EDUG 525 - Final Presentation - Motivation and engagement lesson


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EDUG 525 - Final Presentation - Motivation and engagement lesson

  1. 1. Chapter 10 By: Melisa Ledesma and Meghan Carlson
  2. 2. Engagement and Motivation <ul><li>Theories of motivation and engagement from psychology and education inform us about classroom structures and teacher behaviors that enhance motivation and engagement. </li></ul><ul><li>These theories compliment the basic tenets of the circle of courage. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Engagement <ul><li>Behavioral engagement refers to participation in academic and social activities including extracurricular activities. It is related to conduct and on-task behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional engagement refers to positive and negative reactions to teachers, peers, school, and academic subjects. It is related to student interest, attitudes and values. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive engagement encompasses the idea of investment or willingness to exert effort and is related to motivational goals. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Motivation <ul><li>Extrinsic motivation refers to a learners desire to complete a task or master a skill for the sake of an external reward, whether tangible or intangible. </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivation refers to the drive to accomplish a task or master a skill for reasons internal to the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities should: </li></ul><ul><li>Have students work on projects that allow them to see how the information is relevant to their lives. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Prominent Motivational Theories <ul><li>Goal theory tells us that the behavior, motivation, and engagement of a learner are influenced by the types of goals that he or she adopts in the learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>The are two types of goals that students can have: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Goal (Mastery) Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Goal Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies should: </li></ul><ul><li>Present learners with problems to solve and work backwards toward an explanation of what can provide the desired result. This enables adults to take charge of their learning </li></ul>
  6. 6. Prominent Motivational Theories cont. <ul><li>Expectancy – Value Theory tells us that learner motivation is a product of their personal expectation of success. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a high value or interest for learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage learners to have a high expectation that they can be successful but be challenged at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate relevance and real-world connections </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Prominent Motivational Theories cont. <ul><li>Self-Efficacy Theory suggests motivation is mediated by ones sense of efficacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners have beliefs about their competence, and those beliefs determine the amount of effort that a learner will extend. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies should: </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on individual improvement, progress, and mastery </li></ul><ul><li>Make evaluation private, not public </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize students' effort </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage view of mistakes as part of learning </li></ul>
  8. 8. Prominent Motivational Theories cont. <ul><li>Attribution Theory suggests that individual motivation is affected by the amount of effort and the ability level of a student </li></ul><ul><li>Learners who attribute success to effort and ability will more likely persist on subsequent task. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Prominent Motivational Theories cont. <ul><li>Self-Determination Theory states learners are most motivated when the basic psychological needs of belonging, competence, and autonomy are met. </li></ul><ul><li>This theory links very closely with the Circle of Courage addressing three of its basic tenets: belonging, independence and mastery. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies should: </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing students to participate in determining what the class rules, consequences, and expectations might be </li></ul><ul><li>Providing opportunities for students practice self-assessment </li></ul>
  10. 10. Prominent Motivational Theories cont. <ul><li>Behavioral Theory says that the amount of correct academic responses and appropriate learning behaviors can be increased through the use of positive consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful strategy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use incentive systems for academic work and appropriate learning work. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Applying theories of Engagement and Motivation <ul><li>Cues about learning goals </li></ul><ul><li>Develop learning with students in conjunction with school curricular requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Completing KWL (Know, Want, Learn) chart and KWHL (Know, Want, How, and Learn) </li></ul><ul><li>example: Charts (Exhibit 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Hold individual conferences with students on a regular basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask students what they learned when reviewing for the day. </li></ul><ul><li>example: Exit Slips (Exhibit 2) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Applying theories of Engagement and Motivation <ul><li>Help students develop learning goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They should : </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be specific to performance standards </li></ul><ul><li>Be short term to increase motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Be challenging but within the students grasp </li></ul><ul><li>Include teacher feedback often </li></ul><ul><li>example: Index Card Assessment (Exhibit 3) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Applying theories of Engagement and Motivation <ul><li>Structures that deter competition and peer competition </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid competition as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Have students compare their performance on goals to their own personal starting point </li></ul><ul><li>example: Grade Check (Exhibit 4) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Applying theories of Engagement and Motivation
  15. 15. Applying theories of Engagement and Motivation <ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Clear and accurate feedback example Rubric </li></ul><ul><li>example: Rubric (Exhibit 7) </li></ul><ul><li>Adjusting teaching strategies example Multiple Intelligences </li></ul><ul><li>example: MI Test (Exhibit 8) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Applying theories of Engagement and Motivation <ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers can provide choices such as: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Topic for a report </li></ul><ul><li>Books to read </li></ul><ul><li>Types of project </li></ul><ul><li>Where to sit during independent work </li></ul><ul><li>example: Tic-Tac-Toe (Exhibit 9) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Applying theories of Engagement and Motivation <ul><li>Relatedness can be a powerful motivator in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Students who like and are liked by their teachers and peers are happier at school and have more fun learning </li></ul><ul><li>Practices that foster relatedness are: </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning </li></ul><ul><li>example Co-op Roles (Exhibit 11) </li></ul><ul><li>Peer tutoring </li></ul><ul><li>example Sage and Scribe (Exhibit 10) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Promoting Effort and Strategy Use <ul><li>While all students do not believe in the importance of effort, teachers can help them change their beliefs by teaching and exemplifying the connection between effort and achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies include: </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing examples of times when effort and persistence paid off despite initial failure </li></ul><ul><li>Having students read about famous individuals who, because of their persistence, succeeded despite obstacles </li></ul>
  19. 19. Promoting Effort and Strategy Use <ul><li>Reluctant learners are at a disadvantage due to a history of school failure, family or cultural factors, or disabilities such as learning or behavioral disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers can attend to motivation of reluctant learners by including: </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocal Effect of Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards </li></ul>
  20. 20. Circle of Courage <ul><li>Three of the four tenets of the Circle of Courage are related to motivation and engagement. </li></ul><ul><li>The three tenets are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belonging </li></ul></ul>