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Solar cell manufacturing process


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The solar cell manufacturing process and the equipments / machinery used --VJSOLAR

Solar cell manufacturing process

  1. 1. Process Flow Solar Cell FAB
  2. 2. ETCHING Equipment Application: Saw damage removal→Pre-cleaning→Acid cleaning→Hot water rinsing→Drying (for reference only) Technical Characteristics Process Bath circulation volume adjustable. Wafer thickness from120μm. Quick inline bath change. Solar cell manufacturing
  3. 3. WAFER LOADING AND UNLOADING For Diffusion Furnace For PECVD Solar cell manufacturing
  4. 4. DIFFUSION FURNACE Equipment Application: The equipment is mainly used for doping of silicon wafers in the manufacturing process of crystalline silicon solar cell and form PN junctions. Process Flow: prepare quartz boat & wafers→insert wafers→loading wafers→choose recipe →boat loading→ vacuumize→ temperature rising→oxygen→pocl3 inlet→ push in→diffusion treatment→ boat unloading→ Cooling→ Testing→ wafer unloading Technical Characteristics ·Low pressure diffusion. ·Boat anti-collision function. ·Pressure stabilization of the gas source. Solar cell manufacturing
  5. 5. PECVD Equipment Application: Mainly used for generates highest quality anti-refiective coatings in the production of crystal silicon solar cells, and for deposition of passivation on the backside of wafer. Process Flow: graphite boat & wafers ready→Nitrogen in the tube→graphite load in→vacuum, pressure test →Ammonia pre- clean and check→vacuum the tube, leak- checking , constant temperature→pre-coating →coating→vacuum, pressure test→tube cleaning and Nitrogen inlet→graphite boat unload. Technical Characteristics ·Unique annular gas delivery technology. ·Double cooling water flanges sealing technology. ·Fast coating technology. Solar cell manufacturing
  6. 6. Edge Isolation & HF Cleaning This equipment is used for chemical corrosion, cleaning and drying of multi-crystalline solar wafers. Processing Steps: Alkaline cleaning→Acid cleaning→Rinsing→Drying Technical Characteristics 1)Excellent Uniformity,Long bath life time. 2)Various additives or mixed additives technology. 3)Wafer thickness from 120μm can be processed. Solar cell manufacturing
  7. 7. Front & Rear side Screen Printing The TinPad works with standard cells (full- surface coated with standard aluminum paste). The cells are transported sunny-side-down to the processing unit where the tin busbars are applied. After the end of the process a quality control of the cells can be checked. Solar cell manufacturing
  8. 8. CURING & DRYING FOR REAR PRINTING Atmosphere Control Effective solvent removal with precision controlled exhaust system Digital flow inlet features available Performance Max operating temperature = 250°C Configurations Belt Widths: 6-48 inches Belt speed range: 1 – 100 inches per minute In-line versions available for belt sharing with conveyor furnaces Solar cell manufacturing
  9. 9. COFIRING FURNACE FOR FRONT PRINTING The 2500 Series Controlled Atmosphere Conveyor Furnace is designed for precision processing in manufacturing operations requiring performance of the highest quality and consistency. Rated to 1050 °C, these furnaces include a gas-tight alloy muffle and feature an ultra-clean low-mass refractory heating chamber. Technologically advanced heating elements and control systems work together to create exceptionally stable temperature uniformity and repeatability throughout the process chamber. Solar cell manufacturing
  10. 10. Inline Cell Testing Cell Sorting & Colour Sorting Solar cell manufacturing Solar cell manufacturing
  11. 11. CELL TESTER Light intensity non-uniformity: ≤±2%; Light intensity Instability degree: ≤±2%; Test error of electrical properties: ≤±2%; Single flash time: 10ms; Effective Test range: 2000x1200mm / 5 – 300 w; Measuring voltage: 0~100V ( resolution 1mV ); Measuring current: 0~20A ( resolution 1mA ); Test Parameters: 1sc, Voc, Pmax, Vm, Im, FF, E FF, Temp, Rs, Rsh7. Power Supply : 220V ± 10% 5A; Irradiance automatically compensating; Temperature automatically compensating; measurement parameter displays in tabulation and graphic way; Voice counts off and prompts; Counting prompt of flash times. The equipment is used to test the solar cells IV characteristic's. 11
