Spears In the old days the first peoples used spears to hunt. The end was made of stone and the handle was made of wood or bones
Hammers Hammers were used for crushing berries, breaking up firewood, and pounding. Hammers are made of rocks and skin straps and wood handles. They pound in stakes.
Hide Scrapers and knives Hide scrapers were made of sharp bones and wood handles. they were to scrape hides and the knives are used for cutting
Why Hammers Were Made? Hammers were made to break up fire wood, crush berries and pound stakes into the ground.
What Were Hide Scrapers Made up of? Hide scrapers are made up of sharp bones or stones.
The Handles Were Made up of Something? Hammers handle were made with skin straps and hide scrapers handles were made up of deer antlers or wood.
How They Caught Animals The hunters used a decoys to attract the birds for their food. The small animals like rabbits, gophers and birds were caught with a snare traps.
Hammers Did you know that hammers were made out of a rock for the top, wooden handle and skin straps? Hammers were used to crush berries and break up firewood.
How They Made Arrows When the first nations people made arrows, they made them out of branches of an ash or willow tree. The arrows helped them hunt. The arrows were lighter than spears so more things or stuff could be carried.
Knives Did you know that knives were made of sharp bones or stones?
What They Believed In -The First Nation People believed that the sun had great power. -They also believed that the earth was the mother of all things. -They believed in the Great Spirit.
The Medicine Man -The Medicine Man has that name because he helps heal people. -He also would lead ceremonies and prayers to the Great Spirit.
The Medicine Women -There is also Medicine Women! -They would collect the plants and herbs to cure the people. -Like people who had a cold .
The Medicine Bundle -The Medicine Bundle was large. -It also had precious objects in it and would only be handled by certain people.
The Dream Catcher The Dream Catcher was on top of a baby’s cradleboard. It was believed to sort bad dreams and the good dreams. The good dream go though the middle of the web.
The Mandela The Mandela are similar to the shield and a Mandela gives good luck and happiness to the owner. and happiness luck to the owner. The Mandela are similar to the shied and a Mandela gives good
The Shield The Shield had to protect to the owner. Shields were round and were made from the coat of the male bison.
What a Sweat Lodge Is The Sweat Lodge was a dome-shaped tent made of willow branches. In the middle of the willow branch dome was a pit. The Sweat Lodge ceremony usually takes a couple of hours.
What is Smudging ? Smudging means taking smoke in someone's hands and rubbing it on a body. Smudging was a cleansing they did in Saskatchewan. They burnt certain herbs .
Special Ceremonies <ul><li>Religious ceremonies were very important to the Native people of Saskatchewan. </li></ul>
Sign Language The first nations used sign language on surprise attacks and hunting parties. The explores and fur traders would use sign language to help them . communicate
Flying Animals The first nations used the eagles wings and bones for whistles. If you see an owl or hear a hoot it’s a sign of death or danger.
Animals The coyote was a trickster to the first nations. Some tribes believed that the coyote would transform into a human. If the first nations left the bears alone it would not hurt them.
Story Telling <ul><ul><li>The first nations would tell stories about different adventures and share them at powwows </li></ul></ul>
Bad Luck Some times when the first nations had no luck they would have to pray to mother earth and lead the bison to their camp.
What Clothing are Made of In the early days animal skin were used instead of cloth
Removing the fat and hair <ul><li>The hide was scraped to remove the fat and hair. They made the hide smooth so they could make clothing. </li></ul>
All of the Clothing <ul><li>The legging were made from deer skin. They were wider at the top and smaller at the ankles. The sides laced up with leather ties. Some leggings were decorated with beadwork. Leggings protected the legs and kept them warm . </li></ul>
What Clothing Are Made Of Clothing was made of animals like deer, antelope and moose. The leggings that woman used to wear were made of buckskin. Dresses were made of hide and high boots were made of buffalo hide.
Moccasins <ul><li>Moccasins are shoes that the first nations wear. Moccasins were made of moose hide or buffalo hide. There were different styles. The moccasins made by moose hide were soft on the bottom. The ones made by buffalo hide were hard on the bottom. The way they make moccasins is they stitched them together with sinew. In the winter moccasins had fur inside them to keep warm. They also added dried grass for extra warmth. </li></ul>
Clothing For Ceremonies <ul><li>Bags, belts and clothing for ceremonies were decorated with shells, claws, feathers, quillwork, hair and strips on fur. Colourful beads were used too in the later days. Tail of weasel and fox were used too. </li></ul>
Babies Babies were wrapped in a Moss Bag and tied to a Cradle Board
Women The women had to put up and take down the tipis. The women had to raise the children and had to gather the food. The women had to prepare the food and had to make clothing. They had to do the quilting and bead work. They taught the girls to do the same things
Men The men would have to hunt and protect the family. The men would have to teach the young men how to hunt and fight. They would have to make shields, tools, and weapons.
To Make Tools And Hunt The men Taught the boys to hunt and to make tools.
How old boys are when they hunt The boys are 12 years old when they get taught to hunt
How Many duties Women Have Women have around 14 more duties than men have. So women have to work harder than men.
Berries Berries were food for the first nations people. The first nations picked them off of bushes.
Meat The first nations also ate antelope, deer, elk, and moose. small animals were often caught in snare traps .
How jerky Was Made Meat was cut in to strips and hung on a tripod .It was mostly dried/ smoked meat .
How Big A Tipis There was enough room for 5 or 7 peoples to sleep in it.
Who Lives in Them The people that live in them are called First Nations people.
How Beds Are Made The beds are made from bison skin. They wear placed against the inside.
What Lined the Outside and the Inside of a Tipi On the inside fur skins lined the floor. The outside though they would line it with rocks or snow to keep warm in the winter. The fur on the inside was bear, deer or buffalo. They put rocks down to keep the tipi from blowing away.
How big is a tipi The biggest tipi that was ever built was sixteen feet wide. It could hold a family of five to seven people.
What was inside The beds in a tipi were made from buffalo skin. Inside a fire was used to cook food. Even though the tipi was big it had not a lot of furniture.
Setting Up and Taking Down The women can setup the tipi in less than an hour. The women could take the tipi down in minutes. The tipi was very easy to set up and take down.
How Big was a Tipi? A tipi was five meters wide.
Do They Have A Fire Inside? A fire pit inside the tipi was for cooking and for heat .
Early Transportation The first people had to walk until they got dogs to pull their heavy loads. The Spanish explorers were the ones who brought the horses to North America. In the 1700s some horses ran away to the north.
The Birch Bark Canoe The Algonquin Indians used the Birch Bark Canoe for many things like fishing, hunting, and collecting wild rice. It especially helped them with fishing.
Red River Carts The Red River Carts were used to pull very heavy loads. It could float on water so they used it as a raft too. The oxen and horses pulled the red river cart because the people didn’t want to pull by themselves.
Why they soaked their boat . The boat was first soaked in water because it makes it easier to float through the water. And people used it to get from place to place.
The Birch Bark Canoe <ul><li>The birch bark canoe was used for hunting. They hunted in that canoe because they did not want to drownd but they wanted to hunt for food . </li></ul>