The Art of Argument 2 Uncertain Justified Cooperative and Risky
With an Audience in Mind <ul><li>The audience is the ultimate judge </li></ul><ul><li>A claim (evidence) to support an arg...
The Potential for Controversy <ul><li>Controversies involve genuine differences of opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>The controve...
What Will be the Outcome? <ul><li>Uncertainty  implies that anytime during the argument process, something may backfire. <...
A Reason to “Leap” <ul><li>An arguer presents a  rationale , or  justifies  a claim, in order for the audience to accept a...
Implications of “Justified” <ul><li>Justification  is subjective </li></ul><ul><li>It is dependant upon a particular audie...
A Common Goal <ul><li>Arguers, within a mindset of  cooperation , seek the best possible decision in any argument. </li></...
Other Levels of Agreement <ul><li>Each side accepts a value or belief which serves as the departure point in any argument....
The Risks <ul><li>The possibility of loss. </li></ul><ul><li>People run risks because they do not know, for sure, that the...
Questions to Consider <ul><li>If argumentation involves uncertainty, how can arguers arrive at conclusions with any degree...
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The Art of Argument 2

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The second in a series on writing an argument essay.

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The Art of Argument 2

  1. 1. The Art of Argument 2 Uncertain Justified Cooperative and Risky
  2. 2. With an Audience in Mind <ul><li>The audience is the ultimate judge </li></ul><ul><li>A claim (evidence) to support an argument is always subject to the acceptance of actual readers. </li></ul><ul><li>The particulars of an audience’s situation affect its method of judgment. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Potential for Controversy <ul><li>Controversies involve genuine differences of opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>The controversy matters to the participants. </li></ul><ul><li>The participants wish to see the controversy resolved. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Will be the Outcome? <ul><li>Uncertainty implies that anytime during the argument process, something may backfire. </li></ul><ul><li>Or, it implies that the information provided in support of an argument may be understood differently than intended. </li></ul><ul><li>An inferential leap occurs in any argument. </li></ul><ul><li>The audience is asked to accept this leap. </li></ul><ul><li>The need for credibility is high. </li></ul>
  5. 5. A Reason to “Leap” <ul><li>An arguer presents a rationale , or justifies a claim, in order for the audience to accept any uncertainty. </li></ul><ul><li>The rationale represents reasons for making the inferential leap. </li></ul><ul><li>The hope is that a reasonable person, exercising critical judgment, will be convinced. </li></ul><ul><li>The claim is now pronounced justified. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Implications of “Justified” <ul><li>Justification is subjective </li></ul><ul><li>It is dependant upon a particular audience. </li></ul><ul><li>It implies people are open to a claim but need convincing. </li></ul><ul><li>It implies people are skeptical of a claim. </li></ul><ul><li>It implies that it may be altered by new information. </li></ul><ul><li>It varies from plausible to highly probable. </li></ul>
  7. 7. A Common Goal <ul><li>Arguers, within a mindset of cooperation , seek the best possible decision in any argument. </li></ul><ul><li>Adversarial elements insure a quality argument. </li></ul><ul><li>They insure rigor, reduced omissions, and increased confidence in the result. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Other Levels of Agreement <ul><li>Each side accepts a value or belief which serves as the departure point in any argument. </li></ul><ul><li>Each side speaks the same language and shares the same system of meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Each side shares the same assumption as to what constitutes evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Each side shares respect for the other and values the importance of free assent. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Risks <ul><li>The possibility of loss. </li></ul><ul><li>People run risks because they do not know, for sure, that they are right. </li></ul><ul><li>People run risks because they value the judgment of their adversaries and ant assent only if it is freely given. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Questions to Consider <ul><li>If argumentation involves uncertainty, how can arguers arrive at conclusions with any degree of certainty? </li></ul><ul><li>How can people with strong but opposing convictions engage in argumentation and preserve its cooperative character? </li></ul>

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