Chapter 40.ppt


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Chapter 40.ppt

  1. 1. Chapter 40Basic principles of animal form and function <br />By Charith Samarasena<br />
  2. 2. Vocabulary<br />Acclimatization: physiological adjustment to a change in an environmental factor<br />Stressed-induced proteins: proteins that are activated by the factors of stress<br />Heat shock proteins: proteins that help protect other proteins under heat stress<br />Torpor: a physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases<br />Hibernation: a physiological state in which metabolism decreases, the heart and respiratory system slow down, and body temperature is maintained at a lower level than normal<br />Estivation: a physiological state that allows animals to survive in warmer temperatures and very low water supply<br />
  3. 3. Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans (Ascending)<br />Tissues: groups of cells of similar appearance and common function<br />Organs: functional units of tissue<br />Organ System: groups of organs that work together providing an additional level of organization and coordination<br />
  4. 4. Tissue<br />There are 4 types of tissues:<br />-Epithelial<br />-Connective<br />-Muscle<br />-Nervous<br />
  5. 5. Epithelial Tissue<br />Covers outside of the body and lines the organs and cavities within body<br />Epithelium have four shapes:<br />-cuboidal (like dice)<br />-columnar (bricks standing on end)<br />-squamous (like floor tiles)<br />
  6. 6. Epithelial Tissue cont’d<br />Epithelium cells can be arranged as:<br />-simple epithelium (single cell layer)<br />-stratified epithelium (multiple tiers of cells)<br />-pseudostratified epithelium (single cell layer varying in height)<br />
  7. 7. Connective Tissue<br />Bind and support other tissues in the body<br />Connective tissue cells are scattered throughout extracellular matrix<br />Types of connective tissue:<br />-cartilage<br />-adipose tissue<br />-fibrous connective tissue (tendons and ligaments)<br />-loose connective tissue<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Muscle Tissue<br />Responsible for nearly all types of body movement<br />Consist of filaments containing actin & myosin<br />Types of muscle tissue:<br />-skeletal muscle<br />-cardiac muscle<br />-smooth muscle<br />
  10. 10. Nervous Tissue<br />Sense stimuli and transmit signals in the form of nerve impulses from one part of the body to another<br />Contains neurons and glial cells<br />
  11. 11. Cell Signaling<br />Can be done via the nervous system<br />Can also be done via the endocrine system in the form of hormones<br />
  12. 12. 4 Ways To Gain, or Lose, Heat From or To Environment<br />Radiation<br />Evaporation<br />Convection<br />Conduction<br />
  13. 13. Radiation<br />The emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero<br />Transfers heat between objects indirectly<br />
  14. 14. Evaporation<br />Removal of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules as gas<br />
  15. 15. Convection<br />Transfer of heat by movement of air or liquid past a surface<br />
  16. 16. Conduction<br />The direct transfer of heat between molecules of objects by direct contact<br />
  17. 17. Endotherm<br />Aka regulator; maintains a separate body temperature from that of external environment; uses principle of homeostasis<br />Homeostasis is not maintained the animal dies<br />
  18. 18. Ectotherm<br />Aka conformers; change body temperature to match external environment<br />Heat is gained from external sources<br />If there is not enough heat for the animal to absorb it dies<br />
  19. 19. 5 Methods of Thermoregulation<br />Insulation<br />Circulatory Adaptations<br />Cooling by Evaporative Heat Loss<br />Behavioral Responses<br />Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production<br />
  20. 20. Insulation<br />Reduces heat flow between animal and its environment<br />Sources of insulation include hair, feathers, and layers of fat formed by adipose tissue (all are important for mammals and birds)<br />
  21. 21. Circulatory Adaptations<br />Vasodilation: relaxing of muscles of vessel walls to increase blood flow; increases body temperature<br />Vasoconstriction: contraction of muscles of vessel walls to decrease blood flow; decreases body temperature<br />
  22. 22. Circulatory Adaptations cont’d<br />Countercurrent exchange: the flow of adjacent fluids in opposing directions that maximizes transfer of rates of heat or solutes (especially important in birds and mammals)<br />Heat transfer involves antiparallel arrangement of blood vessels<br />
  23. 23. Cooling by Evaporative Heat Loss<br />When body begins to overheat, animals begin to lose water which absorbs a lot of heat<br />Then, the water evaporates across the skin and into the atmosphere releasing heat (ex. sweating) <br />
  24. 24. Behavioral Responses<br />Some animals, such as amphibians and reptiles, will simply move to different locations when they feel to hot or cold<br />Other animals, like invertebrates, move bodies to control heat gain<br />Some animals may huddle to conserve heat<br />
  25. 25. Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production<br />Shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis(in cold weather) can increase metabolic heat production<br />Switching types of thermoregulation can help in heat gain, like switching from ectothermy to endothermy (large reptiles like snakes may do this to keep eggs warm)<br />
  26. 26. Hypothalamus<br />A component of the brain that contains nerve cells that detect change in temperature throughout body<br />Crucial to homeostasis because hypothalamus tells blood vessels to constrict or dilate to increase or decrease body temperature<br />
  27. 27. Thermoregulation by Hypothalamus (“-” feedback)<br />