The	  exploita,on	  of	  social	     tagging	  systems	  in	  libraries	  	  Constan,a	  Kakali,	  Christos	  Papatheodoro...
Contents	    Social	  tagging	    Limita/ons	  of	  Folksonomies	  	  	    Social	  tagging	  systems	  in	  libraries	...
Social	  tagging	    The	  social	  tagging	  has	  grown	  in	  popularity	  on	  the	  web-­‐based	     services	  	   ...
Limita,ons	  of	  folksonomies	  	    Synonyms	    Homonyms	    Polysemy	    No	  defined	  rela/ons	  (e.g.,	  broader...
Social	  tagging	  systems	  in	  libraries	  	    Penntaggs	    New	  opacs	  2.0	  (Scriblio,	  VuFind,	  Primo,	     ...
The	  OPACIAL	  System	  (1/2) 	                                                       	            	  	  	          Feedb...
The	  OPACIAL	  System	  (2/2) 	     	           	  	                                                        In	  latest	 ...
Preliminary	  	  experimental	  study	  	    Experimental	  study	  	        Evalua/on	  by	  20	  users	  	        Sce...
Results	       Social	  tagging	  is	  found	  as	  a	  usable	  and	  useful	        func/onality	            Users	  u...
Tag	  analysis	  research	  	    The	  stages	  of	  the	  proposed	  methodology	  decompose	     the	  general	  proble...
Tag	  analysis	  methodology	                                       11	  
Collec,ng	  Tags	  and	  Studying	  Their	  Morphology	    Morphology	  as	  lexical	  units	  (single	  words	  or	  phr...
Es,ma,on	  of	  the	  Tags’	  Value	    582	  tags	  revealed	  the	  following	  types	  of	  tagging	  behaviors:	     ...
Folksonomy	  and	  KOS	  :	  overlap	  matching	  	                        Number of tags that exist in other KOS (percent...
Folksonomy	  and	  KOS	  :	  seman,c	  assesment	  	     Inves/ga/on	  of	  the	  seman/c	  rela/on	  between	  the	  	  ...
Resuming	  tag	  exploita,on	    (a)	  the	  macro	  decision-­‐     (b)	  the	  micro	  decision	     making	  level	  ...
Con,nuing	  the	  research	  	    Does	  social	  tagging	  upgrade	  the	  library	  services?	    Should	  the	  libra...
New	  experimental	  setup	    A	  sample	  of	  30	  bibliographic	  records	  holdings:	  	        72	  subject	  head...
General	  Observa,ons	    OPACIAL	  has	  more	  representa/ve	  and	  accurate	  tags	     than	  LibraryThing	  (60%	  ...
Analysing	  the	  results	    Only	  21	  tags	  are	  iden/cal	  to	  the	  subjects	  	    355	  of	  tags	  exist	  i...
Recommenda,ons	  for	  Policy	    Ac/vate	  user	  par/cipa/on	  through	  the	  informa/on	     literacy	  program.	   ...
Further	  research	  issues	  	    Compara/ve	  analysis	  of	  folksonomies	  with	     other	  knowledge	  organiza/ons...
  Thank	  you	  for	  your	  anen/on	  !	    Ques/ons	                                                       23	  
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The exploitation of social tagging systems in libraries


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First Workshop on Digital Information Management. The workshop is organized by the Laboratory on Digital Libraries and Electronic Publication, Department of Archives and Library Sciences, Ionian University, Greece and aims to create a venue for unfolding research activity on the general field of Information Science. The workshop features sessions for the dissemination of the research results of the Laboratory members, as well as tutorial sessions on interesting issues.

