Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment<br />Gavin D. J. Harper ...
Early Niche Markets for H2 Installations<br />Data Centres (Business Continuity, UPS)<br />Public / Municipal Buildings<br...
Hydrogen: The Global Context<br />
Safety is Critical For Public Acceptance<br />Safety is critical to protect “nascent technologies at a critical time in th...
Primary Data<br />Collected from PURE Energy Centre Projects<br />
PURE Energy Centre, Baltasound, Unst<br /><ul><li>The PURE Energy Centre is a venture on the northernost Shetland Island o...
Island community
Highest Oil Prices in UK
‘Energy Isolation’ – North Sea Oil currently generates revenue.
Lack of “highly skilled” jobs
Problems retaining young people on the island
Low wages, hard to generate wealth, limited opportunities</li></ul>Two Proven Wind Turbines Produce Renewable Power<br />	...
Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre<br />
Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre<br />
Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre<br />
Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre<br />
Shetland, Unst: The Energy Island<br />Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre<br />
Shetland, Unst: The Energy Island<br /><ul><li>Grid Independent Houses
Hydrogen from Renewables
Fuel Cell provides Combined</li></ul> Heat and Power<br />Turbine<br />Houses<br />Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre<br />
Hydrogen Office, Methil<br />Energy efficiency<br /><ul><li>Increased insulation
Increased efficient glazing to minimise heat loss and unwanted heat gain
Natural ventilation to remove the need for air conditioning
A layout that maximises natural daylight to minimise the need for artificial lighting
Efficient lighting and control systems
A ground source heat pump, also recovering waste heat from a fuel cell and electrolysis unit, to provide most of the heati...
Use of innovative technology
‘Zero carbon building’
Iconic Renewable Hydrogen System
Support enterprising and innovation of products
Exploit opportunities arising from low carbon economy</li></li></ul><li>Environmental Energy Technology Centre<br />Electr...
Environmental Energy Technology Centre<br />Hydrogen Mini Grid can supply:<br />3 Phase Mains @ 415v<br />Electrical power...
Secondary Data<br />Gammon, R., Roy, A., Barton, J., & Little, M., (2006) Hydrogen and Renewables Integration (HARI), Repo...
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Practical Implementation Of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment

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Paper presented at the conference Detail Design in Architecture 8 at University of Wales Institute Cardiff, on the 4th September 2009.

Authors: Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey

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Practical Implementation Of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment

