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  1. 1. Questionnaire A Questionnaire is an instrument for data collection. It consist of a number of questions printed or typed in a definite order on a form or set of forms.
  2. 2. <ul><li>Planning what to measure </li></ul><ul><li>Formatting the Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Select scale of measurement (data type) </li></ul><ul><li>Question wording </li></ul><ul><li>Sequencing and layout decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Pretesting and correcting problems </li></ul>Steps to be followed to design a Questionnaire
  3. 3. <ul><li>Be clear of the objective to ensure that enough questions are asked to generate information necessary to address research problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Go for exploratory research </li></ul>Planning what to measure
  4. 4. <ul><li>Open response questions </li></ul><ul><li>Closed response questions </li></ul><ul><li>Number of response categories (Simple dichotomous vs. Multi-choice) </li></ul><ul><li>Order of response categories </li></ul><ul><li>Handling uncertainty and ignorance </li></ul>Formatting the Questionnaire
  5. 5. <ul><li>Use simple language that is consistent with your population </li></ul><ul><li>Be as specific as possible, avoid being vague </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid leading and loaded questions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid double-barreled questions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid questions that are too difficult to answer </li></ul>Question wordings
  6. 6. <ul><li>Always begin with simple, non-offensive questions and get more complex as you move along. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to whether certain questions are relevant for every respondent or only some </li></ul><ul><li>Give clear instructions for completing questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate fonts and white space to avoid crowding </li></ul>Sequencing and layout decisions
  7. 7. <ul><li>Pretest done to ensure that the questionnaires meet </li></ul><ul><li>The researchers expectation in terms of information </li></ul><ul><li>that will be obtained. The objective of pretest is to </li></ul><ul><li>identify and correct deficiencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Two approaches may be used. </li></ul><ul><li>1) Debriefing approach </li></ul><ul><li>2) Protocol approach </li></ul>Pretesting and Correcting problems
  8. 8. <ul><li>1) Variations </li></ul><ul><li>2) Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>3) Task difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>4) Respondent’s interest and attention </li></ul><ul><li>5) Flow of questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>6) Skip pattern </li></ul><ul><li>7) Length </li></ul>Objectives of Pretest (to find out)
  9. 9. <ul><li>Sent through mail/physical presence </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Case of non-response </li></ul><ul><li>Identity of the Respondent </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of administration </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifications </li></ul><ul><li>Personal contact </li></ul><ul><li>Suitability of diverse sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of collecting information </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of success depends on </li></ul>Questionnaires vs Schedules
  10. 10. <ul><li>Clearly identify the problem of study </li></ul><ul><li>Identify nature of information sought, sample, kind of analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Rough draft to be prepared and need proper sequencing of questions </li></ul><ul><li>Technical defects to be rectified and if required redraft it </li></ul><ul><li>Pretesting / Pilot study </li></ul><ul><li>Questions should be simple with straightforward directions </li></ul>Guidelines for Constructing questionnaires / Schedules