
Be the first to like this
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy.
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details.
Published on
Leveraged and inverse ETFs seek a daily return equal to a multiple of an index' return, an objective that requires continuous portfolio rebalancing. The resulting trading costs create a tradeoff between tracking error, which controls the shortterm correlation with the index, and excess return (or tracking difference)  the longterm deviation from the levered index' performance. With proportional trading costs, the optimal replication policy is robust to the index' dynamics. A summary of a fund's performance is the \emph{implied spread}, equal to the product of tracking error and excess return, rescaled for leverage and average volatility. The implies spread is insensitive to the benchmark's risk premium, and offers a tool to compare the performance of funds on the same benchmark, but with different multiples and tracking errors.
Be the first to like this
Be the first to comment