How sweet is it


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How sweet is it

  1. 1. How Sweet Is It? Danielle Asplund April 21, 2010 Science Curriculum: LAI 531
  2. 2. How Sweet is It? <ul><li>How does the information that we are told affect our dietary choices in regard to sugar and sugar substitutes? </li></ul><ul><li>If we were more informed about the positive and negative factors of types of sugar and sugar substitutes, would we make healthier choices? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rational for presentation <ul><li>Science literacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public understanding of science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to analyze information for quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent news of health reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NY tax proposal for sugary drinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shocking new studies briefly discussed in the news </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dad – allergic to aspartame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Me – cannot tolerate artificial sweeteners </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Overview of Sweeteners <ul><li>Artificial sweeteners include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar alcohols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saccharin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspartame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acesulfame potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sucralose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neotame </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Sugar Alcohols <ul><li>What they are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates with structures similar to sugar and alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: sorbitol, mannitol lactitol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses: chewing gum, hard candies, pharmaceuticals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About half the calories found in sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be labeled as sugar-free </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive consumption can cause gas and diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain calories though marked as sugar-free </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Saccharin <ul><li>What it is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweet’N Low </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calorie free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not increase blood sugar levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Been around for over 100 years (best researched artificial sweetener) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tumors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allergic reactions </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Tumors and Cancer <ul><li>Multiple studies in rats indicate a variety of tumors and cancer related to consumption of saccharin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversial results due to high levels of sweeteners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to relate to humans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Studies in humans have indicated a connection between some artificial sweeteners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excluded as the only contributing factor making artificial sweeteners to be eliminated as carcinogenic </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Infants <ul><li>Saccharin in infant formula can cause: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irritability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular dysfunction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not enough research to limit use in pregnant women and infant formulas </li></ul>
  9. 9. Allergic Reactions <ul><li>Found in people who are allergic to sulfonamides </li></ul><ul><li>Reactions may include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin rash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Aspartame <ul><li>What it is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrasweet & Equal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1965 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caloric intake is negligible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intolerable by people with PKU (phenylketonuria) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General health concerns </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Health Concerns <ul><li>Review of literature indicated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100% of industry funded research declared aspartame safe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>92% of independently funded research declared health problems with aspartame </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with migraines have more frequent and severe headaches when using aspartame than when using sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those with mood disorders are more sensitive to aspartame and have been recommended to avoid it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusive results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased hunger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counter-acts desired weight loss </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Neotame <ul><li>What it is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New version of aspartame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approved in 2002 by FDA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not cause problems for people with PKU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much sweeter than aspartame </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discreetly marketed (not well known) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not much research </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Acesulfame potassium <ul><li>What it is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ace-K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunett </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used as sweetener or to preserve sweetness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No calories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains methylene chloride (carcinogen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not well studied </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Sucralose <ul><li>What it is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Splenda </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made from sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not calorie free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No long term studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health affects </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Discovery of Splenda <ul><li>Ads state “made from sugar” </li></ul><ul><li>Found while making insecticides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treated with at least 12 chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Name, sucralose, indicates a sugar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends with –ose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some argued the name should be changed to trichlorogalactosucrose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FDA did not find this necessary </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Mislabeling <ul><li>Packaging indicates calorie free </li></ul><ul><li>1 cup contains almost 100 calories and more than 30 grams of carbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmful for diabetics </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Weight Gain <ul><li>Rats given Splenda showed multiple side effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>weight gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>loss of beneficial microflora in gut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an interference of the absorption of nutrients and pharmaceuticals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Same results seen in humans with this and other artificial sweeteners </li></ul>
  18. 18. Pain Reaction <ul><li>Healthy human infants feed artificial sweeteners had a reduced pain reaction when pricked on the heel when compared to those feed natural sweeteners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly affecting neuro-development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other studies have indicated no affects seen in brain development or mood when artificial sweeteners were consumed at this stage in life </li></ul>
  19. 19. Long term affects <ul><li>Most animal trails were short-term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few human trials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contains chlorine – a carcinogen </li></ul><ul><li>Reported issues include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin irritations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chest pains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood swings </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Environmental Implications <ul><li>Sucralose has been found in varying levels in a variety of water areas in the US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Golf Coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cape Fear (NC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Florida Keys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No information about the possible affects on marine/aquatic life </li></ul>
  21. 21. Review of Media Reports <ul><li>Recent local reports focus on proposed legislation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 cent tax per ounce of a sugary drink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money raised goes to fight obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government interfering with personal choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will be most affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not tax sugar-free diet drinks </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. What now? <ul><li>Many people are not aware of research on artificial sweeteners and the possible complications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions with medications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption of nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Less than half of the public claim to care about the nutrition of their food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education about nutrition needed as well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific literacy beginning at an early age is needed </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Conclusions <ul><li>How can we decide what is good for us when we do not understand what we are consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Media reports often confuse the general public </li></ul><ul><li>Campaigns use information for their benefit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are easily swayed without an honest reason </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. References <ul><li>Andreatta, M. M. et al. (2008). Artificial sweetener consumption and urinary tract tumors in Cordoba, Argentina. Preventative Medicine, 47 (1); 136-139. </li></ul><ul><li>Bucher, H. U. et al (2000). Artificial sweetener reduces nociceptive reaction in term newborn infants. Early Human Development, 59 (1); 51-60 . </li></ul><ul><li>Brusick, D et al (2009). Expert panel report on a study of splenda in male rats. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 55 (1); 6-12. </li></ul><ul><li>Duyuff, R. L. (2006). Complete food and nutrition guide. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Grotz, V. L. & Munro, I. C. (2009). An overview of the safety of sucralose. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 55 (1); 1-5. </li></ul><ul><li>Hull, J. S. (2001). Sweet Poison. Horizon Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Lebovitz, A. D. (2009). Artificial sweeteners: Options for chronic kidney disease patients. Journal of Renal Nutrition, 19 (4);e15-e18. </li></ul><ul><li>Mead, R. N. et al. (2009). Occurrence of the artificial sweetener sucralose in costal and marine waters of the United States. Marine Chemistry, 116 (1-4); 13-17. </li></ul>
  25. 25. References Continued <ul><li>Murphy, S. P & Johnson, R. K. (2003). The scientific basis of recent US guidance on sugars intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78 (4); 827S-833S. </li></ul><ul><li>Neuman, W (2009). Proposed tax on sugary beverages debate. New York Times. </li></ul><ul><li>Phillips, K. (2008). Trade commission delivers bitter pill to splenda makers. Chemical Week, 170 (31); 44. </li></ul><ul><li>Raben, A. et al (2002). Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners: different effects on ad libitum food intake and body weight after 10 wk of supplementation in overweight subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76 (4); 721-729. </li></ul><ul><li>Riera, C. E. et al. (2008). The capsaicin receptor participates in artificial sweetener aversion. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 376 (4); 653-657. </li></ul><ul><li>Saraiva, C & Quint, M. (2010). Paterson-backed sugary beverage tax is “unfair,” opponents say. Bloomberg: Business Week. </li></ul><ul><li>Viberg, H & Fredricksson, A. (2010). Neonatal exposure to sucralose does not alter biochemical markers of neuronal development or adult behavior. Nutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>Zmuda, N. (2008). Hey that nutrasweet looks like splenda. Advertising Age, 79 (20); 3-44. </li></ul>