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The exploitation of social tagging systems in libraries

  1. 1. The  exploita,on  of  social   tagging  systems  in  libraries    Constan,a  Kakali,  Christos  Papatheodorou  Database  &  Informa/on  systems  group  Laboratory  on  Digital  Libraries  and  Electronic  Publishing  Department  of  Archive  and  Library  Sciences,  Ionian  University,  Corfu,  Greece  …………………………………  
  2. 2. Contents    Social  tagging    Limita/ons  of  Folksonomies        Social  tagging  systems  in  libraries    Opacial  system    Preliminary  experimental  study      Tag  analysis  and  tag  es/ma/on    Tag  methodology  proposal      Policy  issues     2  
  3. 3. Social  tagging    The  social  tagging  has  grown  in  popularity  on  the  web-­‐based   services       Add  bookmarks  of  sites  they  like  to  their  personal  collec/ons  of  links     Organize  and  categorize  these  sites  by  adding  their  own  terms,  or  tags     Share  this  collec/on  with  other  people  with  the  same  interests      Tags  are  metadata  elements  described  resources  and  applied   by  users.    The  set  of  the  tags  introduced  for  a  resource  is  called   folksonomy,  which  it  could  be  presented  as  a  tag  cloud   3  
  4. 4. Limita,ons  of  folksonomies      Synonyms    Homonyms    Polysemy    No  defined  rela/ons  (e.g.,  broader,  narrower,   and  associa/ve  terms).    Ampiquity    Specificity    Syntax   4  
  5. 5. Social  tagging  systems  in  libraries      Penntaggs    New  opacs  2.0  (Scriblio,  VuFind,  Primo,   Aquabrowser)    Mtagger      LibraryThing   5  
  6. 6. The  OPACIAL  System  (1/2)           Feedback  &  collabora,on   Developed  by  Panteion  University   among  users   Library,  Athens,  Greece,    OPACIAL  is  an   Online  Public  Catalog  System  which   uses  Web  2.0  technologies.  It  u/lizes   library  catalogs  using  the  Z39.50   protocol  and  it  can  also  connect  to   DSPace  digital  repositories.     hIp://  Opacial  func/onali/es:      Users  insert  tags,  annota/ons    Faceted  naviga/on  by  social  tags,   subject  headings,  item  type,  year      Integra/on  with  the  University’s   digital  repository,  named   Pandemos     6  
  7. 7. The  OPACIAL  System  (2/2)         In  latest  version,   OPACIAL  provides     personal  space    for  the   management  of  the   library    resources  and     tags  Management  of  favorite  resources   Personomy     management  Tagging,  Annota/ng,  Ranking  and  User  Opinion     7  
  8. 8. Preliminary    experimental  study      Experimental  study       Evalua/on  by  20  users       Scenario     Inserted  more  than  500  tags     Interviews      Criteria       Usability  (learn  ability,  naviga/on,  informa/on   architecture,  aesthi/cs     Usefulness  (relevance,  reliability,  format,   /meliness)     Sa/sfac/on     8  
  9. 9. Results     Social  tagging  is  found  as  a  usable  and  useful   func/onality     Users  use  it  either  to  describe  more  precisely  the  OPAC   records,  or  to  correct  a  wrong  subject  term     The  co-­‐existence  of  subject  index  and  folksonomy   improve  the  informa/on  seeking  effec/veness     Users  suggested  to  add  tags  in  order  to  create   folksonomies  and  created  bibliography  lists     Finally  found  OPACIAL  quite  sa/sfactory  and  the   usability  criteria  (naviga/on  &  aesthe/cs)  are   highly  rated.   9  
  10. 10. Tag  analysis  research      The  stages  of  the  proposed  methodology  decompose   the  general  problem  to  the  following  research   ques/ons:     Is  it  possible  to  categorize  the  social  tags  in  order  to   inves/gate  the  users’  subject  indexing  trends?     Do  the  social  tags  contribute  to  the  improvement  of  the   subject  index  of  an  informa/on  organiza/on  and  how?     How  expert-­‐based  and  user-­‐based  subject  indexing   processes  could  be  integrated  in  a  symbio/c,  coopera/ve   environment?     10  
  11. 11. Tag  analysis  methodology   11  
  12. 12. Collec,ng  Tags  and  Studying  Their  Morphology    Morphology  as  lexical  units  (single  words  or  phrases,  language,  abbrevia/ons,   plural  or  singular,    orthographical  errors,  names  or  abstracts  en//es).    Table  1  shows  that  as  the  number  of  subject  headings  per  record  increases,   the  number  of  the  tags  decreases.  This  result  confirms  the  assump/on  that   tagging  plays  an  enhancing  role  to  weak  subject  descrip/ons.   12  
  13. 13. Es,ma,on  of  the  Tags’  Value    582  tags  revealed  the  following  types  of  tagging  behaviors:     enhance  /  refine  the  thema/c  descrip/on  of  a  record,  manifested  by  two   par/al  behaviors  (80%):      uses  terms  that  belong  in  the  authority  file  as  tags  but  not  for  the  par/cular   record     adds  new  terms,  disjoint  from  the  authority  file  descriptors.     correct  the  thema/c  descrip/on  of  a  record,  to  propose  more  accurate   terms  for  the  par/cular  bibliographic  records  (2,1  %).     both  of  them,  the  inser/on  of  new  terms,  disjoint  to  the  local  authority   terms,  expressing  new  concepts  or  synonyms  (3,8  %  )     without  significant  value  (13,4  %)    46.2%  (269  tags)  of  the  total  amount  of  tags  is  not  present  in  the   exis/ng  authority  file   13  
