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  1. 1. Universal Design for Assessment (UDA) Presented by Anitra Butler, Associate Professor Teacher Education Prince George’s Community College
  2. 2. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) <ul><li>Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework for removing barriers by anticipating the needs of all learners. UDL strategies are frontloaded rather than retrofitted. </li></ul>
  3. 3. UD illustrated
  4. 4. Learning is not ONE thing <ul><li>Learning… </li></ul><ul><li>differs across tasks </li></ul><ul><li>differs within tasks </li></ul><ul><li>differs across individuals </li></ul><ul><li>differs within individuals </li></ul>
  5. 5. UDL <ul><li>Universal = Everybody </li></ul><ul><li>Design = Multiple means of representation </li></ul><ul><li>Learning = Not one thing </li></ul><ul><li>UDL is less likely to marginalize learners </li></ul><ul><li>UDL gets all learners into the “zone”… The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Universal Design (UD) <ul><li>“Universal Design is a conceptual extension of historical mandates calling for equal access to environments for people with disabilities”—American with Disabilities Act of 1990. </li></ul><ul><li>UD seeks to integrate high-access features into environments from the beginning. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Environment <ul><li>The structure and format of an environment influences the quality and quantity of user interactions. </li></ul><ul><li>UD is based on the premise that environmental features combine with personal characteristics to influence the success of user interactions. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Elements of the Environment <ul><li>Directions for the users </li></ul><ul><li>Layout of information or material </li></ul><ul><li>Physical operation of the equipment (such as calculators, computers, or scientific tools) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Student attributes <ul><li>Learner attributes influence the scope of the environmental interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological and physical characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual preferences </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. UD applied to learning <ul><li>Universal design has been pushed beyond the physical classrooms and institutional environments and into cognitive learning spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate intention of UD in education is to provide an equitable learning environment that is accessible by all learners to the greatest extent possible. </li></ul>
  11. 11. UD applied to learning <ul><li>UD leads to the co-construction of the learning environment and the learning experience. </li></ul><ul><li>The learner and the instructor designs the course together using the course learning outcomes as a guide. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Demonstrating Knowledge Acquistion <ul><li>Learners with deficiencies in access skills may be unable to demonstrate their knowledge and abilities in the tested domain. </li></ul><ul><li>These deficiencies include limited reading skills, limited linguistic skills, or cognitive deficiencies. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Universal Design for Assessment (UDA) <ul><li>Learners with various access deficiencies may not be able to demonstrate their knowledge in traditional paper and pencil assessments. </li></ul><ul><li>UDA seeks to remove barriers that inhibit understanding or expression of domain-specific knowledge. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Universal Design for Assessment (UDA) <ul><li>UDA calls for testing what is important, not what is easy. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Course learning outcomes <ul><li>The outcomes of the course is used to measure learning acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions to consider… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What tools will assist the learner in acquiring the content? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can all learners have access to the content (i.e., access text, access key points within a presentation, access course room materials, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Course learning outcomes <ul><li>Questions to consider continued… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can learners best demonstrate their knowledge and abilities in the tested domain? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can I make the assessment accessible? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This means no “gotchas” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This means no “pop quizzes” or unannounced exams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This means aligning presentations, lectures, and assignments with the assessment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Web-based Tools (Wb-T) <ul><li>Wb-T are used to design, author, deliver, and manage web-based learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Wb-T allow alternate ways to express and assess learning (e.g., blogs, podcast assessments, study guides, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital media supports a wide-range of learners. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Web-based Tools (Wb-T) <ul><li>Wb-T offers flexible platforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital media provides multiple ways to represent something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital platforms allow learners to personalize learning </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Web-based tools (Wb-T) <ul><li>Computer-based technology presents an efficient tool for customizing assessments to meet individual needs within a universally designed environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Computerized tests administer items to the learner through an interactive computer environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Item format can vary from static representation of the problem to different multimedia presentations </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Wb-T for Authoring (brief list) <ul><li>Captivate Adobe   Adobe Captivate software enables anyone to rapidly create powerful and engaging simulations, software demonstrations, and scenario-based training without programming knowledge or multimedia skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Dreamweaver Adobe   Dreamweaver is an integrated development environment for ColdFusion, HTML, XHTML, ASP, Microsoft ASP.NET, JSP, and PHP websites. Dreamweaver supports today's web technologies and standards, including accessibility and web services. