Scottish Education and The General Teaching Council for Scotland, April 2009


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"Scottish Education and The General Teaching Council for Scotland." Presentation for Norwegian Deans of Teacher Education, Study Visitors. Presented by Tom Hamilton, Director of Educational Policy, General Teaching Council for Scotland. April 2009.

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Scottish Education and The General Teaching Council for Scotland, April 2009

  1. 1. Scottish Education and The General Teaching Council for Scotland Tom Hamilton Director of Educational Policy Norwegian Deans of Teacher Education Study Visit April 2009
  2. 2. Scottish Education System <ul><li>Pre-school: 3-5 years </li></ul><ul><li>Primary: 5-12 (P1-P7) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary: 12-18 (S1-S6) </li></ul><ul><li>(16 minimum age to leave school) </li></ul><ul><li>State schools/independent schools </li></ul><ul><li>Denominational schools </li></ul><ul><li>College sector </li></ul><ul><li>Universities </li></ul>
  3. 3. Major Organisations in Education <ul><li>Scottish Government </li></ul><ul><li>32 Local Authorities </li></ul><ul><li>National CPD Team </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish Council for Independent Schools (SCIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Education (HMIE) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS) </li></ul><ul><li>General Teaching Council for Scotland (GTCS) </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) </li></ul><ul><li>Unions – EIS, SSTA, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish Funding Council (SFC) </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Curriculum for Excellence: 3-18
  5. 5. Examinations, Certification and Degrees <ul><li>5-14 national tests </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Grade </li></ul><ul><li>Higher </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Higher </li></ul><ul><li>Higher National Certificate </li></ul><ul><li>Higher National Diploma </li></ul><ul><li>Degree </li></ul><ul><li>Honours Degree </li></ul><ul><li>Masters Degree </li></ul><ul><li>Doctorate </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish Qualifications Authority </li></ul>
  6. 6. The General Teaching Council for Scotland: Background <ul><li>Set up by Act of Parliament in 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>Powers extended by Act of Scottish Parliament in 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Powers further extended by Statutory Instrument, summer 2006 - competence </li></ul><ul><li>Announcement of independent status for the GTCS January 2008 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Tutela ac Praesidium <ul><li>Regulator – guardian and protector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to stop uncertificated teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>substantial statutory powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compulsory registration to teach in a State school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>optional registration to teach in Further Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compulsory registration to teach in Initial Teacher Education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Committed to the concept of self-regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the concept of professions regulating themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a teacher majority in the Council </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A non-departmental public body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>funded solely through teacher registration fees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>independent of the public purse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>independent of government </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Traditional Role <ul><li>Guardian/Gatekeeper: </li></ul><ul><li>Initial Teacher Education </li></ul><ul><li>Probation </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptional Admissions </li></ul><ul><li>Protector: </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul>
  9. 9. 21 st Century Role <ul><li>As above plus: </li></ul><ul><li>Standards: Standard for Initial Teacher Education </li></ul><ul><li>Standard for Full Registration </li></ul><ul><li>Standard for Chartered Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Standard for Headship </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing Professional Development </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Induction System </li></ul><ul><li>Chartered Teacher Programme </li></ul><ul><li>Framework for Professional Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplinary Issues: Child Protection </li></ul><ul><li>The internet </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul>
  10. 10. GTCS: Principal Aims <ul><li>To contribute to the quality of teaching and learning and the development of a world-class education system in Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain and enhance standards of professional competence in schools and colleges in collaboration with partners including teachers, employing authorities, teacher education institutions, parents and the Scottish Executive Education Department </li></ul><ul><li>To be recognised as a voice and advocate for the teaching profession </li></ul>
  11. 11. Council Membership <ul><li>50 members in total </li></ul><ul><li>4 year term </li></ul><ul><li>26 elected teacher members </li></ul><ul><li>18 appointed members </li></ul><ul><li>6 nominated members </li></ul><ul><li>2 assessors appointed by Scottish Ministers </li></ul><ul><li>(Scottish Government) </li></ul><ul><li>1 observer (HM Inspectorate of Education) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Teaching Qualifications <ul><li>Primary: 3-12 years (general qualification) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary: 12+ (specific subject) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Initial Teacher Education Programmes <ul><li>Undergraduate programmes (4 years): </li></ul><ul><li>Bachelor of Education (Mainly Primary) </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent degree (Mainly Secondary) </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Graduate Diploma In Education (Primary) 1 year </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Graduate Diploma In Education (Secondary) 1 year </li></ul>
