PXGT6103: INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN and DEVELOPMENT Raja Maznah Semester 2: Session 2007/2008 May 29, 2009 www.um.edu.my
Objectives <ul><li>Describe the roles of instructional design in the field of education and human resource development. </...
Session One  <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Describe 4 important characteristics of ID </li></ul><ul><li>Identify th...
4 important characteristics of ID <ul><li>Content selection based on data from the field </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional s...
Theoretical roots of the IT field <ul><li>Social sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Management sciences and engineering </li></ul>...
Many disciplines contributed to the development of the ID field May 29, 2009 Psychology Communications Education Computer ...
ID Origin <ul><li>Grew out of systems approach to training developed by the US military during WWII </li></ul><ul><li>It w...
Systems analysis <ul><li>Born during WWII </li></ul><ul><li>A logical and systematic way of organizing the  conduct of any...
Systems analysis requires <ul><li>Before starting a task, we must operationally  define intended outcomes </li></ul><ul><l...
Elements of an Instructional System <ul><li>A complete  specification  of the instructional requirements will include: </l...
Elements of an Instructional System <ul><li>Such a specification of instructional requirements provides us with a  bluepri...
Session Two <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Define ISD </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the 5 ISD phases </li></ul><ul><li>...
What is Instructional Systems Design? <ul><li>A  prescription  of the necessary events and activities of learning (instruc...
ID Models <ul><li>Models provide procedural frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate fundamental elements of ID processes ...
Instructional Development Models <ul><li>Developed based on application of concepts from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning a...
Instructional Systems Design May 29, 2009 Analysis Design Develop- ment Formative Evaluation Implemen- tation
May 29, 2009 INPUTS Analysis Customer requirements Participant information Manager’s comment OUTPUTS <ul><li>Analysis repo...
May 29, 2009 Design INPUTS <ul><li>Analysis Report </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional goal </li></ul><ul><li>Learner profile ...
May 29, 2009 OUTPUTS Rough draft of participant materials Rough draft of instructor materials Rough draft of instructional...
May 29, 2009 OUTPUTS <ul><li>Information to revise rough draft materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comments (verbal or written...
May 29, 2009 OUTPUTS On the job behavior changes (learning objectives) which improve business performance INPUTS <ul><li>F...
May 29, 2009 Analysis Design Develop- ment Formative Evaluation Implemen- tation Instructional Systems Design Customer rev...
May 29, 2009 Instructional Systems Design Analysis Design Develop- ment Formative Evaluation Implemen tation Customer revi...
ISD Process   (Leshin, Pollock & Reigeluth, 1992) Step 1 Analyze  Problem Step 2 Analyze  Domain Step 4 Analyze &  Sequenc...
ISD Process <ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Assess need </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze audi...
ISD Model - Seels & Glasgow (1997) May 29, 2009 Problem Analysis Development of Materials Instructional strategies And del...
ISD – A summary <ul><li>Evaluation as the centerpiece of the ISD process </li></ul><ul><li>ISD is a continuous process </l...
Session Three <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss some assumptions about teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>...
Some assumptions about teaching and learning <ul><li>That a systematic approach to teaching is beneficial to your learners...
Some assumptions about teaching and learning (cont.) <ul><li>that risks are worth taking and mistakes can be growth points...
Using an ISD process <ul><li>Generic ISD model elaborated with decision questions </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis   </li></ul><...
Using an ISD process <ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the objectives? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will we ...
Using an ISD process <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Draft materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What will the materials s...
Using an ISD process <ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the client ready to take responsibility for the cours...
2 important decisions that  Instructional Designers must make: <ul><li>What to teach-  Macro strategies </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Select, sequence, structure, and synthesize large chunks of information, s.a. an entire curriculum </li></ul><ul><...
How to teach it -  M icro  strategies <ul><li>Design and write the presentation, practice, and feedback for each individua...
May 29, 2009 Today I learn, Today I question!
May 29, 2009 Thank You
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Pxgt6103070113lecture1

895 views

Published on

instructional design

Published in: Education, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
895
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
26
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
28
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Pxgt6103070113lecture1

