><ul><li> - urban - towns over 1000 people or cities, most work to provide services. </li></ul><ul><li>Classes of settlements - farmsteads, hamlets, villages, towns, cities, metropolis, conurbation, megalopolis. </li></ul><ul><li>3 Types of Settlement Patterns - dispersed (spread out), clustered (linear), nucleated (forming nodes). </li></ul><ul><li>Settlements - generally on well drained flat land, grow into large cities if in good location, a settlements external morphology is strongly influenced by physical factors and transport links. </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization - 87% of pop. live in urban areas - move from rural to urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Growth - increase in actual urban dwellers and a result of natural growth - births, immigration and rural to urban migration </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons - farm amalgamation, technology, salinity, factors that attract people to urban areas - SOCIAL, ECONOMIC & POLITICAL - amenities, services, uni, govt. etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Primacy - tendency for one urban centre in a region to become economically dominant and grow larger than the others. Contain 40% of the state’s pop. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for Primacy - historical - transport,ports amenities already exist, manufacturing centers, administrative centers, rural-urban drift, nat. increase in population, immigrants attracted to cities </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of Primacy - urban sprawl, land use conflict, social problems, poor services in rural areas, traffic congestion, environ. Degradation, limited growth in rural areas, potential defence problems. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Settlement Patterns
  34. 34. GeoPac9: Network of Urban Settlements SWSA <ul><li>Most people in WA live in urban centers of the South West. </li></ul><ul><li>An urban network consists of urban centers and the connecting transport links. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban network is made up of towns of various sizes - hamlets, villages, towns, cities etc. </li></ul><ul><li>These town function as central places - offering goods and services to surrounding areas </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the Urban Network of SWSA: </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of many settlements of various sizes scattered unevenly over the land surface </li></ul><ul><li>A hierarchy of settlements exists - first order through to fifth order and then PRIMATE CITY </li></ul><ul><li>There are more settlements on coastal plain </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct linear pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Larger centers are spaced further apart - Albany, Bunbury, Geraldton, Kalgoorlie etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Many small centers (FIRST ORDER), few large ones (FIFTH ORDER) </li></ul><ul><li>Population size reflects importance of centers. </li></ul>
  35. 35. GeoPac9: Network of Urban Settlements SWSA <ul><li>Functional Complexity - the number and types of functions available to surrounding hinterland. Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Range - distance people are prepared to travel for a good or services. Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Market Threshold - minimum number of people needed to support a function. Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Hinterland - area a central place provides goods and services to. Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Low order goods - milk, bread, daily requirements etc. </li></ul><ul><li>High order goods - willing to travel further for these - TV, car etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized Centers - special function - mining (Collie, Kalgoorlie), fishing (Jurein Bay, Greenheads), </li></ul><ul><li>tourism Broome etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Change in Urban Network of SWSA </li></ul><ul><li>Primacy of Perth increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Larger regional centers and large country towns are growing </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Small agricultural centers are disappearing or stagnating - mechanization, amalgamation </li></ul><ul><li>Some specialized centers are disappearing - when resource runs out </li></ul><ul><li>Some small towns survive by broadening their economic base - tourism. </li></ul>
