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Role of fathers Part 2


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Role of fathers Part 2

  1. 1. Presented By: Jasmine Joseph, Rena Mehta, Moncy Mathews 11/11/08 Psych 308 UMBC
  2. 2. <ul><li>Prior studies have reported clear links between fathers substance abuse more generally and heightened risk for both physical abuse and physical neglect. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between physical abuse and physical neglect? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Physical Abuse : Physical abuse is the non-accidental infliction of physical injury to a child. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Neglect: The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect defines child neglect as: &quot;failure to provide for the child's basic needs.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Study reported that substance abusing fathers exhibited more than twice the scores on the Child Abuse potential Inventory than comparison group fathers where no substance abuse was present </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>From protective services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>59% of maltreatment (both abuse and neglect) cases that involved substance abuse identified fathers as substance abusers. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Despite the correlational evidence, little is known with regard to exactly how fathers’ substance abuse may serve to heighten child maltreatment risk. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>In-comparison with non-alcoholic fathers, alcoholic fathers are less sensitive and show higher levels of negative affect toward their infants and their infants are less securely attached. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Little evidence has examined the influence of fathers’ childhood experience on their parenting. </li></ul><ul><li>If the father was abused as a child is it likely or unlikely for them to commit acts of abuse on their children? </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>UNDECIDED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In a cross sectional study in 2002, fathers experiencing childhood abuse used physical punishment less frequently with their own children, whereas a study in 1996 reported that fathers recalling parental violence toward themselves also reported significantly higher physical abuse potential. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So who is correct? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>1979: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The quality of mothering provided to an infant has been linked with supports the mother receives from her partner, and the quality of the relationship between partners has been shown to predict how both mothers and fathers nurture and respond to their children's needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would this scenario be applicable to teenage parents? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>1994 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teen mothers with positive partner support are less rejecting and punitive toward children. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Fathers direct involvement in childcare also predicts quality of the home environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Dubowitz et al. (2000) reported that fathers greater participation in the child care in this study may have been an indicator of mothers relative unavailability in the child caring role, which itself may have led to heightened child neglect risk. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Rosenbaum and O’Leary (1981) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents who use physically aggressive tactics to resolve spousal disputes also tend to use similar tactics when disciplining children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic violence was found present in 40% to 43% of cases of critical and fatal child maltreatment in the state of Oregon, NY city and state of Massachusetts. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Table 1: Empirical Evidence supporting the role of specific fathers factors in the risk of physical child abuse and neglect. Paternal Factor Indirect Evidence Direct Correlational Evidence Causal Pathway Identified Socioeconomic factors: Absence X Low Income X Unemployed X Job or Major financial loss X Young Age X Psychosocial factors: X Substance abuse X Family-of-origin maltreatment X Support/undermining of mother X Violence toward mother X Direct provision of child care X
  15. 15. <ul><li>Future Studies should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess fathers involvement in family life and child rearing in a multifaceted fashion beyond global indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move beyond the mere use of maternal self-report, collecting data on behavioral patterns and hypothesized predictors from multiple informants, and especially from fathers themselves. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>-continued </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to document father-relevant factors as predictors of each parent (mother vs. father) at-risk behavior separately. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Track physical child abuse and neglect as separate outcomes rather than combining both as a single outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to trace cultural elements that might shape fathers’ contribution to the risk and protective elements predicting child maltreatment risk. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The evidence collected will provide direct guidance to those aimed at engaging and working with fathers and their families in ways that can reduce their risk of future physical child abuse and neglect. </li></ul>