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  • Poriferappt

    1. 1. Porifera Sponges Cassie Huang Cyrus Sutaria
    2. 2. Shared & Unique Characteristics  No definite symmetry.  Simplest animals- Multicellular body, few tissues, no organs.  No true body cavity.  All are sessile.  Reproduce sexually or asexually.  Has no nervous system.  Lives in aquatic environments, mostly marine.  Cellular digestion  All are filter feeders.  Skeleton composed of spongin and spicules.  Able to repair damages to their bodies.
    3. 3. Sponges are sessile (non-moving) metazoans (multi-celled organisms)  Sponges are multicellular and their cells are organized to be beneficial to each other  They lack true tissues, or groups of cells that act as a funtional unit and are separated from other tissues by membranous  They do contain different types of cells
    4. 4. Classes of Porifera  Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae They are split based on the type of spicules they have.
    5. 5. Class Calcarea  They have spicules composed of calcium carbonate that form rays and circles as they come out.  They have simple shapes: either purse, vase, or cylinder shaped.  First appeared during the Lower Cambrian Period.  Like the Hexatinellida and the Demospongia, they were most diverse during the Cretaceous.  Most surfaces are pastel colored, tan, or black.  There are over 100 genuses of calcareous sponges  They have the greatest diversity in the tropics.  Mostly found in shallow waters.
    6. 6. Class Hexactinellida Glass Sponges  Characterized by their six pointed siliceous spicules.  They are very uncommon and found at great depths.  Most of these animals are cupped shaped with sturdy internal skeletons and fused spicules.  They were the first sponges developed and the earliest known Hexactinellidas are from the earliest Cambrian or late Neoproterozoic  Electric recievers on the spicules that can conduct electricity.
    7. 7. Scientific Name Staurocalyptus sp
    8. 8. Class Demospongiae  Largest, commonest and most widely distributed group with a skeleton made of siliceous spicules.  They are members of the Leucon grade, which means that they have many canals inside their body and their shape can change throughout the day to take in more water.  They are sometimes brightly coloured.  They are the only group that has freshwater sponges.  When they decompose, their spicules can easily dissolve
    9. 9. Scientific Name Chalinula nematifera
    10. 10. Sclerospongiae  Sclerosponges were first proposed as a class of porifera, but then Vacelet found out that sclerosponges occurred in different classes of porifera. ( which means they are not a closely related group)  They have a soft body with a skeleton constructed from calcium carbonate, argonite or calcite.  They are similar to coral reefs, which is why they are also named coralline sponges.
    11. 11. Basic Structure • Porocytes-Water enters the sponge through porocytes • Spongocoel-Water goes from the porocytes into the spongocoel. The spogocoel is the central cavity of the sponge where digestion takes place. • Choanocytes-Have beating flagella which move water through the sponge. These are the “feeding” cells. Food is engulfed and digested or transferred to amoebocytes. • Amoebocytes-Transport nutrients to other cells of the sponge. Produce materials for spicules. • Spicules-Skeletal support structures • Osculum-Large opening on top of the sponge where water and waste is expelled.
    12. 12. Basic Structure (continued)
    13. 13. Basic Structure (continued)  Symmetry: None  Cephalization:None  Segmentation:None  Evolutionary “inventions”:  Multicellular, but not yet real tissue
    14. 14. Structure of Sponges Helps with Function  The whole structure of a sponge is built around the flow of water through the sponge.  There are pores to intake water and an osculum to expel the water
    15. 15. Interesting Facts! YAY! • Inside a sponge, there are no organs. Special cells carry out all the processes. • When sponges are strained through a piece of cloth, they come back together into a new shape on the other side of the cloth. • If part of a sponge breaks off, then it becomes an entirely new sponge. • Near Florida and in other areas, sponges live on the backs of hermit crabs and act as a type of shell. • Chemicals from sponges are being used to find a cure for cancer and other diseases! • Within a sponge, it is possible to find 16,000 other animals! • In the Caribbean Sea, sponges can filter all of the water in one day. • The largest sponge ever measured was about 10 feet wide. It was a Monoraphus sponge.
    16. 16. Spongy Terms  Choanocyte: also known as collar cells. Flagellated cells that line up the internal chambers.  Atrium: where water and food particles flow into  Osculum: excretory structure in a sponge  Spicules: skeletal structure that provides structural support  Spongin: collagen protein that forms the fibrous skeleton.  Parenchymello: larval form of Demospongiae  Gemmules: internal buds found in freshwater sponges
    17. 17. The End