  36. 36. GeoPac 8: Population Distribution <ul><li>List the characteristics of Aust. Population Distribution. That is what does Australia’s population distribution look like. </li></ul><ul><li>Low Population - 21 million - Tokyo has 28 million people </li></ul><ul><li>Very little to no population in central Aust., - large areas uninhabitated </li></ul><ul><li>Most of population is located on the eastern coast,EASTERN CRESCENT or within the coastal zone. </li></ul><ul><li>70% of pop. Live in state capitals or other large urban centers </li></ul><ul><li>Population distribution is uneven </li></ul><ul><li>Medium populated areas surrounding the major cities of each state in viable farming areas - dairy, viticulture, wheat & sheep, </li></ul><ul><li>Other areas of population due to mining and tourism. EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>Give an example for each characteristic above. </li></ul><ul><li>Account for these characteristics - historically, politically (all head offices for banks, Govt agencies etc. located in major cities for the state), climatically (rain, dependable seasons), environmentally (water) and advances in technology - farm amalgamation. URBANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>High Density - along coast - large number of urban centers, historically where settled first, climate, intensive ag. - rise to populated towns. </li></ul><ul><li>Medium Density - extensive farming - wheat & Sheep - widely spaced </li></ul><ul><li>Sparsely Populated - arid climate, poor soils, cant support ag., widely scattered urban centers - special land use - mining, tourism </li></ul>
  37. 37. GeoPac8: Population Distribution <ul><li>Map the distribution of Australia’s population distribution: </li></ul>
  38. 38. GeoPac11: Urban Morphology: External & Internal <ul><li>External Morphology - shape of the urban centre </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Morphology - functions, pattern, layout of the urban centre </li></ul><ul><li>Perth external morphology - 90km north/south, 30km east/west </li></ul><ul><li>Site Features - Swan river, 20km from coast, Mt Eliza, north banks of Swan River </li></ul><ul><li>Situation - distance to coast, longitude & latitude, distance to scarp, distance to Canberra </li></ul><ul><li>Function - multifunctional primate city - extensive, low density housing characterizes most of Perth, administrative centre for WA. Hinterland is whole state. </li></ul><ul><li>Perth internal morphology - </li></ul><ul><li>Perth provides many high order goods and services - admin., business & commerce, housing, industry, transport and communications, education, community and welfare services. </li></ul><ul><li>CBD - most expensive land, site of original settlement, small, horizontal and vertical zonation, very compact, rectangular grid shape, commercial, business and administration centre, zone of maximum accessibility, focus of communications, pedestrian orientated, high day time low night time population, not a major residential area </li></ul><ul><li>Processes - urban blight, urban renewal, inertia, gentrification, centrifugal forces, invasion and succession, land use competition, horizontal and vertical zonation. </li></ul>
  39. 39. GeoPac11: Urban Morphology: External & Internal <ul><li>IMZ - older, inner cit suburbs - West Perth, Leederville, North Perth, East Perth, Northbridge etc. Variety of land uses, zone in transition, semi-intensive mix of land uses, dissimilar buildings of various ages, a variety of land uses, many functions being carried out in buildings designed for other uses, subject to deterioration, little open space, congested transport network, some sporting and cultural facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes - inertia, land use competition, gentrification, invasion and succession, urban blight, urban renewal, centrifugal and centripetal forces </li></ul><ul><li>ERZ - most space extensive, residences, buildings and transport links, decrease in population density outwards, infill and consolidation in older suburbs, some semi-intensive dwellings. </li></ul><ul><li>Processes - urban blight, infill and consolidation </li></ul><ul><li>The Outer Business Districts - scattered throughout the city, located in accessible areas, consist of hierarchy of centers from smallest to largest which have a higher degree of functional complexity, </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Areas - scattered, heavy industry concentrated in certain areas eg. Port and light industry are sited near important transport links, decentralized from IMZ </li></ul><ul><li>Rural Urban Fringe - outer growth zone, transitional zone, mixture of rural and urban use, displays uneven growth, incomplete, untidy appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Processes - urban blight, invasion and succession, land use competition, centrifugal forces </li></ul>
  40. 40. GeoPac12: Urban Problems & possible solutions <ul><li>Problems - economic, social and environmental - caused by growth and change </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly related to urban sprawl - wasteful & extensive - examples - land use conflict, inadequate provision of services, transport congestion, social problems, blight, pollution, depletion of resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning attempts to control growth and channel it in certain ways. Perth’s “MetroPlan” aims to: </li></ul><ul><li>- Infill, consolidation, sub-division, redevelopment eg. East Perth, Boot Factory </li></ul><ul><li>- Increase population densities in established areas - Mt Lawley etc. </li></ul><ul><li>- Decentralize some growth areas to outer satellite areas, eg. Joondalup </li></ul><ul><li>- Create/reinforce regional centers - Joondalup, Midland, Fremantle, Rockingham </li></ul><ul><li>- Make better use of facilities in older established suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>- retain corridors of development - Armadale, Joondalup, Midland, Fremantle </li></ul><ul><li>- retain open space between them - hasn’t happened </li></ul><ul><li>- limit the number of outer growth areas </li></ul><ul><li>HISTORY OF PLANNING: </li></ul><ul><li>- Stephenson Hebpurn </li></ul><ul><li>- Metroplan 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>- Network City 2004 </li></ul>