  14. 14. Guidelines for Initial Teacher Education Courses in Scotland: 1 <ul><li>The aims of teacher education </li></ul><ul><li>The overall aim of programmes of initial teacher education is to prepare student teachers to become competent, thoughtful, reflective and innovative practitioners, who are committed to providing high quality teaching and learning for all pupils. </li></ul><ul><li>Programmes must ensure that student teachers meet the requirements of the Standard for Initial Teacher Education. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Guidelines 2 <ul><li>Conditions for the Approval of All Courses of Initial Teacher Education </li></ul><ul><li>As a general rule, the Scottish Ministers will only approve those </li></ul><ul><li>programmes of initial teacher education which meet the following </li></ul><ul><li>conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>Programmes must be subject to validation and review processes under the auspices of a university or degree awarding institution. These processes must involve external members from outside the university teaching the programme. </li></ul><ul><li>Programmes must be accredited by to the General Teaching Council for Scotland as leading to registration as a primary or secondary teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>The minimum requirements for entry to programmes in any year will be those laid down in the relevant 'Memorandum on Entry Requirements to Courses of Initial Teacher Education in Scotland'. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Guidelines 3 <ul><li>Requirements applying to ALL programmes </li></ul><ul><li>The system of selection of student teachers must take into account </li></ul><ul><li>available reports on individual applicants, their experience and interests and the extent to which they match personal characteristics desirable in a teacher. Student teachers should only be admitted to a programme after an interview which should normally involve personnel from both the university and education authorities/schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfactory completion of an enhanced Disclosure Scotland check will be required as part of the application process as a condition of admission. </li></ul><ul><li>Student teachers completing the programme and gaining the award of a teaching qualification (TQ) must have demonstrated that they have met the Standard for Initial Teacher Education. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Guidelines 4 <ul><li>Programmes must: </li></ul><ul><li>have effective partnership arrangements; </li></ul><ul><li>have an appropriate balance of professional studies, subject studies and relevant school educational placement experience; </li></ul><ul><li>contain clear arrangements for updating in line with national developments and new perspectives arising from educational research. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Guidelines 5 <ul><li>BEd programmes leading to a TQ (Primary Education) must involve 4 academic years of full-time study or equivalent part-time study. At least 30 weeks must be devoted to school/educational placement experience. More than half of this experience should occur in the final 2 years of the programme, with a substantial block taking place in the last year. </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) programmes must be full-time programmes, lasting for a minimum of 36 weeks, or the equivalent on a part-time basis. </li></ul><ul><li>At least 50% of the programme must be devoted to school/educational placement experience which will occur in each school term, with a block of at least 4 weeks taking place towards the end of the programme. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Memorandum on Entry Requirements to Courses of Initial Teacher Education in Scotland: 1 <ul><li>BEd Primary : </li></ul><ul><li>At least 3 Highers (1 of which must be English) + at least 2 Standard Grades (1 of which must be Credit Level Maths) </li></ul><ul><li>PGDE (Primary): </li></ul><ul><li>A degree + Higher English and Credit </li></ul><ul><li>Level S Grade Maths </li></ul>
  20. 20. Memorandum on Entry Requirements to Courses of Initial Teacher Education in Scotland: 2 <ul><li>PGDE (Secondary): </li></ul><ul><li>A degree with at least 80 credit points in the teaching subject (40 of which must be at SCQF level 8 or above) + Higher English </li></ul><ul><li>Some subjects specific requirements: eg </li></ul><ul><li>English require literature </li></ul>
  21. 21. Standards <ul><li>The Standard for Initial Teacher Education </li></ul><ul><li>The Standard for Full Registration </li></ul><ul><li>The Standard for Chartered Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>The Standard for Headship </li></ul>
  22. 22. Aspects of Professional Development Professional Values & Personal Commitment Professional Skills & Abilities Professional Knowledge & Understanding
  23. 23. The Standard for Initial Teacher Education <ul><li>The Standard for Initial Teacher Education (SITE) specifies what is expected of a student teacher at the end of Initial Teacher Education, seeking provisional registration with the General Teaching Council for Scotland. </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of the Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Expected features </li></ul>
  24. 24. Quality Assurance in ITE 1 <ul><li>University validation </li></ul><ul><li>GTCS accreditation </li></ul><ul><li>Ministerial approval </li></ul><ul><li>Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Education </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education </li></ul>