  1. 1. Practical Implementation of Renewable Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Installations in the Built Environment<br />Gavin D. J. Harper & Ross Gazey<br />
  2. 2. Early Niche Markets for H2 Installations<br />Data Centres (Business Continuity, UPS)<br />Public / Municipal Buildings<br />Hospitals<br />Concert Venues<br />Swimming Pools<br />Office Blocks<br />Current installations are by “early adopters” and “innovators”<br />
  3. 3. Hydrogen: The Global Context<br />
  4. 4. Safety is Critical For Public Acceptance<br />Safety is critical to protect “nascent technologies at a critical time in their emergence into the wider consciousness” (Gammon, 2004)<br />“ …we don’t know much about it at all, other than we used to make bombs out of this stuff.”<br />-Local Hornchurch resident, Mike Dyer Romford Recorder May 2003.<br />“My feelings are rather strong on this, I think it must be dangerous.”<br />-Local Hornchurch resident, Stephen Kelly, Romford Recorder May 2003.<br />Quotes excepted from Garrity (2004)<br />
  5. 5. Primary Data<br />Collected from PURE Energy Centre Projects<br />
  6. 6. PURE Energy Centre, Baltasound, Unst<br /><ul><li>The PURE Energy Centre is a venture on the northernost Shetland Island of Unst. Established originally as a community venture, the project has since grown into a world-leading consultancy on clean hydrogen.
  7. 7. Island community
  8. 8. Highest Oil Prices in UK
  9. 9. ‘Energy Isolation’ – North Sea Oil currently generates revenue.
  10. 10. Lack of “highly skilled” jobs
  11. 11. Problems retaining young people on the island
  12. 12. Low wages, hard to generate wealth, limited opportunities</li></ul>Two Proven Wind Turbines Produce Renewable Power<br /> This feeds an electrolyser which produces hydrogen.<br /> This hydrogen can be stored, for later use.<br /> An onsite hydrogen fuel cell provides heat and power.<br /> A small fuel cell vehicle can be refuelled using H2<br />
  13. 13. Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre<br />
  14. 14. Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre<br />
  15. 15. Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre<br />
  16. 16. Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre<br />
  17. 17. Shetland, Unst: The Energy Island<br />Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre<br />
  18. 18. Shetland, Unst: The Energy Island<br /><ul><li>Grid Independent Houses
  19. 19. Hydrogen from Renewables
  20. 20. Fuel Cell provides Combined</li></ul> Heat and Power<br />Turbine<br />Houses<br />Image Courtesy: PURE Energy Centre<br />
  21. 21. Hydrogen Office, Methil<br />Energy efficiency<br /><ul><li>Increased insulation
  22. 22. Increased efficient glazing to minimise heat loss and unwanted heat gain
  23. 23. Natural ventilation to remove the need for air conditioning
  24. 24. A layout that maximises natural daylight to minimise the need for artificial lighting
  25. 25. Efficient lighting and control systems
  26. 26. A ground source heat pump, also recovering waste heat from a fuel cell and electrolysis unit, to provide most of the heating and hot water for the building</li></li></ul><li>Environmental Energy Technology Centre<br />The main criteria for the development of EETC are:<br /><ul><li>Iconic building
  27. 27. Use of innovative technology
  28. 28. ‘Zero carbon building’
  29. 29. Iconic Renewable Hydrogen System
  30. 30. Support enterprising and innovation of products
  31. 31. Exploit opportunities arising from low carbon economy</li></li></ul><li>Environmental Energy Technology Centre<br />Electrolyser<br />Fuel Cell<br />Compressor<br />Storage<br />EETC<br />National Grid<br />http://www.hydrogen-yorkshire.co.uk/<br />
  32. 32. Environmental Energy Technology Centre<br />Hydrogen Mini Grid can supply:<br />3 Phase Mains @ 415v<br />Electrical power<br /> -From the On-Site Wind Turbine<br /> -From the National Grid<br /> -From the grid-synchronised fuel cell.<br />Hydrogen Gas @ up to 350bar<br /> -For refuelling hydrogen vehicles<br /> -For refilling hydrogen bottles<br />
  33. 33. Secondary Data<br />Gammon, R., Roy, A., Barton, J., & Little, M., (2006) Hydrogen and Renewables Integration (HARI), Report to the International Energy Agency HIA Task 18, CREST (Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology), Loughborough University, UK<br />
  34. 34. Hydrogen & Renewables Integration Project<br />Gammon, R., (2006) IEA HIA Task 18 Report<br />
  35. 35. Hydrogen & Renewables Integration Project<br />H.A.R.I.<br />Home of Prof. Tony Marmont<br />Autonomous Hydrogen Home<br />Images Courtesy:<br />Rupert Gammon / Tony Marmont<br />
  36. 36. Relevant Safety Information& Legislation<br />
  37. 37. There is not yet a standard for hydrogen installations in the same way that there is the GasSafe (Formerly CORGI) quality mark for domestic and commercial gas installations. The United Kingdom Hydrogen Association is working to address this. <br />Present guidance is taken from the statutory industrial regulations listed below and manufacturers standards, and projects are assessed on a case-by-case basis, this adds significant expense to hydrogen installations due to the extra work of performing due-diligence.<br />Need to move towards a standard that can be assessed by a “competent person”<br />
