Marine ecosystem based management


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  • Marine ecosystem based management

    1. 1. Marine Ecosystem–Based Management (EBM):<br />Contribution of Marine Biology for a Sustainable Future – Session 4<br />Mark Zacharias<br />Associate Adjunct Professor, <br />Department of Geography <br />University of Victoria<br />Assistant Deputy Minister, <br />Ministry of Agriculture and Lands<br />Province of British Columbia<br /> Diane Rome Peebles<br />
    2. 2. My talk today<br />The Contribution of Marine Biology for a Sustainable Future – Session 4<br /><ul><li>Brief history of marine management from land/sea tenure systems to modern international agreements
    3. 3. What is marine EBM and where did it come from?
    4. 4. Steps to undertake successful marine EBM
    5. 5. International applications of marine EBM
    6. 6. A critique on marine EBM</li></li></ul><li>Marine EBM : A personal perspective<br />
    7. 7. Marine EBM : A personal perspective<br />
    8. 8. Marine EBM : A personal perspective<br /><ul><li>Clean Energy;
    9. 9. Regional transportation;
    10. 10. Innovation, research and development;
    11. 11. Enhancing a sustainable regional economy, especially with respect to environmental good and services;
    12. 12. Emergency management</li></ul>Pacific Coast Collaborative<br />
    13. 13. Marine EBM : A manager’s perspective<br /><ul><li>What really is marine EBM?
    14. 14. Is it really different from status quo management?
    15. 15. How should it be properly applied?
    16. 16. How do I ensure EBM plans are implemented?
    17. 17. Is marine EBM good value for money?</li></ul>Adaptive environmental assessment and management<br />Ecosystem-based management<br />Coastal zone management<br />Adaptive management<br />Integrated coastal zone management<br />Ecosystem approaches<br />Integrated ecosystem-based management<br />Ecologically sustainable development<br />Integrated management<br />Sustainable development<br />Environmental management systems<br />Integrated oceans management<br />Ecosystem approaches to fisheries<br />Ecosystem-based fisheries management<br />1970s<br />1980s<br />1990s<br />2000s<br />
    18. 18.
    19. 19. 1. Significant interest in the topic<br />2. Some jurisdictions have EBM legislation<br />3. Long application of EBM concepts in international law<br />4. EBM in many instances simply improved fisheries management<br />5. No single guide to marine EBM<br />6. EBM being applied in dozens of countries<br />
    20. 20.
    21. 21.
    22. 22. Setting the context for marine EBM<br />200 Years<br />Ocean resources are inexhaustible<br />1760<br />Key fisheries are inexhaustible.<br />1860<br />1960<br />Major fish populations decline;<br />Traditional fishing communities breakdown; Ecosystems deteriorate.<br />Christensen et al. (2007)<br />
    23. 23. Setting the context for marine EBM<br />Industrialized Fishing Fleets<br />Global Catch Since 1950<br />Catch (million tonnes)<br />Adapted : Christensen et al.,2008<br />
    24. 24. Setting the context for marine EBM<br /><ul><li>Artificial radionuclides
    25. 25. Petroleum hydrocarbons
    26. 26. Chlorinated hydrocarbons
    27. 27. Metals
    28. 28. Organotin
    29. 29. Carcinogens
    30. 30. Mutagens
    31. 31. Pesticides
    32. 32. Endocrine disrupters
    33. 33. Acidification
    34. 34. Eutrophication
    35. 35. Disease
    36. 36. Visual
    37. 37. Plastic
    38. 38. Sewage
    39. 39. Garbage</li></ul>Pollution<br /><ul><li>Light
    40. 40. Noise
    41. 41. Thermal
    42. 42. Invasive species</li></ul>Pollution and contaminants<br />
    43. 43. Setting the context for marine EBM<br />Habitat Loss<br />Other biotic communities<br />Mud flats and estuaries<br />Beaches <br />Dredging, dumping.<br />Kelp <br />Mangroves <br />Sea grasses <br />Corals <br />
