Agenda <ul><li>Reason and rationalisation </li></ul><ul><li>The biological sciences, scientific racism and eugenics </li></ul><ul><li>The new imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘dark side’ of the Enlightenment? </li></ul>
Joseph Merrick Joseph Merrick (1862-1890) “ Tis true my form is something odd, But blaming me is blaming God. Could I create myself anew, I would not fail in pleasing you. If I could reach from pole to pole, Or grasp the ocean with a span, I would be measured by the soul, The mind's the standard of the man.” - Poem by Isaac Watts regularly recited by Merrick.
Reason and Progress Rationality: To use principles of logic and systematic method in the analysis of evidence and ideas in order to reach conclusions about ‘reality’ or ‘truth’ (“ratio-nising”) Rationalisation: (1) Arranging components of a process to eliminate wastefulness; OR (2)The act of using the appearance of rationality to justify an action already taken or a belief already-held
Scientific Method Top (left to right): Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778); Gregor Mendel (1822-1884); Charles Darwin (1809-1882); Ernst von Haeckel (1834-1919). Left: Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)
Scientific Method Plate 49 from Haeckel, Kunstformen der Natur (1904). Shows sea anemones, classified as Actiniae.
Scientific Method? Copy of embryo drawings originally by Haeckel (1892)
‘ Scientific’ Racism Left to right: Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau (1816-1882); Josiah C. Nott (1804-1873); Samuel George Morton (1799-1851)
‘ Scientific’ Racism A drawing from Nott and Giddens’ Indigenous Races of the Earth (1857). By comparing the skulls of ‘Greek’, ‘Negro’ and ‘Chimpanzee’, the drawing seeks to present a hierarchy of development linking black people to primates.
Social Darwinism Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) Francis Galton (1822-1911) Madison Grant (1865-1937)
Pseudo-Science Phrenological Diagram American Phrenological Journal
Pseudo-Science Above: P. T. Barnum (1810-1891); Left: The Fiji Mermaid
The New Imperialism <ul><li>Expanding imperial powers of old: France, Britain, the Netherlands, and (to a lesser extent) Russia </li></ul><ul><li>New imperial powers: Germany, Japan, Belgium, the United States and Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Collapsing powers: Spain, Portugal, Chinese Empire, Ottoman Empire and Austro-Hungary (see next lecture) </li></ul><ul><li>New colonial possessions or formalisation of existing rule in Africa, Asia and South Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Informal colonialism in the Americas </li></ul>
The New Imperialism <ul><li>Economic arguments: excess capital, need to secure primary materials, search for new markets </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomatic arguments: imperial rivalry, political crises on the periphery </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural arguments: e.g. Edward Said’s Orientalism </li></ul>