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Wb-T for Authoring (brief list) <ul><li>Flash Adobe   Flash is the fastest way to create Internet content and applications for rich user interfaces, online advertising, eLearning courses and enterprise application front-ends. </li></ul><ul><li>LearningAgents   LearningAgents enable organizations to personalize their training and corporate messages. Almost zero programming is required to have the LearningAgent walk and talk your users through courseware or web sites. </li></ul><ul><li>MOODLE   Moodle is a course management system (CMS) - a free, Open Source software package designed using sound pedagogical principles, to help educators create effective online learning communities. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Wb-T for Design <ul><li>courseWriter 2.5 is a computer application for Windows 9x/NT compatible computers. It provides reinforcement of instructional design skills taught in all the DSA workshops and speeds up the process of producing training modules. </li></ul><ul><li>Designer's Edge Allen Communication   Designer's Edge is a revolutionary set of integrated pre-authoring toolsets and wizards, built by instructional experts to accelerate the analysis, design, and evaluation of effective technology-based training. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Wb-T for Live Broadcast (brief list) <ul><li>Acrobat Connect Adobe   A complete web conferencing and training solution with no software downloads for participants. Instant availability and highly-customizable meeting, training, and presentation tool. </li></ul><ul><li>LearnLinc Allen Communication   LearnLinc is a live virtual classroom environment that enables corporations to deliver live e-Learning courseware to employees or students via the Internet, corporate intranet, or wide area network. </li></ul><ul><li>Lotus Virtual Classroom IBM   This powerful new virtual classroom solution enables customers to quickly and easily develop and deliver just-in-time training to their audiences - anywhere, anytime. </li></ul><ul><li>Web Crossing Web Crossing   Web Crossing is a collaboration server platform offering discussion groups/bulletin boards, integrated newsgroups and mailing lists, full email services, calendar services, real-time chats, live events and full web application programming features. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>In Kirkpatrick's four-level model, each successive evaluation level is built on information provided by the lower level. </li></ul><ul><li>ASSESSING TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS often entails using the four-level model developed by Donald Kirkpatrick (1994) . According to this model, evaluation should always begin with level one, and then, as time and budget allows, should move sequentially through levels two, three, and four. Information from each prior level serves as a base for the next level's evaluation. Thus, each successive level represents a more precise measure of the effectiveness of the training program, but at the same time requires a more rigorous and time-consuming analysis. </li></ul>Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Evaluation
  25. 26. Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Evaluation
  26. 27. Kirkpatrick’s Level 1 <ul><li>Level 1 Evaluation - Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation at this level measures how participants in a training program react to it. It attempts to answer questions regarding the participants' perceptions – Do participants like the organization of the course thus far? Is the material relevant to their work or their interests? </li></ul><ul><li>This type of evaluation is often called a “smilesheet.” According to Kirkpatrick, every program should at least be evaluated at this level to provide for the improvement of a training program. In addition, the participants' reactions have important consequences for learning. Although a positive reaction does not guarantee learning, a negative reaction almost certainly reduces its possibility. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Kirkpatrick’s Level 1 <ul><li>Learners can indicate their preference for content/assessment scheduling, content/assessment setting, content/assessment presentation and the media of response for assessment purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>On the first level of Kirkpatrick’s evaluative process, it is fine to ask learners how they learn best. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Class Profile Matrix <ul><li>Based on the responses received from the learner’s reactions to a level one assessment, a class profile matrix can be developed that will assist the creation of an accessible course room. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Kirkpatrick’s Level 2 <ul><li>Level 2 Evaluation - Learning </li></ul><ul><li>To assess the amount of learning that has occurred due to a training program, level two evaluations often use tests conducted before training (pretest) and after training (post test). </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing at this level moves the evaluation beyond learner satisfaction and attempts to assess the extent students have advanced in skills, knowledge, or attitude. Measurement at this level is more difficult and laborious than level one. Methods range from formal to informal testing to team assessment and self-assessment. If possible, participants take the test or assessment before the training (pretest) and after training (post test) to determine the amount of learning that has occurred. </li></ul>
  30. 31. In sum… <ul><li>Environmental demands + learner = a learning deficiency when the learner is not able to meet the course demands. </li></ul><ul><li>UDL provides the learners with strategies and accommodations that support access to the content. </li></ul><ul><li>Paper and pencil tests limit knowledge expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself, what other mediums can be utilized to assess knowledge acquistion. </li></ul>
  31. 32. References: <ul><li>Ketterlin-Geller, L. R. (2005). Knowing what all students know: Procedures for developing universal design for assessment. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4, (2). Available from </li></ul>
  32. 33. References: <ul><li>Kirkpatrick, D. L., & Kirkpatrick, J. D. (2006). Evaluation training programs . San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publisher, Inc. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Questions?