  12. 12. Laser cutting machine The equipment is used to cut the solar cells as per the design requirements 12 Technical parameters Model Type specification:VJS-FL03 Optical parameters Laser wave length:1064nm Laser power:20W Operation parameters Width scribing :30um Scribing speed:300mms Scribing accuracy:±10um Other parameters Working area:350×350 mm / 200×200mm Working power:220/110V , 50/60 Hz , 1k VA Working table Automatic with vacuum, to hold the solar cells/wafers Cooling way: Forced air cooling
  13. 13. EL TESTER 13 Application: To identify th Defects of solar cell materials ( debris , cracked , broken gate ) ; Defects from the welding process (weld , disordering ) ; Mix different levels cell Functions and features: It's highly sensitive infrared camera can detect defective solar module , which can help users know the solar module and panels from defects in material or workmanship defects The equipment can be applied before and after lamination process , defect detector is an important and effective process monitoring and testing equipment It consists of a set of specialized optical imaging systems , and high-sensitivity camera module , which is available to users in the preparation process , product quality testing . Technical Index: Test parameters Shooting mode:Single / double camera Application type:Online / offline Suitable size of solar module:Before lamination / after lamination Monitoring points:1100×2000 mm Feeding mode:Wide brimmed direction in an out (narrow edge ) Height of discharge gate:950-1040mm Resolution:1.4/6.1/8.3/16 million pixels Image acquisition time:1-60s (can be adjusted ) Driver motor:10A / 60V
  14. 14. AUTO LAMINATOR The equipment is used to laminate the solar modules SEMI AUTO LAMINATOR14
  15. 15. Auto Laminator Technical Specifications Technical Specifications Power : 60KW Lamination area : 2200×2200mm Machine Weight : 17T Required Compressed Air Flow : 0.5m3/min Heating Mode: Oil Heating Laminating Time: 2-4 Minutes Temperature Precision: ≤±1.0℃ Temperature Range : 30~180℃ Required cooling water flow : 2L/min Required Power Supply : AC380V Three phase Four Wires Operating vacuum : 100~10Pa Temperature Uniformity : ±1.5℃ Air Supply : 0.6-1.0MPa Temperature Control: PLC Intelligent Control Machine Dimensions: 13200*2800*1380 mm Type: Automatic Solar Laminator 15
  16. 16. Semi Auto Laminator Technical Specifications Model: VJ2200*2200 USE : As the equipment of manufacturing solar module limited to laminate glass, EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Sheet), solar cell and back sheet. Dimension : 2600mm x 2600mm x 1300mm Laminating area: 2200mm x 2200mm. Laminating height: 25mm Total power consumption: 55 KW ( AC380V, 60 Hz, or according to customer's need) Air source: 0.6 - 1.0 MPa. Operating mode: Semi Automatic. Temperature control: Temperature controller with Thermocouple Temperature uniformity in working area: ≤ ± 2 °C Temperature control accuracy:.≤± 2°C Temperature control range: 30°C- 180°C Pumping rate: 70 L/s .Laminating time: 2 - 4 mins ( Excluding solidification time ) Heating rate: 135°C at room temperature with 50 to 60 minutes Vacuum rate: 200 L / S, the limit vacuum 70 ~ 90 Pa, vacuum Time: 90 seconds Silicone sheet size: 3800mm * 2400mm, 5 mm thickness. It will be changed after 1500 times. Lid opening: Straight from the pneumatic cylinder, the biggest opening height: 200 mm Total weight: 9MT Production capacity: Conventional 300 Wp (1800* 998) module, 2 pcs at the same time . Production Capacity: 300 WP * 2 pieces/ time*3 time/h * 8hours * 300 days= MWp/ year. Warranty period: 1 year. (Exclusive easily damaged parts). 16
  17. 17. Tabber and stringer 700 cells / hr 17
  18. 18. Specifications of Tabber and stringer 18 Production capacity 3 s/pc Breakage rate ≤2‰ A-grade solar cells Welding method Infrared light Applicability Polycrystal Monocrystal 156mm*156mm 125mm*156mm 2BB 156mm*156mm 125mm*156mm 3BB 156mm*156mm 125mm*156mm 4BB 156mm*156mm 125mm*156mm 5BB 125mm*125mm 2BB Distance between cells 1mm-10mm Adjustable Cell thickness 150μm-280μm Ribbon Supply Straightening, bending , cutting and positioning automatically by Servo motor Max welding length 2000mm Cells transmission mode Imported TEFLON, belt driven Electric system PLC+ Servo Control System HMI Touch-screen, simple operation Fault Alarm Real-time alarm Working temperature 5℃-35℃ Power Supply Three-phase Supply 380V±5% 50Hz 50A Compressed air Air pressure: 0.5—0.8MPa Air flow: 0.4m3/min Power Max 18KW Ave 9.5KW Dimension 5500mm*1300mm*2000mm Weight 1600kg *5BB is optional.
