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  1. 1. <ul><li>RECONSTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>Time Period: 1862-1880 </li></ul><ul><li>Context: After the Civil War, the United States reorganized itself into one nation but disagreed on how this transformation would take place and on what roles its citizens, both black and white, would have in this new nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Thesis: With control of Congress, the Radical Republicans attempted to enforce a complete social, political and economic redesign of the South. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter Organizer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential Reconstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s 10% Plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Johnson (Pardons, state conventions, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional Reconstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radical Republicans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amendments and Acts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern People and their Interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ku Klux Klan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carpetbaggers, Scalawags & Sharecroppers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedpeople </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Abraham Lincoln (assassinated April 1865) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ten Percent Plan (1863) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10% of men (male voters) take loyalty oath and renounce slavery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wade-Davis Bill – Congress overrides the 10% plan, instead this bill demands that the majority of men take loyalty oath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln’s Pocket Veto – vetoes the Wade-Davis Bill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approves Freedmen’s Bureau (Board of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands) (March 1865) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Andrew Johnson – impeached </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lenient plan - presidential pardons, state conventions, poor men can vote, repudiation of Confederate debt, no citizenship for freedmen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict with Congressional Republicans over Black Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vetoes – Civil Rights Bill of 1866 (asks federal government to protect individual rights against states’ indifference); and extension of Freedmen’s Bureau </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress overrides vetoes </li></ul></ul></ul>Presidential Reconstruction
  3. 4. One of the many Freedmen's schools in the postwar South. These schools drew African Americans of all ages, who eagerly sought the advantages offered by education. (Library of Congress) Freedmen’s School – Part of Abraham Lincoln’s Legacy
  4. 5. Andrew Johnson , photographed by Mathew Brady in 1865. Johnson succeeded Lincoln to the presidency in April 1865. He was born in North Carolina and grew up in Tennessee; both were slave states. His battles with Congress over control of Reconstruction became legendary and ultimately led to his impeachment. (Library of Congress)
  5. 6. <ul><li>Forces southern states to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept black suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratify the 14th Amendment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State and federal citizenship guaranteed for all people regardless of race and place of birth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewrite state constitutions through state conventions to include “universal male suffrage” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1867 - Divides states into 5 military districts to enforce 14th Amendment; U.S. Army keeps order in these states. </li></ul><ul><li>1868 – 7 states meet readmission requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina, North Carolina and Tennessee (1866) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1870 – last 4 states meet readmission requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Georgia, Mississippi, Texas and Virginia </li></ul></ul>Congressional Reconstruction – The Reconstruction Act of 1867
  6. 8. <ul><li>1867 Congress establishes the 5 military districts and requires all states to adopt “universal manhood suffrage.” </li></ul><ul><li>1870 All former Confederate states had joined the Union by meeting Republican demands. </li></ul><ul><li>1877 All Southern states elected new conservative (Democratic) governments, which rewrote their state Constitutions to reverse the earlier Republican demands. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Amendments <ul><li>13 th – (1865 ratified) abolishes slavery, ratified by 3/4 th states in 12/1865 </li></ul><ul><li>14 th – (1868 ratified) guarantees citizenship by birth to all “male inhabitants” as well as equal protection under the law (first gender specific language in Constitution) </li></ul><ul><li>15 th -- (1870 ratified) grants all black men the right to vote (race, color, servitude no longer matter) </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Pro – Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans </li></ul><ul><li>Freed Slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Carpet Baggers </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Scalawags </li></ul><ul><li>Grant </li></ul><ul><li>Anti – Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>John Wilkes Booth </li></ul><ul><li>KKK </li></ul><ul><li>Former Slave Owners </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Democrats </li></ul>List to be created by HIST 1302 (Triad K)/Muñoz Start with the People – Identify the Individuals/Groups involved in Reconstruction Middle of the Road? Johnson, Lincoln, Women Suffragists, poor whites
  9. 11. Lynching accounted for thousands of deaths in the United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In this 1871 image, the KKK prepares to execute John Campbell, a prominent Republican. Fortunately, Campbell was later released. (National Archives)
  10. 12. The Ku Klux Klan issued this graphic warning &quot;of the fate in store for&quot; their opponents. Taken from the Tuscaloosa Independent Monitor, September 1, 1868. (Alabama Department of Archives and History, Montgomery, Alabama) Ku Klux Klan Warning
  11. 13. Ku Klux Klan A secret white supremacist organization, the Ku Klux Klan was founded in Tennessee in 1866. One of its major objectives was to terrorize African Americans prior to elections in order to keep them from voting. (Library of Congress)
  12. 14. Five Generations of a Slave Family Despite the abolition of slavery, African Americans continued to labor in the cotton fields as sharecropping emerged as a new labor system in the South.
  13. 15. New Southern Economy <ul><li>Economic Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>demise of planter elite and development in other areas besides strict plantation agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Textiles, Tobacco, Natural Resources (coal, steel, lumber, petroleum, hydroelectric power) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton, Louisiana sugar cane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop prices deflate (due to depression and industrialization) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise in Debt Peonage (work to pay off debts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharecropper – trades labor for a share of crop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tenancy or tenant farmer – trades labor in exchange for land to work and a share of crop too </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crop-lien system – bet on future crop to gain store credit </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Debt Peonage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharecropping or Sharecropper – </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A person trades labor for a share of the crop, which he in turn sells for a profit. This person has only labor to trade. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tenancy or tenant farmer – </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This person also trades labor for a share of the crop, but might have mules, tools, family and credit to help with the labor. This person receives a specific plot of land to live and work on usually with his or her family; thus, the use of the word “tenant.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crop-lien system – </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A person secures credit from a merchant by using a future crop as security or lien to gain store credit. The crop-lien systems works like a mortgage but is more like gambling because the farmer is betting on the potential yield of the crop. Merchants who offer crop-lien credit did so at very high interest rates. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chain Gangs – </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Without a valid work contract, many freed blacks were arrested for violating vagrancy laws in the Black Codes and forced to work off jail sentences in chain gangs. The state then leased these chain-gangs to plantation owners. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 19. Sharecropping soon replaced slavery in the South as the primary form of labor. In this photo, a white landowner weighs cotton grown by black sharecroppers. (National Archives) Sharecropping
  16. 20. Known for “Atlanta Compromise” First president, Tuskegee Institute “Separate but equal progress” “ Character is power.” Booker T. Washington Library of Congress Accommodator Black Responses to Reconstruction Submission Accommodation Resistance Known for 1884 railcar lawsuit (TN) Anti-lynching crusader, suffragist & international journalist (“Iola”) NAACP co-founder Ida B. Wells-Barnett Univ. of Chicago Library Resistor Known for “Double Consciousness” Professor, 1 st Af.Am. Ph.D., Harvard 1896 Called for “Ceaseless Agitation” NAACP co-founder W.E.B. DuBois Library of Congress Resistor
  17. 21. Disappointed with the failures of Reconstruction and fearful of the violence that surrounded them, many southern blacks migrated to Kansas and Oklahoma in the 1870s and 1880s. Comparing their trek to the biblical story of the Israelite's exodus from Egypt, they became known as the &quot;Exodusters.&quot; [From Created Equal: A Social and Political History of the United States , Jacqueline. Jones, et.al., (New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006).] Exodusters http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/s_z/singleton.htm
  18. 22. This illustrations celebrates the election of Hiram Revels of Mississippi to the U.S. Senate and the elevation of other African Americans to positions of respect in the post-Civil War era. (Library of Congress) &quot;From the Plantation to the Senate&quot;