    44. 44. How we use marine environments<br /> Biological resource harvesting<br /> Mineral and energy extraction<br /> Waste disposal<br /> Biological resource cultivation<br /> Transportation and communication<br /> National defence and marine safety<br /> Urban development<br /> Tourism and recreation<br />
    45. 45. What is Ecosystem-Based Management?<br />Puako Bay and Reef<br />Land & Sea <br />Tenure 1886<br />Hawaii<br />Ahupua’a<br />Vertical land-to-sea management units<br />Juvik et al. 2008, Mueller-Dombois and Wirawan (2005)<br />
    46. 46. Pre 1886 Hawaiian management<br />Puako Bay & Reef<br />Ahupua’a<br />Juvik et al. 2008, Mueller-Dombois and Wirawan (2005)<br />
    47. 47. Pre 1886 Hawaiian management<br /><ul><li>Closed areas
    48. 48. Closed seasons or bans while spawning
    49. 49. Letting some fish escape (MSY)
    50. 50. Holding excess catch in enclosures until needed
    51. 51. Ban on taking small individuals
    52. 52. Use of lagoons when reefs too rough
    53. 53. Restrictions on taking seabirds or their eggs
    54. 54. Restrictions on the number of fish traps in an area
    55. 55. Bans on taking turtle eggs
    56. 56. Bans on taking turtles on the beach</li></ul>1. Lagoon/reef tenure<br />2. Superstition/myth<br />Juvik et al. 2008, Mueller-Dombois and Wirawan (2005)<br />
    57. 57. Modern marine management<br />Hugo Grotius<br />Mare Liberum (1609) <br />John Selden <br />Mare clausum (1635)<br />Cornelius van Bynkershoek<br />De dominiomaris (1702)<br />The “cannon shot rule”<br />
    58. 58. The ‘Common Property’ Rubric<br />Tragedies<br />Comedies<br />Local ‘private fish property’ wars<br />Commoners lose access to the commons<br />Policy speaks for the fishers & Science speaks for the fish<br />e.g., Chesapeake Bay oysters, 1900, Maryland, USA<br />Unregulated exploitation <br />Over-capitalization <br />Resource misappropriation<br />e.g., American lobster , 1895, <br /> New England, USA<br />Kennedy and Breisch (1983)<br />
    59. 59. Single-Species Management<br />Northern Shrimp<br />All too common…<br />Declining populations<br />Idoine (2006)<br />
    60. 60. Multi-Species Management<br />The Northeast Multi-Species Groundfish Fishery<br />1. Minimum fish sizes by species<br />2. Closed areas<br />3. Protect spawning areas<br />Mayo and O’Brien (2006)<br />
    61. 61. Limitations to current approaches<br />Fragmented ocean governance<br />Maintaining ecosystem elements<br />Managing diverse impacts<br />Lack of recognition of connections between:<br />Ecosystem structure, functioning and services<br />Land and the sea<br />Marine habitats<br />Species <br />Diverse stressor<br />Knowledge and uncertainty<br />Guerry 2005<br />
    62. 62. What is marine EBM?<br />An integrated approach to management that considers the entire ecosystem, including humans with the goal to maintain an ecosystem in a healthy, productive, and resilient condition so that it can provide the services we want and need.<br />Compass 2005<br />
    63. 63. P<br />Perspectives on marine EBM (1)<br />Ecological Society of America elements of marine EBM<br /><ul><li>Humans as ecosystem components
    64. 64. Sustainability
    65. 65. Goals
    66. 66. Sound ecological models and understanding
    67. 67. Complexity and connectedness
    68. 68. Dynamic character of ecosystems
    69. 69. Context and scale
    70. 70. Adaptability and accountability</li></ul>Christensen et al. 1996<br />
    71. 71. P<br />Perspectives on marine EBM (2)<br />Reykjavik Declaration of Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem<br /><ul><li>Fisheries should be managed to limit the impacts on the ecosystem to the extent possible
    72. 72. Ecological relationships between harvested, dependent and associated species should be maintained