  38. 38. Companies such as BOC have a long experience of working safely with Hydrogen as an industrial gas.<br />HAZOP Analysis – Hazard and operability studies; are a useful tool in refining process and procedure to ensure safe-working practise.<br />Also consider: Strong alkali which is used in electrolyser systems, its storage and use should be done in accordance with the COSHH regulations.<br /><ul><li>ATEX (Explosive Atmospheres)
  39. 39. COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health)
  40. 40. PED (Pressure Equipment Directive)</li></li></ul><li>Pressure Equipment Directive EU standard<br /><ul><li>The pressure equipment directive covers vessels, piping, valves and associated accessories for safety and managing pressure
  41. 41. For installations running at greater than 0.5bar
  42. 42. The Pure Energy® Centre’s HyPod® running at 38-42 bar as an example, whilst next-generation hydrogen vehicles will require refuelling at between 300-750bar.</li></ul>Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC<br />
  43. 43. ATEX directive<br />Two directives, from the European Union, one which applies to the manufacture of equipment and their associated protective systems for use in explosive environments, and the other which applies to the operation and use of equipment in explosive environment.<br /><ul><li>ATEX 95 equipment directive 94/9/EC, Equipment and protective systems intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres;
  44. 44. ATEX 137 workplace directive 99/92/EC, Minimum requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers potentially at risk from explosive atmospheres.</li></li></ul><li>The BCGA provide guidance on the use of industrial compressed gases (exclusively for UK installations):<br /><ul><li>Code of Practice CP8 Safe Storage of gaseous hydrogen in seamless cylinders and similar containers
  45. 45. Code of Practice CP25 Revalidation of bulk liquid oxygen, nitrogen, argon and hydrogen cryogenic storage tanks.
  46. 46. Code of Practice CP33 The bulk storage of gaseous hydrogen at user premises 2005.</li></ul>Whilst currently not relevant, the regulations pertaining to liquid and cryogenically stored Hydrogen could be important in the future as hydrogen installations evolve.<br />
  47. 47. In addition, the IGC provide the following guidance notes:<br /><ul><li>6/93 Code of Practice: Safety in storage, handling and distribution of liquid hydrogen.
  48. 48. 15/96 Gaseous Hydrogen Stations</li></ul>Whilst the U.S. Compressed Gas Association provide the following:<br /><ul><li>G-5 Hydrogen
  49. 49. G5-4 Standard for Hydrogen Piping at Consumer Locations
  50. 50. G5-5 Hydrogen vent systems</li></ul>Furthermore, the U.S. National Fire Protection Association provide:<br /><ul><li>50A Gaseous hydrogen systems at consumer sites
  51. 51. 50B Liquefied hydrogen systems at consumer sites</li></ul>Until explicit UK guidance is developed, best practice is used from international case studies.<br />
  52. 52. Architectural Detailing<br />
  53. 53. Planning Process<br /><ul><li>Educate the Client
  54. 54. Educate the Planning Officer
  55. 55. Educate the local Fire Service</li></ul>Need for much improved knowledge transfer.<br />
  56. 56. Passive Safety Through Architectural Detailing<br />
  57. 57. Points to Note<br />Individual components work well… “Systems Integration” is the challenge for services engineers.<br />“Packaged” solutions may be an easy route to turn-key adoption (off-site fabrication)<br />More space for servicing may need to be allowed whilst hydrogen technologies are developing.<br />In common with other CHP, size fuel cell to meet maximum heat demand.<br />Consider using with GSHP / Cooling (Tri-Gen)<br />
  58. 58. Points to Note<br />Sub 100kW Fuel Cells Accommodated in 19” Racks.<br />High temperature systems in excess of 200kW will fill a 20’ container with auxiliary devices, safety systems and balance of plant.<br />Clearance at front and rear for access.<br />Consider siting:<br />Electrical cables flowing to and from the fuel cell.<br />Hydrogen supply pipework supplying the fuel cell.<br />An exhaust pipe which will be large diameter and take a similar form to a gas boiler flue.<br />A waste water drain for the exhaust water from the fuel cell.<br />
  59. 59. Points to Note<br />Dry hydrogen through pipes can build up static charge (equipotential bonding as with gas)<br />Consider careful siting of flue to prevent creating an “ATEX Zone” remove sources of ignition.<br />Waste water (very clean can be recycled)<br />Fuel cell outputs D.C. power.<br />
  60. 60. Conclusions<br />“The barriers to this are not technical but mindset, regulatory, political interference and vested interest.”<br />Allan Jones<br />Former Chief Executive Officer<br />London Climate Change Agency Ltd<br />

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