  14. 14. Folksonomy  and  KOS  :  overlap  matching     Number of tags that exist in other KOS (percentages inside parentheses) LCSH NDC SSIT Authority Thesaurus Thesaurus Wikipedia WordNet Exist exactly 76 (28.3) 26 (9.7) 35(13.0) 166 (61.7) 26 (9.7) Not exist 176 (65.4) 229 (85.1) 234 (87.0) 66 (24.5) 243 (90.3) Exist by Reference 17 (6.3) 14 (5.2) - 37 (13.8) - Total 269 (100.0) 269 (100.0) 269 (100.0) 269 (100.0) 269 (100.0)  5  systems  were  selected  with  criteria:  coverage,  language  and   relevance    LC  authori/es  cover  the  34.6%  of  the  269  “missing  tags”  (28.3%   in  main  entries  and  6.3%  as  non-­‐preferred  terms)    166  of  the  tags  (61.7%)  existed  as  ar/cles  in  Wikipedia,  which   follows  closely  the  vocabulary  evolu/on  of  the  scien/fic   communi/es   14  
  15. 15. Folksonomy  and  KOS  :  seman,c  assesment       Inves/ga/on  of  the  seman/c  rela/on  between  the     folksonomy  tags  and  the  local  authority  file  terms     For  each  record  ek  we  observe  the  seman/c  rela/on  rij   between  the  pairs  (ti  and  sj  )  that  correspond  to  the  tags  (ti)  and   the  subject  headings  (sj)  used  for  the  thema/c  descrip/on  of  ek     1420  pairs  (ti,  sj)  were  generated,  1125  are  unique.     Example:  the  pair  ‘archetype’  –  ‘Symbolism  (Psychology)’,      in  LC  authori/es  :  subject  heading  ‘Archetype  (Psychology)’                    associa/ve  rela/on  ‘Symbolism  (Psychology)’.     The  majority  of  the  pairs  are  not  correlated  in  any  KOS  (60.6%)     Once  more,  Wikipedia  includes  the  majority  of  the  correlated   pairs.   15  
  16. 16. Resuming  tag  exploita,on    (a)  the  macro  decision-­‐   (b)  the  micro  decision   making  level   making  level:       par/cular  ac/ons  and   tasks  regarding  the  inter-­‐ rela/ons  of  tags  and   headings     Three  steps  proposed:     Crea/ng  new  subject   headings  (new   terminology)     Correc/on  the  thema/c   descrip/on       Crea/on  of  rich  references   16  
  17. 17. Con,nuing  the  research      Does  social  tagging  upgrade  the  library  services?    Should  the  library  develop  a  policy  for   encouraging  the  inser/on  of  social  tags?    How  we  could  incorporate  tags  in  authori/es?    Inves/gate  the  acceptance  of  social  tagging  by   the  librarians  ?       Could  be  exploited  to  improve  the  subject  indexing  of  an  academic  library   collec/on?     Assess  the  seman/c  value  of  the  tags  with  respect  to  the  subject  headings.   17  
  18. 18. New  experimental  setup    A  sample  of  30  bibliographic  records  holdings:       72  subject  headings,  66  being  unique     18  records  in  English,  1  in  French,    11  in  Greek    540  tags       120  tags  OPACIAL     420  tags  LibraryThing    9  subject  cataloguers   18  
  19. 19. General  Observa,ons    OPACIAL  has  more  representa/ve  and  accurate  tags   than  LibraryThing  (60%  vs  40%).    OPACIAL  hosts  material  focusing  on  social  sciences   and  serves  a  scholar  community  that  uses  a   specialized  vocabulary.    LibraryThing  is  a  general-­‐purpose  collabora/ve   cataloguing  service,  has  too  general  terms.      Opacial  tags  usually  are  narrower  terms  and  Library   Thing  usually  are  broader  terms.   19  
  20. 20. Analysing  the  results    Only  21  tags  are  iden/cal  to  the  subjects      355  of  tags  exist  in  the  library  authori/es      Example:  In  the  record  below,  34  tags,  28  of  them  exist  in  the   library’s  authority    file,  11  could  be  used  in  the  specific  thema/c   descrip/on  ,  2  new  terms     20  
  21. 21. Recommenda,ons  for  Policy    Ac/vate  user  par/cipa/on  through  the  informa/on   literacy  program.    Create  groups  of  faculty  members  and  post  graduate.    Create  a  wiki  for  the  communica/on  between   specialized  groups  -­‐  subject  librarians    Use  tags  as  non-­‐preferred  terms  and  add  rela/ons  to  the   corresponding  preferred.    Create  authority  records  “out  of  the  LCSH  fron/ers”,   especially  in  cases  the  tags  are  iden/cal  to  Wikipedia   entries.   21  
  22. 22. Further  research  issues      Compara/ve  analysis  of  folksonomies  with   other  knowledge  organiza/ons  systems    Analyzing  user  seeking  behavior  in  a  opac   enhanced  with  a  tagging  func/onality.    And  finally,  why  users  insert  tags  in  resources       Informa/on  retrieval  aspects         User  communica/on       Scholarly  terminology  evolu/on     22  
  23. 23.   Thank  you  for  your  anen/on  !    Ques/ons   23