    73. 73. Management should involve cross jurisdictional arrangements if required
    74. 74. A precautionary approach should be adopted
    75. 75. Governance arrangements should ensure ecosystem well-being and equity</li></ul>FAO 2001<br />
    76. 76. P<br />Perspectives on marine EBM (3)<br />World Wildlife Fund elements of EBM<br /><ul><li>Maintain natural structure and function of ecosystems
    77. 77. Recognize that human uses and values are central to ecosystem management
    78. 78. Base management on a shared vision of stakeholders
    79. 79. Appreciate that all ecosystems are dynamic
    80. 80. Require a commitment of performance monitoring and management</li></ul>WWF 2002<br />
    81. 81. P<br />Perspectives on marine EBM (4)<br />Pikitch et al. (2004)<br /><ul><li>EBM is a reversing the order of management priorities to start with the ecosystem rather than the target species
    82. 82. Overall objective is to sustain healthy marine ecosystems and the fisheries they support. </li></ul>Guerry 2005<br /><ul><li>EBM is about perceiving the big picture, recognizing connections and striving to maintain elements of ecosystems</li></li></ul><li>Where has EBM come from? (1)<br />CLOS—UN Law of the Sea (1982); STRAD—UN Agreement on Straddling Stocks (1995), SCK’72—Stockholm Declaration (1972); RIO—Rio Declaration (1992); A21—Agenda 21 (1992); COP—Decisions of Conference of the Parties (CBD) (1992–2003), WSSD—World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002); CODE—FAO Code of Conduct (1995); REY—FAO Reykjavik Declaration (2001)<br />Turrell et al. , 2004<br />
    83. 83. Where has EBM come from? (2)<br />CLOS—UN Law of the Sea; STRAD—UN Agreement on Straddling Stocks ;SCK’72—Stockholm Declaration; RIO—Rio Declaration;A21—Agenda 21 COP—Decisions of Conference of the Parties; WSSD—World Summit on Sustainable Development; CODE—FAO Code of Conduct REY—FAO Reykjavik Declaration<br />Turrell et al. , 2004<br />
    84. 84. Where has EBM come from? (3)<br />CLOS—UN Law of the Sea; STRAD—UN Agreement on Straddling Stocks ;SCK’72—Stockholm Declaration; RIO—Rio Declaration;A21—Agenda 21 COP—Decisions of Conference of the Parties; WSSD—World Summit on Sustainable Development; CODE—FAO Code of Conduct REY—FAO Reykjavik Declaration<br />Turrell et al. , 2004<br />
    85. 85. Where has EBM come from? (4)<br />CLOS—UN Law of the Sea; STRAD—UN Agreement on Straddling Stocks ;SCK’72—Stockholm Declaration; RIO—Rio Declaration;A21—Agenda 21 COP—Decisions of Conference of the Parties; WSSD—World Summit on Sustainable Development; CODE—FAO Code of Conduct REY—FAO Reykjavik Declaration<br />Turrell et al. , 2004<br />
    86. 86. Which way lies successful EBM?<br />Step 1: Develop a common information base<br />Harmonize mapping of seacapes at a useful scale<br />Improve inventories of biodiversity<br />Monitor ecosystem services<br />Information categories<br />Oceanographic data<br />Physiographic data<br />Biological data<br />Human use data<br />
    87. 87. Which way lies successful EBM?<br />Step 2: Describe and understand the system<br />Ecosystem classifications<br />Food web models<br />Oceanographic and dispersal models<br />Habitat suitability models<br />Socioeconomic models<br />Sample Ecosystem Classification<br />I. Marine regime<br /> II. Broad-scale ecosystems<br /> III. Structural geoforms/hydroforms<br /> IV. Vertical zone (benthic, pelagic)<br /> V. Macrohabitat (spatial/temporal)<br /> VI. Fine-scale habitats<br /> VII. Biotope (biosystems)<br />
