Learning Theories & The Net Generation


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Learning Theories & The Net Generation

  1. 1. Learning Theories & The Net Generation
  2. 2. Knowledge is specific content Learners are empty vessels to be filled with knowledge
  3. 3. Knowledge is created Learning is a collaborative social endeavor
  4. 4. A Paradigm Shift Tools for Supporting Individuals Tools for Supporting Relationships
  5. 5. Motivation? Relevance? Authenticity? <ul><li>Turned off to school </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on passing the next test </li></ul><ul><li>Not excited by the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>No application to life after school </li></ul><ul><li>Discouraged from following their own interests </li></ul><ul><li>From an article by Roger Shank, Engines for Education </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.engines4ed.org/hyperbook/nodes/NODE-44-pg.html </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1 st Year College Student <ul><li>Knowledge = gradual accumulation of right answers acquired through effort and obedience to the instructor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of the instructor is to TEACH them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right answers for everything exist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focused on passing the next test </li></ul><ul><li>Turned off to school </li></ul><ul><li>Discouraged from following their own interests </li></ul><ul><li>No application to life after school </li></ul>Where did this thinking come from?
  7. 7. Traditional Classroom <ul><li>Prescribed Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Chalkboards </li></ul><ul><li>Desks in rows </li></ul><ul><li>Books and worksheets </li></ul><ul><li>Paper & pencil </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the front (teacher) </li></ul><ul><li>Read, take notes </li></ul><ul><li>Study as an individual </li></ul><ul><li>Take tests to measure learning </li></ul>
  8. 8. Behaviorism <ul><li>Current educational system built on the beliefs of Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditioning—Pavlov, Skinner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus-Reinforcement-Consequences </li></ul></ul>Antecedent Stimulus that prompts behavior Behavior Action that follows stimulus Consequence Response that follows behavior
  9. 9. Assumptions <ul><li>Learning = behavior change </li></ul><ul><li>Learning = related to changes in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Learning demonstrated as response to external stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Learning contingent on reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>All species interact with environment in the same way </li></ul>
  10. 10. In Education <ul><li>Observable and measurable outcomes (learning objectives) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conditions under which the behavior is to take place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>task(s) learner to perform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>series of actions learner is to be able to carry out to indicate understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>actions described using verb that denotes some observable behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>criterion defines acceptable level of performance </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Linear Approach Original model Updated model Bloom’s Taxonomy
  12. 12. In Education <ul><li>Reinforcements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tangible rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interval of rewards/consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mastery Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequencing of instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of cues, prompts, practice </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Roles <ul><li>Instructor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher-centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines desired behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops environmental conditions to elicit behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive recipient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memorization, regurgitation emphasized </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Activities <ul><li>Reading , review , and analysis of provided text and materials </li></ul><ul><li>Individual work submitted directly to instructor for review </li></ul><ul><li>Structured assignments directly linked to learning objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no cohort discussion. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cognitivism <ul><li>Learning = change in knowledge stored in memory </li></ul><ul><li>Learning results when information is stored in memory in organized, meaningful manner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing schema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making connections to prior knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metacognition—what & how learned </li></ul>
  16. 16. In Education <ul><ul><li>Present information to help learners attend to , encode and retrieve information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal-setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization strategies </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Activities <ul><li>Explanations </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Examples/non-examples </li></ul><ul><li>Advance Organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic organizers/diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>