  1. 1. PXGT6103: INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN and DEVELOPMENT Raja Maznah Semester 2: Session 2007/2008 May 29, 2009 www.um.edu.my
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the roles of instructional design in the field of education and human resource development. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply instructional design processes to solve problems related to learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Use instructional development models to design, develop and evaluate own projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Manage an instructional development project. </li></ul>May 29, 2009 www.um.edu.my
  3. 3. Session One <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Describe 4 important characteristics of ID </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the origins of ID </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the elements of instructional systems design </li></ul>May 29, 2009
  4. 4. 4 important characteristics of ID <ul><li>Content selection based on data from the field </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional strategies based on research and theories </li></ul><ul><li>Test data based on absolute standards of performance </li></ul><ul><li>Technology used to optimize effectiveness, efficiency and cost (Campbell, 1980) </li></ul>May 29, 2009
  5. 5. Theoretical roots of the IT field <ul><li>Social sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Management sciences and engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Information sciences </li></ul>May 29, 2009
  6. 6. Many disciplines contributed to the development of the ID field May 29, 2009 Psychology Communications Education Computer sciences
  7. 7. ID Origin <ul><li>Grew out of systems approach to training developed by the US military during WWII </li></ul><ul><li>It was based on the premise that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning should not occur in a haphazard manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning should be developed in accordance with orderly process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning should have measurable outcomes </li></ul></ul>May 29, 2009
  8. 8. Systems analysis <ul><li>Born during WWII </li></ul><ul><li>A logical and systematic way of organizing the conduct of any task </li></ul><ul><li>An analytic approach to planning and management </li></ul><ul><li>Most often utilized in the planning performance of large and complex activities </li></ul>May 29, 2009
  9. 9. Systems analysis requires <ul><li>Before starting a task, we must operationally define intended outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>So success can be observed </li></ul><ul><li>All possible variables identified: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>+ve and –ve contributions planned </li></ul></ul>May 29, 2009
  10. 10. Elements of an Instructional System <ul><li>A complete specification of the instructional requirements will include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Elements of an Instructional System <ul><li>Such a specification of instructional requirements provides us with a blueprint for instructional systems development (ISD) and use. </li></ul>May 29, 2009
  12. 12. Session Two <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Define ISD </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the 5 ISD phases </li></ul><ul><li>Identify other ID models </li></ul>May 29, 2009
  13. 13. What is Instructional Systems Design? <ul><li>A prescription of the necessary events and activities of learning (instructional methods ) which </li></ul><ul><li>provides a guidance function towards the achievement of specific objectives and </li></ul><ul><li>promoting of desired learner capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>under a particular set of conditions . </li></ul>
  14. 14. ID Models <ul><li>Models provide procedural frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate fundamental elements of ID processes / steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A nalysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D esign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D evelop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E valuate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I mplement </li></ul></ul>May 29, 2009
  15. 15. Instructional Development Models <ul><li>Developed based on application of concepts from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning and instructional theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>associated with selection of instructional strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems and communication theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>associated with ID procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management and organizational theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>associated with organization and personnel development </li></ul></ul></ul>May 29, 2009
  16. 16. Instructional Systems Design May 29, 2009 Analysis Design Develop- ment Formative Evaluation Implemen- tation
  17. 17. May 29, 2009 INPUTS Analysis Customer requirements Participant information Manager’s comment OUTPUTS <ul><li>Analysis report </li></ul><ul><li>Problem definition / business issue </li></ul><ul><li>Required outcomes - instructional goals </li></ul><ul><li>Training as solution </li></ul><ul><li>Learner profile - total projected population </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness for design / development (project plan) </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed budget </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of information / expertise </li></ul>www.um.edu.my
  18. 18. May 29, 2009 Design INPUTS <ul><li>Analysis Report </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional goal </li></ul><ul><li>Learner profile </li></ul><ul><li>Subject matter expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Comments from customer, participants, managers </li></ul>OUTPUTS <ul><li>Entry behaviors / prerequisite </li></ul><ul><li>Learning hierarchy / learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Test items </li></ul><ul><li>Design documents </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Media choices </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor specifications </li></ul>May 29, 2009 www.um.edu.my
  19. 19. May 29, 2009 OUTPUTS Rough draft of participant materials Rough draft of instructor materials Rough draft of instructional materials Rough cut of video INPUTS Design document Content sources Subject matter expertise Word processor, graphic artist, video production, etc. Development May 29, 2009 www.um.edu.my
  20. 20. May 29, 2009 OUTPUTS <ul><li>Information to revise rough draft materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comments (verbal or written) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation instrument results </li></ul></ul>INPUTS Target population Prepared instructor Rough draft materials Suitable locations Formative Evaluation May 29, 2009 www.um.edu.my