  25. 25. Quality Assurance in ITE 2 <ul><li>Self-Evaluation Document </li></ul><ul><li>Programme specifications and module descriptors </li></ul>
  26. 26. Quality Assurance in ITE 3 <ul><li>Specific information on: </li></ul><ul><li>rationale; </li></ul><ul><li>aims and learning outcomes; </li></ul><ul><li>relevant information regarding how the Standard for Initial Teacher Education will be met; </li></ul><ul><li>relevant information to demonstrate compliance with the Guidelines for Teacher Education Courses; </li></ul><ul><li>design and content of the curriculum; </li></ul><ul><li>programme structure and requirements, levels, modules, credits, awards; </li></ul><ul><li>mode of provision; </li></ul><ul><li>learning strategies; </li></ul><ul><li>assessment arrangements; </li></ul><ul><li>placement and partnership arrangements; </li></ul><ul><li>learning resources; </li></ul><ul><li>student teacher recruitment, progression and support; </li></ul><ul><li>methods for evaluating and enhancing learning. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Quality Assurance in ITE 4 <ul><li>a summary of key changes to programmes; </li></ul><ul><li>internal approval reports and membership of the group together with a note of any substantial amendments made to the documentation in the light of the report; </li></ul><ul><li>brief information on relevant university regulations; </li></ul><ul><li>annual reports and external examiner reports for the previous three years should be available for scrutiny, if required; </li></ul><ul><li>up-to-date information in relation to resource issues; </li></ul><ul><li>professional profiles of the staff responsible for the delivery of the various programmes. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Quality Assurance in ITE 5 <ul><li>Event </li></ul><ul><li>GTCS members + externals </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Questions and discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Decision </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation to Ministers </li></ul><ul><li>Six year cycle </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Standard for Full Registration <ul><li>The Standard for Full Registration (SFR) specifies what is expected of a teacher seeking full registration with the General Teaching Council for Scotland. </li></ul><ul><li>The SFR needs to serve three main purposes. It has to provide: </li></ul><ul><li>a clear and concise description of the professional qualities and capabilities teachers are expected to develop in the course of induction; </li></ul><ul><li>a professional standard against which reliable and consistent decisions can be made on the fitness of new teachers for full registration with GTC Scotland; </li></ul><ul><li>a baseline professional standard which will apply to all teachers throughout their careers. </li></ul><ul><li>The Professional Standard </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations of Professional Practice </li></ul>
  30. 30. Teacher Induction Scheme <ul><li>Guaranteed post for year </li></ul><ul><li>- 0.7 contact </li></ul><ul><li>- 0.3 continuing professional development </li></ul><ul><li>CPD programme: </li></ul><ul><li>- individual, </li></ul><ul><li>- school, </li></ul><ul><li>- local authority </li></ul><ul><li>Designated supporter in school 0.1 </li></ul><ul><li>- Observations, advice, support and target setting </li></ul><ul><li>- Reports to GTCS </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Teacher Induction Scheme – A Scottish Success Story Year Commenced % Awarded Full Registration 2002-03 August 2002: 2120 June 2003: 97.5% 2003-04 August 2003: 1845 June 2004: 98% 2004-05 August 2004: 2093 June 2005: 98% 2005-06 August 2005: 2737 June 2006: 98.4% 2006-07 August 2006: 3554 June 2007: 98% 2007-08 August 2007: 3582 June 2008: 97.6% approx.
  32. 32. <ul><li>The TIS is one of the most successful elements of the Agreement. Of the head teachers surveyed, 88 per cent think the TIS is working well. Equally, 88 per cent of the teachers who have experienced the scheme feel it was valuable in preparing them for being a teacher, and 64 per cent feel it was very valuable. </li></ul><ul><li>A mid-term report: A first stage review of the cost and implementation of the teachers’ agreement A Teaching Profession for the 21st Century - Audit Scotland May 2006 </li></ul>Audit Scotland
  33. 33. <ul><li>The new scheme for induction of new teachers has been a major success. The early promise of the teacher induction scheme has been built on, and overall the scheme has been confirmed as a positive outcome of the Teachers’ Agreement. The new arrangements have worked well for the benefit of the newly-qualified teachers and have had a positive impact on the overall ethos of self-evaluation in schools. In general, the new entrants have been of good quality, with considerable potential for contributing to an improving quality of education in the 21st century. Experienced staff have gained from acting as mentors for the new recruits. Other teachers have benefited from the positive and energising impact of probationers on the work of the school. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Scotland's Children: A Report on Progress in Implementing 'A Teaching Profession for the 21st Century' - Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Education January 2007 </li></ul>HMIE
  34. 34. OECD Reviews of National Policies for Education: Quality and Equity of Schooling in Scotland December 2007 <ul><li>Scotland’s approach to teacher </li></ul><ul><li>induction is world class, and the Scottish Qualification for Headship is an outstanding and demanding </li></ul><ul><li>programme. </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia Report on the inquiry into teacher education House of Representatives Standing Committee on Education and Vocational Training February 2007 Top of the Class “ The committee believes that the Teacher Induction Scheme administered by the General Teaching Council for Scotland in partnership with the Scottish Executive Education Department is the model of induction that should be followed in Australia.”