  18. 18. Roles <ul><li>Instructor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher-centered with student input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help learners memorize information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect to prior knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners motivated when event, object, or experience conflicts with what already know </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Constructivism <ul><li>Learning = creating meaning from experience </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge cannot be “transmitted” </li></ul><ul><li>Learners must create own meanings based on individual experiences and interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentic context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant to student’s experience </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. In Education <ul><li>Emphasis on interaction, reflection & collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Learners need opportunity to define for themselves goals and objectives for the course </li></ul><ul><li>Focus more on process and interaction , less on what is specifically to be accomplished </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes defined more in terms of a new common perspective rather than particular tasks/actions that individuals able to perform </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes learners motivated by common interest in problem or issue </li></ul>
  21. 21. Activities <ul><li>Application of principles—case studies and projects </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended assignments linked to changing learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments reflect &quot;real world&quot; conditions and requirements </li></ul>
  22. 22. Roles <ul><li>Instructor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator, Guide, Coach, Mentor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-learner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active participant—explore information & environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make connections—make own meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply knowledge in personally meaningful contexts </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Connectivism <ul><li>Recent Theory- developed by George Siemens </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorism, cognitivism, & constructivism developed in a time when learning was not impacted by/through technology </li></ul><ul><li>Internet & speed new information being discovered and documented </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing how to find information is becoming more important than knowing the information </li></ul>
  24. 24. Acquiring 21st century skills such as higher level thinking , stronger communication abilities , and collaborative learning will encourage student engagement and increase academic achievement (Department of Education, 2002)
  25. 25. Generational Experiences <ul><li>Video games </li></ul><ul><li>PC </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>CDs </li></ul><ul><li>Individualist </li></ul>Generation X <ul><li>Web </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phone </li></ul><ul><li>IM </li></ul><ul><li>MP3s </li></ul><ul><li>Online communities </li></ul>Net Gen Baby Boomers <ul><li>TV generation </li></ul><ul><li>Typewriters </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Memos </li></ul><ul><li>Family focus </li></ul>
  26. 26. Immigrant or Native <ul><li>Do you turn to the Internet first or second for information? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you use a manual to learn a program, or is it intuitive. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you print out your e-mail, or have your secretary print it out? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you need to print out a document in order to edit it? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you call people into your office to see an interesting website rather than sending the link via e-mail? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you make the “Did you get my e-mail?” phone call? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Digital Natives <ul><li>Ctrl + Alt + Del is as basic as ABC </li></ul><ul><li>They have never been able to find the “return” key </li></ul><ul><li>Computers have always fit in their backpacks </li></ul><ul><li>They have always had a personal identification number </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs have always been processed in an hour or less </li></ul><ul><li>Bert and Ernie are old enough to be their parents </li></ul><ul><li>Gas has always been unleaded </li></ul><ul><li>Rogaine has always been available for the follicularly challenged </li></ul>--Beloit College, 2003, 2004
  28. 28. Faces of the Future
  29. 29. The Net Generation <ul><li>Born in or after 1982 </li></ul><ul><li>Gravitate toward group activity </li></ul><ul><li>8 out of 10 say “it’s cool to be smart” </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on grades and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Busy with extracurricular activities </li></ul><ul><li>Identify with parents ’ values; feel close to parents </li></ul><ul><li>Respectful of social conventions and institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Fascination with new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Racially and ethnically diverse </li></ul>― Howe & Strauss, 2003
  30. 30. Today’s learners <ul><li>Digital </li></ul><ul><li>Connected </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul>
  31. 31. Net gen learning preferences <ul><li>Teams, peer-to-peer </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement & experience </li></ul><ul><li>Visual & kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Things that matter </li></ul>
  32. 32. What can you do? <ul><li>Make learning interactive & experiential </li></ul><ul><li>Consider peer-to-peer approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize real-world applications </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize information literacy in courses </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate collaborative learning </li></ul><ul><li>Use informal learning opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Create opportunities for synthesis </li></ul>
  33. 33. Decide what’s important <ul><li>Technology does not drive choices </li></ul><ul><li>Learning outcomes drive choices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentic contexts </li></ul></ul>Adaptation : It is not about whether you are a digital native but whether you can adapt to those whose style does not match your own – Dede, 2005
  34. 34. Find the Right Balance Action Reflection Visual Text Social Individual Process Content Speed Deliberation Peer-to-peer Peer review