Application Of NIRS In Feed Industry


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Application Of NIRS In Feed Industry

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a nondestructive and rapid technique applied increasingly for food quality evaluation in recent years. </li></ul><ul><li>The most wide spread use of NIRS has been for the determination of protein, moisture, starch, lipids, ash, oil and Nacl… </li></ul>
  3. 3. NIR Spectra <ul><li>The NIR spectrum extends from ≈ 800nm – 2500nm. </li></ul>Cosmic Gamma X UV IR Micro UHF Short Medium Long Ultra violet Infrared Near Mid Far 1 400 750 2500 16000 1000000 nm Radio Vis
  4. 4. Theory and features of NIR spectra <ul><li>NIR spectroscopy utilizes the spectral range from 780 to 2500 nm and provides much more complex structural information related to the vibration behavior of combinations of bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>The record of NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum involves the response of the molecular bonds O=H, C=H, C=O and N=H. </li></ul><ul><li>These bonds are subject to vibrational energy changes when irradiated by NIR frequencies, and two vibration patterns exist in these bonds including stretch vibration and bent vibration. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cont… <ul><li>The energy absorption of organic molecules in NIR region occurs when molecules vibrate or is translated into an absorption spectrum within the NIR spectrometer. </li></ul><ul><li>These special bonds also play an important part in the field of food chemical analysis, and could extract information to analyze the chemical structures. </li></ul>
  6. 7. The sketch map of NIR spectrometer. 1- light source, 2-beam splitter system, 3-reflector, 4-sample chamber/detector inlet valve, 5-diffuse reflection detector, 6-transmission detector, 7-dcontrol and data processing analyzed system, 8-printer.
  7. 8. Cont… <ul><li>Beam splitter used to translate multi-color light into single-color light. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid samples, such as fruit juice often adopt glass or quartz chamber with different sizes, while solid samples use diffuse reflection carrier accessories. </li></ul><ul><li>Tungsten halogen lamps are used . </li></ul><ul><li>A computer has software for data acquisition, analysis control communication and numerical analysis within the spectrometer system. </li></ul><ul><li>The selection of wavelength regions, solution, scan speed, number, mode and sampling interval would influence the precision and repetition of the experiment. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy and Its Application <ul><li>Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology is widely used for a vast number of applications, including in feed industries, textile industries, medical and pharmaceutical advances and agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>The most wide spread use of NIRS has been for the determination of protein, moisture, starch, lipids and ash in feed ingredients. </li></ul><ul><li>NIRS has been accepted as an official AOAC method for crude protein and ADF and for moisture. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Cont… <ul><li>It has also been used for determining starch and non-starch polysaccharides , fat and oil , metabolizable energy , insect or weed seed contamination in feed grains and for the analysis of dried forages . </li></ul><ul><li>It can be used to identify feeds and perform authenticity checks. In addition, heat damaged protein , fungal contamination and adulteration can be detected with modern pattern recognition Software. </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate aim is to formulate diets for optimum animal productivity , cost effectiveness and the least environmental effects. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Calibration Procedures <ul><li>Calibrations are based on the statistical analysis, termed “chemometrics” of the relationship between mathematically transformed spectra and the frequency of chemical bonds in an organic matrix. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative analysis by NIRS is based on the Beer-Lambert Law (Crooks 1978). Beer’s law states that log (1/R) is proportional to the concentration of the chemical bond absorbing the NIRS energy </li></ul><ul><li>As a result the degree of absorbance can be used to determine the concentration of those molecules present in the samples. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Cont… <ul><li>For calibration various statistical models including, Principal Component Regression Multiple Linear Regression and Partial Least Square Regression can be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Each statistical model allows exploration of relationships of reflectance/absorption values of diverse sets of chemical bonds in the dried/wet sample and wet chemistry values of samples. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Fishmeal industry…. <ul><li>The assessment of the chemical composition of fishmeal by NIRS. </li></ul><ul><li>-predicting moisture (M), </li></ul><ul><li>-oil, </li></ul><ul><li>-crude protein (CP), </li></ul><ul><li>-ash, </li></ul><ul><li>-salt as NaCl, </li></ul><ul><li>-total volatile </li></ul><ul><li>-nitrogen (TVN) </li></ul><ul><li>-and buffer capacity in fishmeal. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Other applications… <ul><li>NIRS also used to predict </li></ul><ul><li>-the amino acid composition </li></ul><ul><li>-lysine availability </li></ul><ul><li>-protein denaturaton </li></ul><ul><li>-contamination of mammalian meat and bone meal in feed - risk of BSE and vCJD </li></ul><ul><li>-biogenic amine </li></ul><ul><li>-grain quality in storage </li></ul><ul><li>- soil qualities such as organic carbon, total nitrogen & micro elements. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Advantages of NIRS <ul><li>• Rapid, as minimal or no sample preparation necessary </li></ul><ul><li>• On-the-spot analysis of the whole sample, i.e. a non-destructive technique, allows simultaneous measurement of several parameters </li></ul><ul><li>• High precision </li></ul><ul><li>• High throughput makes NIR a cheap technique on a sample basis </li></ul><ul><li>• Environmentally friendly </li></ul><ul><li>● no reagents, no chemical waste. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Limitations of NIRS <ul><li>• Suitable for major feed components, not for minor components </li></ul><ul><li>• Great care needed in developing calibrations as these are matrix specific </li></ul><ul><li>• Complexity in choice of data treatment is confusing for the novice. </li></ul><ul><li>• Calibration procedures are time consuming and only worthwhile for subsequent analysis of large sample numbers </li></ul><ul><li>• High instrument costs. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>In the light of the present situation of competitivity in the feed industry, any change from the classical strategy of obtaining information on nutritional value could represent a differential market position. </li></ul><ul><li>NlRS could bridge the gap between advanced nutritional scientific knowledge generated and application to practical feed formulation and rationing. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>QUERIES ? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>