  21. 21. May 29, 2009 OUTPUTS On the job behavior changes (learning objectives) which improve business performance INPUTS <ul><li>Finalized materials: </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional </li></ul><ul><li>Participant </li></ul><ul><li>Certified instructors </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing plan </li></ul>Implementation May 29, 2009 www.um.edu.my
  22. 22. May 29, 2009 Analysis Design Develop- ment Formative Evaluation Implemen- tation Instructional Systems Design Customer review and approval Design review Materials review Test results May 29, 2009 www.um.edu.my
  23. 23. May 29, 2009 Instructional Systems Design Analysis Design Develop- ment Formative Evaluation Implemen tation Customer review and approval Design review Materials review Test results May 29, 2009 www.um.edu.my
  24. 24. ISD Process (Leshin, Pollock & Reigeluth, 1992) Step 1 Analyze Problem Step 2 Analyze Domain Step 4 Analyze & Sequence Supporting Content Step 6 Perform Interactive Message Design Step 3 Analyze & Sequence Tasks Step 5 Specify Learning Events & Activities Step 7 Evaluate Instruction Analyzing Needs Selecting & Sequencing Content Developing Lessons Evaluating the Instruction
  25. 25. ISD Process <ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Assess need </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze audience </li></ul><ul><li>Establish goals </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Develop objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Create draft content outline </li></ul><ul><li>Organize/develop content </li></ul><ul><li>Select/develop materials </li></ul><ul><li>and media </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Review goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Develop evaluation strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Collect and analyze data </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend revisions </li></ul><ul><li>Revision </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and implement </li></ul><ul><li>revision plan </li></ul>
  26. 26. ISD Model - Seels & Glasgow (1997) May 29, 2009 Problem Analysis Development of Materials Instructional strategies And delivery Implementation& Control Summative Evaluation Objectives & Tests Instructional Analysis Task Analysis Formative Evaluation Feedback and Interaction Analysis Phase Design and Development Phase Implementation & Evaluation Phase
  27. 27. ISD – A summary <ul><li>Evaluation as the centerpiece of the ISD process </li></ul><ul><li>ISD is a continuous process </li></ul><ul><li>All ISD activities take place within and are dependent on the system function </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork is required </li></ul><ul><li>All ISD activities and system functions focus on continuous quality improvement in the system </li></ul>May 29, 2009
  28. 28. Session Three <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss some assumptions about teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Use an ISD process to solve a learning problem </li></ul>May 29, 2009
  29. 29. Some assumptions about teaching and learning <ul><li>That a systematic approach to teaching is beneficial to your learners, your colleagues and yourself </li></ul><ul><li>that learning is a deeply personal, individual process for all of us </li></ul><ul><li>that you teach people first, and subject material second </li></ul><ul><li>that learning is a richer and more rewarding process if it can be shared with other people </li></ul>May 29, 2009
  30. 30. Some assumptions about teaching and learning (cont.) <ul><li>that risks are worth taking and mistakes can be growth points </li></ul><ul><li>that experience only leads to change if it is filtered through reflection </li></ul><ul><li>that development takes courage as well as imagination </li></ul><ul><li>that the most useful attribute you can develop as a teacher or trainer is flexibility </li></ul>May 29, 2009
  31. 31. Using an ISD process <ul><li>Generic ISD model elaborated with decision questions </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the problem? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do we solve it? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the content? The job? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructional analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What must be learned? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cont.-  </li></ul></ul></ul>May 29, 2009
  32. 32. Using an ISD process <ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the objectives? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will we know if the objectives are met? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What instructional strategy will achieve the objectives? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What media and methods are most effective? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cont.-  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>May 29, 2009
  33. 33. Using an ISD process <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Draft materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What will the materials say? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do the materials look and sound? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formative evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do they meet quality standards? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do students learn from them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we improve them? </li></ul></ul>May 29, 2009
  34. 34. Using an ISD process <ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the client ready to take responsibility for the course? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have we solved the problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the impact? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What needs to change? </li></ul></ul>May 29, 2009
  35. 35. 2 important decisions that Instructional Designers must make: <ul><li>What to teach- Macro strategies </li></ul><ul><li>How to teach it - Micro strategies </li></ul>May 29, 2009 www.um.edu.my
  36. 36. <ul><li>Select, sequence, structure, and synthesize large chunks of information, s.a. an entire curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics are determined by whether each task is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a procedural task, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a transfer task </li></ul></ul>What to teach - Macro strategies May 29, 2009 www.um.edu.my
  37. 37. How to teach it - M icro strategies <ul><li>Design and write the presentation, practice, and feedback for each individual lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Tactics are determined when the content involves the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>memorization of facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>application of skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understanding relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>higher-level thinking </li></ul></ul>May 29, 2009 www.um.edu.my
  38. 38. May 29, 2009 Today I learn, Today I question!
  39. 39. May 29, 2009 Thank You

×