Narrative Therapy


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Narrative Therapy

  1. 1. Narrative Therapy Introduction to Counseling 266
  2. 2. The Narrative <ul><li>Focus of the narrative </li></ul><ul><li>The role of stories </li></ul><ul><li>Listening without judging or blaming </li></ul>
  3. 3. Example: the story of my driving… <ul><li>Dominant Story: A way of understanding a situation that has been so widely excepted that it appears to represent reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, we have many stories occurring at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>The broader social context impacts our stories. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Goals <ul><li>Invite the client to describe their experience in new and fresh language. </li></ul><ul><li>In doing this their client opens up new ideas of what is possible in the future. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Role of the Therapist <ul><li>Active facilitators </li></ul><ul><li>Care, interest, curiosity, openness </li></ul><ul><li>Not-knowing stance </li></ul><ul><li>Main task is to help clients construct a story line </li></ul><ul><li>Client as expert when it comes to what he wants in life </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul>
  6. 6. Techniques and Procedures <ul><li>Questions and more questions </li></ul><ul><li>Externalizing and Deconstructing </li></ul><ul><li>Search for Unique Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Stories and Reauthoring </li></ul><ul><li>Documenting Evidence </li></ul>
  7. 7. Questions and more questions <ul><li>The therapist uses carefully crafted questions and dialogue that help generate new experiences for the client. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions are used to discover the client’s experiences. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Externalizing and Deconstructing <ul><li>“It is not the person that is the problem, but the problem that is the problem” </li></ul><ul><li>Externalizing Conversation : A way of speaking in which the problem may be spoken of as if it were a distinct entity separate from the person. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Search for Unique Outcomes <ul><li>The therapists talks to the client about moments of choice or success regarding the problem. This is done by selecting any experience that stands apart from the problem story </li></ul>
  10. 10. Alternative Stories and Reauthoring <ul><li>The turning point in this therapy is when the client makes the choice to stop living in a problem saturated story and create an alternative story (reauthoring). </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an alternative story. </li></ul><ul><li>Reauthoring occurs either in free flowing conversation or through questioning. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Documenting Evidence <ul><li>Narrative therapists believe new stories take hold when there is an audience to appreciate and support them </li></ul><ul><li>LETTER WRITING </li></ul>
  12. 12. Overview of the Therapeutic Process (O’Hanlon, 1994) <ul><li>Come up with a mutually acceptable name for the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Personify the problem and attribute oppressive intentions to it </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate how the problem has disrupted, dominated, or discouraging the client </li></ul><ul><li>Invite the client to see his story from a different perspective by offering alternative meanings for events. </li></ul><ul><li>Discover moments when the client wasn’t dominated or discouraged by the problem by searching for exceptions to the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Find evidence to bolster a new view of the client as competent enough to have stood up, defeated or escaped the dominance or oppression of the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the client to speculate about what type of future could be expected from the strong competent person that is emerging. </li></ul><ul><li>Find or create an audience for perceiving and supporting the new story. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stories and Therapy <ul><li>We are really worried about Sean because he is stealing and we have tried to stop him but he just won’t. He’s always been a problem child from the time he was little. He didn’t get much attention when he was a small boy because Anne [his mother] was ill. Since then he always gets in trouble at school. He didn’t toilet train himself and is always starting fights with his brothers. Now he’s stealing to get people to notice him. </li></ul>