Physics Chapter 1,2

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Physics Chapter 1,2

  1. 1. Physics Chapter 1and 2 Metrics, Scientific Notation, Significant Figures and Graphing
  2. 2. Physics The study of matter and energy and how they are related
  3. 3. Scientific Method <ul><li>This is an organized way of determining how the universe works. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Make observations; facts are verified observations </li></ul><ul><li>Form a hypothesis – an educated guess </li></ul><ul><li>Devise experiments to test the hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Draw conclusions from your results and formulate a theory. A theory provides a logical explanation for a certain body of facts. </li></ul><ul><li>A theory can change with contradicting evidence. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Money Drop Demo
  5. 5. The Metric System <ul><li>This is a scientific system of measurement. It is called the SI System or the International System of Measurement. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on powers of ten </li></ul><ul><li>This system was created by French scientists around 1795 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Units of the Metric System <ul><li>Fundamental Units – units used to describe the quantities of length, time, and mass </li></ul><ul><li>Time – seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Length – meter </li></ul><ul><li>Mass - kilograms </li></ul><ul><li>Derived Units – combinations of fundamental units </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: m/s, mph, or grams/cm 3 </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Metric System The Comfort Zone m c d grams liters meters dk h k Milli Centi Deci Base Unit Deca Hecto Kilo
  8. 8. Non-Comfort Zone p n µ m c d grams meters liters dk H K M G T pico Nano Micro Milli Centi Deci Base unit Deca Hecto Kilo Mega Giga Tera
  9. 9. Scientific Notation <ul><li>Scientific notation expresses a number in exponential form (m x 10 n ) where 1≤m<10 and n is an integer. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Examples of Scientific Notation <ul><li>145 </li></ul><ul><li>0.0078 </li></ul><ul><li>42.7 x 10 4 </li></ul><ul><li>89.6 x 10 -5 </li></ul><ul><li>1.45 x 10 2 </li></ul><ul><li>7.8 x 10 -3 </li></ul><ul><li>4.27 x 10 5 </li></ul><ul><li>8.96 x 10 -4 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Accuracy vs Precision <ul><li>Accuracy – extent to which a measured value agrees with an accepted value </li></ul><ul><li>Precision – degree of exactness to which a measurement can be reproduced, limited to the smallest division on a measurement scale </li></ul><ul><li>The known density of copper is 8.9 g/ml </li></ul><ul><li>Group A gets a value of 8.7 g/ml and Group B gets a value of 9 g/ml </li></ul><ul><li>Which Group is more accurate? </li></ul><ul><li>Group B </li></ul><ul><li>Which Group is more precise? </li></ul><ul><li>Group A </li></ul>
  12. 12. Significant Figures <ul><li>Rules for Sig Figs </li></ul><ul><li>Non zero digits are significant </li></ul><ul><li>Final 0’s after the decimal are significant </li></ul><ul><li>Zeros between 2 sig figs are significant </li></ul><ul><li>Zeros used solely for spacing the decimal are not significant </li></ul>
  13. 13. Examples of Sig Figs <ul><li>1.03 </li></ul><ul><li>0.000034 </li></ul><ul><li>0.003 </li></ul><ul><li>0.3 </li></ul><ul><li>3.00 </li></ul><ul><li>30 </li></ul><ul><li>30. </li></ul><ul><li>3 </li></ul><ul><li>300.10 </li></ul><ul><li>300.01 </li></ul><ul><li>3 sig figs </li></ul><ul><li>2 sig figs </li></ul><ul><li>1 sig fig </li></ul><ul><li>1 sig fig </li></ul><ul><li>3 sig figs </li></ul><ul><li>1 sig fig </li></ul><ul><li>2 sig figs </li></ul><ul><li>1 sig fig </li></ul><ul><li>5 sig figs </li></ul><ul><li>5 sig figs </li></ul>
  14. 14. Add/Subtract/Multiply/Divide using Scientific Notation <ul><li>Add/Subtract Rules </li></ul><ul><li>They must be like terms (same units and same power) </li></ul><ul><li>Always take care of the units first then get the powers to be the same (as one gets bigger the other gets smaller) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply the bases and add the exponents. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you use the correct units (Ex: m 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Divide Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Divide the bases and subtract the exponents </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you use the correct units (m/s) </li></ul><ul><li>Only convert units that can be converted (Ex: meters cannot be converted to seconds, but they could be converted to cm) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Add/Subtract/Multiply/Divide using Scientific Notation and Sig Figs <ul><li>When adding and subtracting round your final answer to the least precise value </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: 5.25 +120.1 =125.35, but our final answer is: </li></ul><ul><li>125.4 </li></ul><ul><li>When multiplying or dividing your final answer has the least number of sig figs as the values you are working with </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: 25 x 5.0 = 125, but our final answer is: </li></ul><ul><li>130 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Graphing <ul><li>Independent Variable-the variable that is manipulated or can be changed: plotted on the x-axis </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable-result of the independent variable: plotted on the y-axis </li></ul><ul><li>3 Types of graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Linear Relationship (straight line) y=mx + b </li></ul><ul><li>Quadratic Relationship (parabola) y =kx 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Inverse Relationship (hyperbola) y = k/x </li></ul>
  17. 17. Linear Graph Y = mx + b
  18. 18. Quadratic or Parabola Y = kx 2
  19. 19. Inverse or Hyperbola Y = k/x

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