UTNGroup5

1,652 views

Published on

Materials Design

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

UTNGroup5

  1. 1. Materials Design
  2. 2. Material Design is one of the most characteristic features of ESP in Practice
  3. 3. A large amount of the ESP teacher´s time is taken up in writing materials Why?
  4. 4. The teacher or institution may wish to provide teaching materials that fit the specific subject area of particular learners and which may not be available commercially
  5. 5. Even when suitable materials are available, it may not be possible to buy them because of currency or import restrictions ESP materials may also be written for non-educational reasons
  6. 6. This is why ESP teachers produce in-house materials What is the target audience? Students at a particular institution But there is a problem: Only few teachers have had any training in the skills and techniques of materials writing
  7. 7. On the other hand, the process of material writing may help to make teachers more aware of what is involved in teaching and learning
  8. 8. Techniques for producing ESP materials What are materials supposed to do?
  9. 9. They provide STIMULUS to learning They help organise the teaching-learning process, providing a path through the language to be learnt They reflect the nature of the learning task They provide models of correct and appropriate language use
  10. 10. Good Materials They do not teach; they encourage learners to learn They will contain interesting texts, enjoyable activities and opportunities for learners to use their existing knowledge
  11. 11. They should provide a clear and coherent unit structure which will guide teacher and learner in various activities in such a way as to maximise the chances of learning They should reflect what you think and feel about the learning process
  12. 12. A materials design model Consists of 4 elements: 1) Input : a text, a dialogue, etc. The Input provides stimulus material for activities, new language items, correct models of language use, a topic for communication, etc.
  13. 13. 2) Content Focus : language is not an end in itself, but a mean of conveying info and feelings about something. Non-linguistic content should be exploited to generate meaningful communication in the classroom
  14. 14. 3) Language Focus :enable learners to use language. Learners have the chance to take the language to pieces, study how it works and practise putting it back together again
  15. 15. 4) Task :the ultimate purpose of language learning is LANGUAGE USE. Materials should be designed to lead towards a communicative TASK in which learners use the content and language knowledge they have to built up through the unit
  16. 16. MATERIALS AND THE SYLLABUS <ul><li>Although one feature might be used as the organising principle of a syllabus, there are in fact several syllabuses operating in any course. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>We must take account not just of the visible features of the target situation, but also of intangible factors that relate to the learning situation. E.g.: learning involvement, variety, use of existing knowledge. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>There needs to be coherence between the unit structure and the syllabus structure to ensure that the course provides adequate and appropriate coverage of syllabus items. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Two types of model used in the materials design process: <ul><li>1) PREDICTIVE: this kind of model provides the generative framework within which creativity can operate. It is a model that enables the operator to select, organise and present data. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>2) EVALUATIVE: this kind of model acts as a feedback device to tell you whether you have done what you intended. The syllabus/ unit interface model is used as a checklist. Materials are written with only outline reference to the S/UI. When enough material is available it can be used to check coverage and appropriacy. </li></ul>
  21. 22. GUIDELINES FOR USING THE MODELS
  22. 23. STAGE 1 <ul><li>Find your text. </li></ul><ul><li>You can operate three criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>1- It may be a natural occurring piece of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>2- Be sure it suits the learner’s needs and interests. </li></ul><ul><li>3- It should be capable of generating useful classroom activities. </li></ul>
  23. 24. STAGE 2 <ul><li>Go to the end of the model. Think of a task that the learners could do at the end of the unit. </li></ul>
  24. 25. STAGE 3 <ul><li>Go back to the syllabus. Is the task the kind of activity that will benefit your learners? </li></ul>
  25. 26. STAGE 4 <ul><li>Decide what language structures, vocabulary, functions, content the input contains. Which of these would be useful for the task, what aspects of language and content can be usefully focussed on in the exercises? </li></ul>
  26. 27. STAGE 5 <ul><li>Think of some exercises and activities to practise the items you have identified. </li></ul>
  27. 28. STAGE 6 <ul><li>Go back to the input. Can it be revised in any way to make it more useful? Try out any revisions on your learners. </li></ul>
  28. 29. STAGE 7 <ul><li>Go through stages 1- 6 again with the revised input. </li></ul>
  29. 30. STAGE 8 <ul><li>Check the new materials against the syllabus and amend accordingly. </li></ul>
  30. 31. STAGE 9 <ul><li>Try the materials in the classroom. </li></ul>
  31. 32. STAGE 10 <ul><li>Most importantly, revise the materials in the light of classroom use. There is no such thing as perfect materials. They can always be improved. </li></ul>

×