  19. 19. MODULE TESTER Lamp Spectrum: In line with IEC60904-9 spectral Irradiance distribution requirement(AM1.5); Light intensity: 100mW/cm2 (continuous adjustable range 70-120W/cm2); Light intensity non-uniformity: ≤±2%; Light intensity Instability degree: ≤±2%; Test error of electrical properties: ≤±2%; Single flash time: 10ms; Effective Test range: 2000x1200mm / 5 – 300 w; Measuring voltage: 0~100V ( resolution 1mV ); Measuring current: 0~20A ( resolution 1mA ); Test Parameters: 1sc, Voc, Pmax, Vm, Im, FF, E FF, Temp, Rs, Rsh7. Power Supply : 220V ± 10% 5A; Irradiance automatically compensating; Temperature automatically compensating; measurement parameter displays in tabulation and graphic way; Voice counts off and prompts; Counting prompt of flash times. The equipment is used to test the solar modules IV characteristic's. 19
  20. 20. Soldering Station for manual line The soldering station includes operating platform Of the power distribution board. Temperature controlled soldering irons included. This equipment is used to make the strings in series and parallel. 20
  21. 21. Module Framing Machine Max. module size 2000(L)×1000(W) Min. module size 400×400mm Framing accuracy deviation ±1mm Diagonal length deviation 1.5mm Four corners angular deviation ±0.5 Operate mode: Semiautomatic Power supply 220 V AC/50Hz 21
  22. 22. Location precision:≤0.20mm Corner error:±5’ Cutter side vertical: ≤0.10mm/100mm Cutter side plate: ≤0.05mm Roughness of cutting side:Ra12.5μm Power:380V 50HZ(three phase and four wire) Rated power:2X2.2KW Spindle speed: 2800rpm Specification of cutter blade: φ500×4.4×φ30×Z120 Max width of cutting: 135mm Max height of cutting :300mm Range of cutting length: 400-4200mm Angle of cutting: 45°、90°(22.5°、67.5°) Working speed: stepless regulation:0-3000mm/min Air pressure: 0.5-0.8MPa Air consumption:200L/min Outline size:5500×1750×1950mm(LxWxH) Weight: 1800KG Aluminum Cutting Machine
  23. 23. Nominal pressure:50KN Nominal stroke:10mm Stroke of upper moveable bench:0-50mm Maximum die height:145mm Throat depth:100mm Lower bench dimension:350mm×190mm Upper bench dimension:280mm×190mm Die handle hole dimension(diameter depth):∮35H8mm×35mm Standard distance between station:800mm Pneumatic pressure of cylinder:0.45MPa- 0.55MPa Voltage of electric control system:220V 50HZ Maximum outside dimension(length×width×height):2400mm× 630mm×1800mm PUNCHING MACHINE
  24. 24. EVA & TPT CUTTING table EVA and back sheets needs cutting to size and uniformity. Electric cutter. High speed. High efficient. Working Dimension: 2200X1100mm His table is used for cutting EVA and TPT back sheet for making solar panel. 24
  25. 25. Glass & modules carrier The module carrier made of steel and continues welding with rubber combination. It should carry 10 sets of 300W solar panels at one time & strong mobile castors for free and smooth movement during transport of modules / panels. The wheels can be locked for sa fety and stability to avoi d any accidental damage. Support 10 pcs of 300W modules each time Hand truck for transportation of Glass / Modules / Panel at different stage of production. 25
  26. 26. Layup Buffer Carry 10 pcs 300W solar panel with proper protection. Hand truck for transporting the finished laying up module to be laminated. 26
  27. 27. IV TEST AND LAYUP STATION 1, Testing current and voltage after laying up. 2, Automatic turn testing current and voltage by time relay. 3, Configuration homothermal electrical soldering rion. Dimension: 2320x1100x860mm Support 300 W module. Provides horizontal surface to lay up the solar cell string and testing solar string. 27
  28. 28. EVA CUTTING TABLE, Trimmig . Support 300w panel, . Used for Cutting the extra EVA after laminating, by hand cutter. 28
  29. 29. Bussing and Cleaning table Dimension: 1200X800X800mm, Support 300w panel. Table for cleaning the surface of the finished module. 29
  30. 30. Cells Inspection table Dimension: 1200X800X800mm Working table for sort solar cells with different color. 30
  31. 31. Air compressor Total power: 7.5 KW, 380V/50Hz, or according customer’s need. Capacity: 1.2CBM /s Pressure: 1 Mpa Gross Weight : 420Kg Used to generate compressed air for laminator, Framing machine, Solar cell tester and other pneumatic equipment's. 31