  36. 36. Framework for Professional Recognition <ul><li>Introduced January 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition - 497 (455 teachers) </li></ul><ul><li>eg Leadership, Global citizenship, Learning support </li></ul><ul><li>Registration - 310 (282 teachers) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary – Secondary (S1-2), (S1-6) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary – additional subjects </li></ul>
  37. 37. Chartered Teacher <ul><li>Launched summer 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>July 2004 – 14 chartered teachers </li></ul><ul><li>March 2009 – 787 chartered teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Masters level qualification – 12 modules </li></ul><ul><li>GTCS accreditation route – now closed </li></ul><ul><li>Self funded </li></ul><ul><li>Salary increment after every two modules </li></ul><ul><li>All 32 local authorities have CTs </li></ul><ul><li>Standard currently being reviewed </li></ul>
  38. 38. Standard for Chartered Teacher <ul><li>SCT: Key components </li></ul><ul><li>Professional values and personal commitments; </li></ul><ul><li>Professional knowledge and understanding; </li></ul><ul><li>Professional and personal attributes; </li></ul><ul><li>Professional actions </li></ul>
  39. 39. Standard for Chartered Teacher Professional Values & Personal Commitment Professional Skills & Abilities Professional Knowledge & Understanding
  40. 40. The Standard for Headship
  41. 41. Scottish Qualification for Headship <ul><li>3 providers: East </li></ul><ul><li>North </li></ul><ul><li>West </li></ul><ul><li>Masters level diploma </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot alternative route </li></ul><ul><li>Local authority coaches </li></ul><ul><li>GTCS involvement in assessment </li></ul>
  42. 42. Criticisms of Standards Models <ul><li>Standards as common sense (control mechanisms?) </li></ul><ul><li>Standards as quality assurance and accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Standards as quality improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Standards for certification </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanistic and technicist approach which restricts reflective practice and encourages conformity </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages ‘competence’ but stifles ‘excellence’ </li></ul><ul><li>Yet… </li></ul><ul><li>Professional values and personal commitment </li></ul>
  43. 43. Her Majesty’s Inspectorate for Education (2006) Improving Scottish Education (Page 94) <ul><li>Every teacher, in whatever sector, can work towards improving the quality of the learning which their learners experience, the teaching which supports it and the outcomes which their learners achieve. At the core of that improvement lie self-evaluation, observing examples of other approaches, discussing with colleagues, being open to well-judged innovation, learning from research, undertaking action research and fully engaging in making education fit for purpose in the 21st century. </li></ul><ul><li>A key pre-requisite is that teachers accept responsibility for their own professional development, for the quality of learning in their classrooms, and for their role in self-evaluation and improvement at personal and establishment levels. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Professional Review and Development <ul><li>35 hours contractual CPD each year </li></ul><ul><li>Annual Professional Review and Development Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Standard for Full Registration </li></ul><ul><li>Code of Professionalism and Conduct </li></ul>
  45. 45. Competence and Conduct <ul><li>Investigation sub-committee </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplinary sub-committee </li></ul><ul><li>Incompetence: removal from the register </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct: removed from the register </li></ul><ul><li>reprimand </li></ul><ul><li>conditional registration order </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no further action </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Research <ul><li>Ongoing statistical review </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Induction Scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Researcher Programme </li></ul>
  47. 47. Communication with the Profession <ul><li>Website </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>New Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Talks and presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences </li></ul>
  48. 48. International Interest <ul><li>Teacher Induction Scheme: </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia (USA), Australia, Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Registration: </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Council model: </li></ul><ul><li>Australia, Botswana, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Jamaica, Lithuania, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, UK, Yemen </li></ul><ul><li>European study visits February 2007, February 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>OECD visit March 2007 </li></ul>
  49. 49. Useful Websites <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  50. 50. Contact <ul><li>Web: </li></ul><ul><li>e-mail: [email_address] </li></ul>