    88. 88. Which way lies successful EBM?<br />Step 3: Risk assessment<br />Determine what ecosystems are at the greatest risk and the ecosystem services they provide<br />Ecosystem services<br />Provisioning services that produce goods, such as food and fresh water<br />Regulating services that modulate ecosystem processes, such as disease control and climate regulation<br />Cultural services that provide nonmaterial benefits, such as education and recreation<br />Supporting services, such as nutrient cycling and primary production that are necessary for the generation of all other ecosystem services<br />Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005)<br />
    89. 89. Which way lies successful EBM?<br />Step 4: Priority setting / identifying objectives<br />Statement of the overarching aims and intended products from the effort<br />SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timely)<br />Commercial fish species<br />Marine mammals<br />Seabirds<br />Fish communities<br />Benthic communities<br />Plankton communities<br />Threatened or declining species<br />Eutrophication<br />
    90. 90. Which way lies successful EBM?<br />Step 5: Select targets (goals) for objectives<br />Determine the amount (abundance, area) of targets required to meet objectives<br />Can be tied to socio-economic goals in terms of area (tourism, fishing, development) and abundance (ecosystem services, fisheries)<br />Example targets<br />100% of Hawksbill turtle nesting sites<br />30% of coral reef area<br />&lt; 100 ng /l TBT<br />&lt; 5mg Chl -a / m3<br />&lt; 10,000 kg landings per day<br />
    91. 91. Which way lies successful EBM?<br />Step 6: Identify strategies to meet objectives<br />Zone-based (place-based) management<br />Fishery ecosystem plans for each zone<br />Alternative marine governance systems<br />Eco-certification<br />Rights based fishery management<br />Burden of proof<br />Precautionary principle<br />Education and outreach<br />Legislation and policy<br />Technological solutions <br />
    92. 92. Which way lies successful EBM?<br />Step 7: Monitoring and adaptive management<br />Implementation monitoring whether strategies are implemented<br />Compliance monitoring whether strategies are being followed<br />Effectiveness monitoring as to whether strategies are meeting targets<br />Revision of strategies and targets if necessary<br />
    93. 93. South Florida Ecosystem <br />Restoration Task Force<br />Western Everglades:<br />The Big Cypress located on Shoshone Tribal Land abuts striking Everglades conversion for agriculture & livestock.<br />Eastern Everglades:<br />The Loxahatchee Canal passes through the impounded north-eastern Everglades, carrying water from Lake Okeechobee to row-crop agriculture and development in West Palm Beach.<br />
    94. 94. South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force<br />Divide watersheds into eco-units<br />A conceptual ecological model developed for each eco-unit<br />Identify key environmental factors that must be maintained or restored in each eco-unit<br />Determine what flow are require d to maintain objectives in eco-unit<br />Marathon, The Florida Keys<br /><ul><li> Scientists talk to each other
    95. 95. Agencies cooperate
    96. 96. Science introduced into the policy arena
    97. 97. Identified the problem (QQTD)
    98. 98. Managers and scientists speak the same language
    99. 99. Federal cost sharing legislation</li></li></ul><li>Conclusions and final thoughts<br />Policy makers dictate EBM but currently EBM doesn’t dictate policy<br />Marine EBM needs a single, agreed-upon definition<br />EBM still a catch-all term for multi-species management in many jurisdictions<br />EBM is ‘tools-rich’ but ‘solutions-poor’<br />No single EBM handbook<br />EBM or EBM-like principles will soon preface all human management in the natural world<br />Marine biologists are central in the successful implementation of marine EBM<br />
    100. 100. Thank you<br />Dr. Mark Zacharias<br />Nancy Wright<br />Research & Design<br /> Diane Rome Peebles<br />