  41. 41. GeoPac13: Urban Morphology: A country town <ul><li>Harvey is a 4th order town that services a reasonably large agricultural hinterland its population is approximately 2600 people </li></ul><ul><li>Need to sketch Harevey’s external morphology. </li></ul><ul><li>IF YOU ARE PLANNING TO WRITE AN EXTENDED ANSWER ON HARVEY - good idea to be able to add in some of Harvey’s internal zones to your sketch - IMZ, CBD,, Industrial Zones, NGZ </li></ul><ul><li>Harvey’s site - flat undulating, 40m a.s.l., bottom of darling scarp on southern banks of Harvey river. </li></ul><ul><li>Harvey’s situation - in relation to Perth, Bunbury, longitude and latitude </li></ul><ul><li>Physical factors that affect Harvey’s external morphology - scarp, Harvey river </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Factors that affect Harvey’s external morphology - transport links - south western highway, diversion drain, train line </li></ul><ul><li>Processes - know 2 - Planning - no Rural Urban Fringe, Newer Growth Zone, Segregation of industrial area etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Land use with in & around Harvey - what does Harvey have to offer? What order settlement is it? What land uses surround Harvey? </li></ul>
  42. 42. GeoPac14: Demography <ul><li>A diverse range of people live in Perth - age, gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse population is residentially segregated - people of the same ethnic background or socio economic </li></ul><ul><li>status may live in certain areas </li></ul><ul><li>Age - structure of Population: </li></ul><ul><li>- Av. Age of population is increasing </li></ul><ul><li>- Age structures varies with the age of suburbs - older suburbs = older people, newer suburbs = young families with young children - were they can afford to buy. </li></ul><ul><li>- Aged people dominate the established areas and inertia keeps them there - good facilities </li></ul><ul><li>- Inner city is experiencing population gain - infill, consolidation, rejuvenation, gentrification - young people that can afford are moving back. </li></ul><ul><li>- Some prob. Are being caused by ageing of established suburbs - schools close down </li></ul><ul><li>- Lack of provision of services in outer, newer suburbs - public transport, car dependence </li></ul><ul><li>- Current suburbs will become the ageing - in - place suburbs of the future </li></ul><ul><li>Sex structure of Population: </li></ul><ul><li>- More females than males in Perth </li></ul><ul><li>- There are variations in suburbs, eg. Inner suburbs and Fremantle have more males due to high immigration levels for males. </li></ul>
  43. 43. GeoPac14: Demography <ul><li>Socio - Economic Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Sites that have desirable characteristics - views of coast, river, city etc. - attract people of a higher socio-economic status who can generally afford the location. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher socio-economic status areas are characterized by a high degree of home ownership, well paid jobs, higher levels of education and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower socio-economic status areas occur in the rural-urban fringe, near industrial areas, generally closer to the city, in areas of subsidized government housing, in areas of high unemployment, and in some parts of he central city area. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>There were high rates of immigration after WWII - these people attracted to Perth </li></ul><ul><li>In most areas Perth - Aust. Born people - 40% of population </li></ul><ul><li>Perth’s major migrant centers Wanneroo and Stirling </li></ul><ul><li>Eng. Speaking migrants tend to be more widespread. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-english speaking migrants attracted to certain areas - Vietnamese - Northbridge </li></ul><ul><li>Largest ethnic groups Fremantle - Café Strip and North Perth - The Italian Club </li></ul><ul><li>Asian population is diverse, increasing and concentrated in inner city areas - due to migration after Vietnam War. Highgate and Northbridge poor low socio-economic areas in 1970’s and 1980’s. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Mapping Skills <ul><li>Topographic Map reading </li></ul><ul><li>Grid Referencing - 4 & 6 figure GR </li></ul><ul><li>Contour Lines - how to read them and estimate heights </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Sections </li></ul><ul><li>Scale - as a fraction, line and statement </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring distance </li></ul><ul><li>What is a physical feature? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a cultural feature? </li></ul><ul><li>Working out the dominant land use for an area. </li></ul><ul><li>Site and situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical Exaggeration </li></ul>