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Singular Plurals Articles


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Singular Plurals Articles

  1. 1. Plurals, Articles, There + Be By Prof. Rinkerman
  2. 2. Plurals <ul><li>A popular song says: </li></ul><ul><li>… If the plural of tooth is teeth, shouldn't the plural of booth be beeth? It's one goose, two geese. Why not one moose, two meese? If it's one index, two indices; why not one Kleenex,two Kleenices? English is cuh-ray-zee! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Regular – Spelling Rules <ul><li>Most nouns – Just add “ s ” </li></ul><ul><li>Example: banana – banana s </li></ul><ul><li>bed – bed s </li></ul><ul><li>Noun ends in “ss” “sh” “ch” “x” – add “ es ” </li></ul><ul><li>Example: class – class es </li></ul><ul><li>box – box es </li></ul><ul><li>church – church es </li></ul><ul><li>dish - dish es </li></ul>
  4. 4. Regular – Spelling Rules <ul><li>Noun ends vowel + y – just add “ s ” </li></ul><ul><li>Example: boy – boy s </li></ul><ul><li>monkey – monkey s </li></ul><ul><li>Noun ends consonant + y – change y to “i” and add “ es ” </li></ul><ul><li>Example: lady – lad ies </li></ul><ul><li>story – stor ies </li></ul><ul><li>memory - memor ies </li></ul>
  5. 5. Regular – Spelling Rules <ul><li>Noun ends vowel + o – just add “ s ” </li></ul><ul><li>Example: radio – radio s </li></ul><ul><li>patio – patio s </li></ul><ul><li>Noun ends consonant + o – add “es” </li></ul><ul><li>Example: mosquito – mosquito es </li></ul><ul><li>tomato – tomato es </li></ul><ul><li>potato – potato es </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions! Piano – piano s </li></ul><ul><li>auto - auto s </li></ul>
  6. 6. Regular – Spelling Rules <ul><li>Noun ends in f or fe – change f to v and add “ es ” </li></ul><ul><li>Example: knife – kni ves </li></ul><ul><li>leaf – lea ves </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptions! </li></ul><ul><li>roof – roof s </li></ul><ul><li>chef – chef s </li></ul><ul><li>chief - chief s </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pronunciation <ul><li>After voiceless sounds – /s/ </li></ul><ul><li>Example: lip – lips </li></ul><ul><li>rock – rocks </li></ul><ul><li>After voiced sounds - /z/ </li></ul><ul><li>Example: bag – bags </li></ul><ul><li>can – cans </li></ul><ul><li>After “ss” “sh” “ch” or x - /ez/ </li></ul><ul><li>Example: dish – dishes </li></ul><ul><li>beach – beaches </li></ul><ul><li>tax - taxes </li></ul>
  8. 8. Irregular Plurals <ul><li>Vowel change </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Man men </li></ul><ul><li>Woman women </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse mice </li></ul><ul><li>No change </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep sheep </li></ul><ul><li>Fish fish </li></ul>
  9. 9. Irregular Plurals <ul><li>Different word form </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Child – children </li></ul><ul><li>Person – people (or persons) </li></ul><ul><li>No singular form </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Pajamas, clothes, pants, scissor, (eye)glasses </li></ul>
  10. 10. Articles – Indefinite <ul><li>A – An </li></ul><ul><li>To make generalizations: </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>A house is expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>A child needs love. </li></ul><ul><li>To speak about a noun FOR THE FIRST TIME </li></ul><ul><li>Example: I went to a party yesterday. The party was at Miryam’s house. </li></ul><ul><li>Use before a Singular COUNT noun </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Paterson is a big city. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Definite Article: THE <ul><li>Use it with singular or plural nouns: </li></ul><ul><li>Example: the White House / the white houses </li></ul><ul><li>Use THE when the noun is identified before: </li></ul><ul><li>Example: I went to a party yesterday. The party was at Miryam’s house. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use THE with a noun used in a general way: </li></ul><ul><li>Example: People must have food and water. </li></ul><ul><li> Pedro is studying history </li></ul><ul><li>Use THE with a general noun if a phrase identifies it: </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The people in my class are interesting. </li></ul><ul><li> Pedro is studying the history of South America </li></ul>
  12. 12. Piano Man     By Billy Joel It's nine o'clock on _______ Saturday _______ regular crowd shuffles in There's ________ old man sitting next to me Making love to his tonic and gin He says, &quot;Son can you play me ________ memory I'm not really sure how it goes But it's sad and it sweet and I knew it complete When I wore _________ younger man's clothes&quot;
  13. 13. Piano Man {Bridge} La la-la di-di da La-la di-di da, da dum Sing us ________ song, you're ________ piano man Sing us ________ song tonight Well, we're all in ________ mood for _______ melody And you've got us feeling all right
  14. 14. Piano Man Now John at _________ bar is ________ friend of mine He gets me my drinks for free And he's a quick with a joke or a light up your smoke But there's someplace that he'd rather be He says &quot;Bill, I believe this is killing me&quot; As the smile ran away from his face &quot;Well I'm sure that I could be ______ movie star If I could get out of this place&quot;
  15. 15. Piano Man Now Paul is _______ real estate novelist Who never had time for __________ wife And he's talking with Davey who's still in _______ Navy And probably will be for life And _________ waitress is practicing politics As __________ businessmen slowly get stoned Yes they're sharing a drink they call loneliness But it's better than drinking alone
  16. 16. Piano Man It's _________ pretty good crowd for ______ Saturday And ________ manager gives me _______ smile 'Cause he knows that it's me they've been coming to see To forget about life for awhile And _________ piano sounds like ______ carnival And ________ microphone smells like ______ beer And they sit at ______ bar and put bread in my jar And say &quot;Man, what are you doing here?&quot;